Globalisation of Higher Education Essay
Globalisation of Higher Education
The term ‘globalization’ means integration of economies and societies through cross country flow of information, ideas, technologies, goods, services, capital, finance and people. Globalization is a process, which has affected many areas of human life, one of those being education. The effect of globalization on education bring rapid developments in technology and communications are foreseeing changes within learning system across the world as ideas, values and knowledge, changing the roles of students and teachers, and producing a shift in society from industrialization towards an nformation- based society.
Globalization has a multi- dimensional impact on the system of education. It promotes new tools and techniques in this area like E- Learning, flexible learning, distance education programs and overseas training. The globalization of education is shaping young children of a country into ‘global citizens with a broad range of skills and knowledge to apply to a competitive information based society. Globalization also facilitates international collaboration and cross- cultural exchange. Globalization of higher education is a major concern for all societies.
As the essential driving force of economic, social and human development, education is at the heart of the change that is dramatically affecting our world in the areas of science, technology, economic and culture. This paper will analyze the positive and negative impact of globalization on Higher education for developing countries. Effective education system is the foundation of opportunities to lead a decent life. One should ensure that all Children should have adequate access to education at all income level. The paper argues that education is a core element of society.
The basic cause of global inequality is due to the difference in opportunities in education between different countries. People can only contribute and benefit from globalization if they are endowed with knowledge, skills, and values and with the capabilities and rights needed to pursue their basic likelihoods. The accuracy of the analysis is dependent upon the accuracy of the data reported by various people of the country. The result of this study will help all the sectors of the society to understand better, the culture, values and education system of other countries and facilitates its adoption.
Educators can also use this result to bring the changes in their areas if necessary. Introduction The term “Globalization” represents the international system that is shaping most societies today. Globalization is a process by which many areas of human life such as economies, societies, politics, business and cultures have been affected around the world. One of these areas being education. The term ‘globalization’ means integration of economies and societies through cross country flows of information, ideas, technologies, goods, services, capital, finance and people.
It s characterized by an accelerated flow of trade, capital and information as well as mobility of individuals, across geographical borders. It reflect comprehensive level of interaction than that has occurred in the past, suggesting something beyond the work “international”. Globalization means more competition, not just with other companies or institutions in the same city or the same region. Globalization also means that national borders do not limit a nation’s investment, production, innovation and education. Therefore, the term “globalization” has acquired many emotive commutations.
At one extreme, globalization is seen as an irresistible and benign force for delivering economic prosperity to people throughout the world. At the other, it is blamed as a source of all contemporary ills. However, while the theory of globalization is relatively new, the process is not. Roberson (1992) further states that globalization was initially discussed from economic perspectives, but soon after it became a topic for discussions among intellectuals from cultural perspectives as well. According to Giddens “Globalization the dialectic of homogenization and heterogenization” (1991. p22).
In other words, globalization, by intensifying the interconnectedness among different people, things and ideas, homogenizes the world and yet at the same time, the world becomes heterogenized as people are more aware of differences due to the increasing proximity with differences under a globalize world (Giddens, 1991 ). The notion of the world community being transformed into a global village, as introduced in 1960 by Marshall Mc Luhan in an influential book about her newly shared experience of mass media, was likely to be the first expression of the contemporary concept of globalization. Cited in Epstein, 2002).
After 1980, accounts of globalization focused on a professed tendency of societies to converge in becoming modern, described initially by Clark Kerr and colleagues as the emergence of industrial man (cited in Robertson, 1992). One critical issue that emerges from all of these restructuring processes is the central role of Knowledge, education and learning for the success of the Global Information Society (GIS) and global information economy. Globalization impacts all aspects of society. Higher education may and business contents seem particularly influenced by them.
In the twentieth century, may developing countries have xperienced growth in the educational facilities available to them due to the entry of institution from the west. Some believe that this process is an invaluable opportunity for the people of the developing counties to increase their skills and standard of education. Other fear that it is merely a modern version of cultural imperialism that will lead to the creation of a universal, ultimately western society. People can only contribute and benefit from globalization if they endowed with knowledge, skills and with capabilities and rights needed to pursue their basic livelihoods.
