A GMO is an organism whose genetic makeup is changed by humans. A genetically modified organism (GMO) is a plant, animal or microorganism whose genetic code has been altered, subtracted, or added (either from the same species or a different species) in order to give it characteristics that it does not have normally.
A GMO is created when DNA from one organism is combined with another organism’s DNA to make one molecule. Scientists do this by cutting and joining DNA from different sources. This forms a new set of genes. They then transfer it into the organism so it has the modified genes. (http://www.i-sis.org.uk/FAQ.php, 11/30/09) With genetic engineering they can make bigger and more nutritious fruit and vegetables. Human embryos can be genetically modified in case it might have a chance of having a disease. If breast cancer is commonly found in a family the scientists can engineer the embryo so that it does not receive that trait. Trees and fruits that are genetically modified can be grown so that pesticides grow naturally in them. Sometimes scientists do not have enough of a material to use it in the lab so they use Bacterial Transformation.
There are five steps of Bacterial Transformation. The first step is competency which is preparing the bacterial cells to receive DNA. This step is getting the pores to open up so they allow the genes needed to be put in. Step two is transformation in which pGLO genes (a gene from jelly fish that glows green) are inserted via the pores. Step three is growth in which the substance is just growing, eating, and reproducing. The fourth step is isolation in which you separate the newly transformed cells from the entire population of untransformed cells. Finally, step five is expression which is the phenotypic expression in which arabinose is needed to allow the gene to transcribe and make Green Fluorescent protein (GFP). The arabinose is an on and off switch for the Green fluorescent protein. (In class worksheet, 11/30/09). Scientific and social arguments and evidence in support of my topic GMOs can benefit the world in many ways.
They can provide more vegetables and fruits compared to non GMOs. (Clarice Swisher, 11/30/09, p.43). Selective breeding was the earliest form of genetic engineering in which farmers would pick the biggest or best looking crops and breed them together to produce better and bigger crops. Also scientists sometimes bred different plants together to create an even better plant. This developed plant is called a hybrid. (Ron Fridell, 11/30, 09, p. 11-12) Genetically modifying crops is beneficial to humans because they can provide more food while saving money. Some crops are modified to be resistant to viruses such as corn. Others crops such as cotton can be resistant to pests.
These modifications create a large advantage over other non GM plants. Some cotton in India was modified so that it grew its own pesticide and it also greatly increased the yield of the cotton. (http://www.scienceblog.com/cms/genetically_modified_cotton_crops_produced_greater _yields_reduced_pesticide_use, 11/30/09). Genetic engineering is good because it can help stop deadly diseases from occurring in the human body. (Ron Fridell, 12/1/09, p.28-29). A genome holds the instructions for making your body and keeping your body running. Since the genome has more than twenty thousand genes everyone has some genes that do not work which are called faulty genes. These faulty genes show up more and more often as you get older. But sometimes when a genome is getting copied something goes wrong which is called a mutation.
Most mutations are harmless and sometimes they actually help your body. But there are also harmful mutations which cause deadly diseases. One mutation that could happen is SCID which is a condition in which people are unable to fight off ordinary colds and other infections. These infections can kill them. (Ron Fridell, 12/1/09, p.28-29). But there is a way to cure these diseases. Scientists use genetic engineering to repair faulty genes so these mutations do not occur. Scientists do this by replacing the damaged genes with healthy ones. Scientists can use viruses for delivering genes into your body.
They disable the part of the virus that makes you sick and replace it with the healthy gene which then gets delivered to where it needs to go. (Ron Fridell, 12/1/09, p.30) Scientists have genetically modified animals as well in many ways which help produce a lot more food. Catfish have been modified so they grow all year round instead of just in the summer. By this happening farmers can breed and sell more catfish in a shorter amount of time. (Ron Fridell, 12/1/09, p.21). Also salmon have been engineered so they grow a lot larger than normal to provide more meat. These transgenic salmon create a lot more meat in the time normal salmon create less meat. Also there are cows that have been engineered so that they make several different kinds of milk.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 10 November 2016
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