They need employment and incomes, and a healthy environment. These are the essential conditions with empower them to participate fully as citizens in their local, national and global communities. Education is a major concern for all societies. As the foundation and essential driving force of economic, social and human development, education is at the heart of the change that is dramatically affecting our world in the areas of science, technology, economics and culture. Steven Schwartz (http:// www. Ssn.. flinders. edu. u) believed that “Education, where possible, hould be integrated into the private sector because ‘higher education is increasingly and international enterprise’ and thus will increasingly be pressured and drawn into deregulation and privatization. ” This paper analyses the effect of globalization on higher education and also discusses about the impact of globalization on higher education, various opportunities and challenges on the society. Impact of Globalization of Higher Education. Education is undergoing constant changes under the effects of globalization.
The effects of Globalization on education bring rapid developments in technology and communications are oreseeing changes with in school system across the world as ideas, values and knowledge, changing the role of students and teachers, and producing a shift in society from industrialization towards and information- based society. It reflects the effect on culture and brings about a new form of cultural imperialism. It brings rapid development in technology and communications are foreseeing changes within school system across the world as ideas, values and knowledge.
The rise of a global society, driven by technology and communication development are shaping hildren, the future citizens of the world into ‘ global citizens’, intelligent people with a broad range of skills and knowledge to apply to a competitive. , information based society. The future of countries often lies with in their ability to compete in a global market where industrial based economies are giving way to knowledge based industries, realizing the importance of “knowledge skills and the intellectual capacity to meet the challenges of accelerated change and uncertainty”.
Education is becoming a lifelong learning and training process, developing ransferable skills and knowledge that can be applied to competitive markets where knowledge and information is being trades as a commodity. Although globalization seems to be unavoidable to many counties and numerous initiative and efforts have been made to adapt to it with aims at taking the opportunities created from it to develop their societies and people, in recent years there are also increasing international concerns with the dangerous impacts of globalization on digenous and national developments.
Various social movements have been initiated against the threats of globalization particularly in eveloping countries. The negative impacts of globalization include various types of economic, political, and cultural colonization by advanced countries on those developing and under- developed countries. In evitable, how to maximize the opportunities and benefits from globalization to support local developments and reduce the threats and negative impacts of globalization will be the major concerns of developing countries.
Opportunities of globalization of higher education Knowledge is the driving forces in the rapidly changing globalize economy and society. Quantity nd quality of specialized human resources determine their competence in the global market. Emergence of knowledge results in both challenges and opportunities. It is well known that the growth of the global economy has increased opportunities for those countries with good levels of education. Globalization has a multi-dimensional impact on the system of education.
It promotes new tools and techniques in these areas like- E- learning, flexible learning, distance educational programme and overseas training. The introduction of technology into the classroom is changing the nature f delivering education to the students is gradually giving way to a new form of electronic literacy , more programs and education materials are made available in electronic form. Teachers are preparing lectures in the electronic form and even students are presenting assignments and giving papers in the electronic form.
The blackboards have been replaced by the LCD’s. The chalk has been replaced by the pointers and the power point presentations. Books have been replaced by compact discs. Even grades and the exams are gradually becoming available through electronic means and notebooks are replaced by laptops. Now the students do not have to carry heavy bags to the classrooms. Even the students can be examined through computer managed learning system and do tutorials exercises on a computer rather than in the classroom.
Even, the technology has given the opportunity to deliver the material through electronic source i. e. via power point presentation and even the notes can be distributed to the students via electronic mail. With such changes and the emergence of video conferencing and the internet, the barriers of distance are being broken down at a rapid rate, due to the key aspect of globalization. Students and adults or in other works each and every person can now learn in variety of ways and there is no longer any need to be physically present in the education institutions in order to learn.
The material is becoming readily available over internet, through video conferencing and tape recordings. Teacher can deliver the lecture to the whole class with the help of video conferencing without being physically present in the class. Now, the student of can get the education from any part of the world without traveling over there. The person can stay in his /her own country and et the education of which country he/ she wishes without going over there. Students can learn any time and at any place.
Anyone can maintain libraries of texts, images computer software and other forms of data, anywhere at any time. The rapid growth of television services, with their immense influence as media of mass communication, has been very relevant in the technological shift. Other larger contribution to this shift includes the transistor and space satellites. Communication and information based technology over the years is the internet. This is a massive network of computers located hroughout the world.
Developments in the delivery of education is allowing for individuals to explore new areas of learning and thinking that could not be done with pen and paper. They are discovering knowledge through inquiry and experimentation rather than memorizing facts in a teacher dominated classroom setting. Another opportunity of international trade leads to allocation of resources that is consistent with comparative advantage. Globalization results in specialization which enhances productivity.
Thus, the international trade, in general, is beneficial and that restrictive trade practices impede rowth. That’s why many off the emerging economies, which originally depended on a growth model of import substitution, have moved over to a policy of outward orientation. Globalization of higher eduction also gives the opportunity in movement of capital. Capital is a key factor of production. Capital flows across countries have played an important role in enhancing the production base. Without capital any type of economic activity is not possible.
Capital mobility enables the total saving of the world to be distributed among countries which have the highest investment potential. Emergence of strong capital market has been one of the important features of the current process of globalization while the growth in capital and foreign exchange markets have facilitated the transfer of resources across borders, the gross turnover in foreign exchange markets has been extremely large. The internationalization of higher education can be linked to various internal and external changes in the international system.
Externally, there have been changes in the labor market, which have resulted in calls for more knowledge and skilled workers and workers with deeper nderstandings of languages, cultures and business methods from all over the world. “Modern education is almost exclusively focused on preparing children for an urban future. ” Challenges of globalization of higher education No doubts, higher education has attained a key position in the knowledge society under globalize economy. However, the challenges faced are immense and far- reaching.
Its impact on the clientele via, individuals, institutions, systems and societies are not only not clear but also not comprprehentible at this moment unless it is viewed in the context of various other factors that re simultaneously operating on the higher education system. Some agrees that the rapid cross national flows of people, goods , capital and information may dissolve the nation states, push institutions( university is the one) into a common mould where as others disagree.
It is assumed that globalization promises dramatic and rewarding change to the higher education system, of societies, which are relatively stable in their political, social and institutional make up, while for the will performing higher education system. It is also true that globalization has given the dvanced economies a huge advantage as they had made enough preparation prior to its launching while others are caught in the trap without any preparation.
Integration into world economy today’s implies not only mastery of traditional knowledge but also the capacity to acquire the new skills required by a knowledge society. It is therefore evident that an unequal sharing of the new communication and information technologies only serves to reinforce existing inequalities. While education deficits are obviously greater in developing countries, this is a major issue in developed countries as well. In many industrialized countries there is a persistent problem of illiteracy and low skills, which is and important source of social exclusion.
Unequal access to education also fuels growing wage inequality and worsen the income distribution. The uneducated and unskilled in industrialized counties face sever disadvantage in an increasingly competitive global market. However, the provision of both primary and secondary schooling increased during the 90’s across the globe, but progress is inadequate and hides the differences between counties and regions. There are many evidences that the more rapid progress is possible if the political will nd the resources exists, in high and low income countries alike.
The increase in poverty in the world is the most tragic phenomenon in this era of abundance. It is the cause of marginal and the exclusion of increasingly bigger groups of the world population and in particular, affects children, the young and women. As a consequence, we see the development of cultures of poverty and marginalization that lock the same people into the cycle of poverty and reinforce their exclusion. But it is still the inequality with regards to knowledge that constitutes one of the biggest challenges of our societies.
The traditional raw materials and non renewable natural resources under threat of extinction no longer occupy the most important place in the process of production and development . It is knowledge in itself that has become one of the key resources of economic growth. The introduction of technology is also becoming a challenge to the society. As the implementation of technology and communication to be successful and to educate a society, both the students and teachers need to be technologically literate.
Communication technology is offering new challenges for students of all abilities as they can discuss issues of concern with heir fellow students from around the world. A shift in education is becoming evident where more responsibility is being placed on the individual for his or her learning, instead of solely on the teacher. Subsequently, the teachers themselves also need to be highly technologically literate, needing the competence and confidence to prepare students for a global information society.
Just because of technology and communication seems to be creating in human life between the ‘haves’ and the ‘have nots’ resulting in a bifurcated society of those who can afford such information technology and those who can’t. so too does globalization. While education institutions in western societies are embracing technology, developing countries are once again left behind, too weak and fragile to implement development programs for education, let alone introduce technology as well. There are severe limitations in delivering basic services.
A lack of infrastructure and funding makes it difficult to implement any technological and communication advancements. However, despite differences in economy, political, cultures and society, second and third worlds have adopted educational ideals from western thought and are anxious to appear odern and therefore promote education as a symbol of modernity and development to their own population and the foreign countries. The spread of education internationally, as a result of globalization, has clearly had effects on Cultures worldwide.
Now the sources of wealth come from knowledge and communication instead of natural resources and physical labour, which once characterized the United States as a n industrial society. This is a global rather than a national economy. The new economy puts a premium on intellectual capital and the people who produce it. This means that the demand for igher education is expanding dramatically. Education is needed throughout a lifetime, and the marketplace for that education is international. This growth makes education appealing to the private sector. Educational institutions have reacted by becoming more market oriented.
Due to this increasing free trade around the globe- to end protection in many sectors so that there is more competition and privatization, education is increasingly being drawn into this global capitalist competition. The internationalization of education has become one of the key themes of ducational policy and planning in the 1990’s and the integration of worldwide capital and labour markets; educators are being forced to respond to a new set of challenges. The demographics of higher education have changed substantially. Less than one fifth of today’s college students meet the traditional stereotype of attending school full time.
For the new majority of students, higher education is not as central to their lives as it was for previous generations of students. Research shows they want a very different relationship with their college than students have historically had. They are unwilling to pay for activities and services they do not use. Higher education is being subjected to greater criticism than in the past on issues varying from low productivity and higher cost to the quality of leadership and the inadequacy of technology use. This is an invitation to a private sector that rightly or wrongly sees higher education as the next health care industry.
Another challenge is of currency trade. Currency trade has become an end in itself. However, the volatility in the foreign exchange has created often times panic situations. The most recent xample of this was the East Asian crisis. Contagion of financial crises is a worrying phenomenon. When one country faces a crisis, it affects others. It is not as if financial crises are solely caused by foreign exchange traders. Another, major concern is to deliver world class education with updated curriculum and practical exposure. This is possible only by attracting talented and experienced persons in to academics.
At present it is difficult to assess not only the nature and dimensions of globalization, but also what it means to the field of education. A few educational researchers have attempted to made onnections between the several dimensions of globalization and the policies of education. Globalization of Higher Education in India India is also following the global phenomenon. As part of globalization, the economic reform packages were introduced in India in the beginning of 1991. These reform packages imposed a heavy compression on the public budgets on education sector, more specifically so on higher education.
This has trickled down to public expenditure on education in general, and higher education in particular. Indian government and Indian corporate sector has recognized the importance of management ducation in the ganging global scenario. Today under the reforming economic conditions, integration of the Indian economy with world economy presupposes efficiency and competitiveness in the domestic front as well as in the international arena. As the process of globalization is technology-driven, and knowledge driven, the very success of economic reform policies critically depends upon the competence of human capital.
But, what is observed is the reverse. Even within the education sector, relative priority assigned to higher education has been on the decline. It is to be realized that higher education institutions lay an important role insetting the academic standard for primary and secondary education. They are also responsible for not only providing the specialized human capital in order to corner the gains from globalization, but also for training inside the country, provide policy advice, etc.
Globalization is expected to have a positive influence on the volume, quality an spread of knowledge through increased interaction among the various states. Today our education system is strong enough but central and state governments should change their roles with in the education system, re- inventing them as facilitating supervisory rganizations. Teacher training, infrastructure and syllabuses need to be urgently upgraded. Industry should come forward to share experience with students and to offer more opportunities for live projects.
Commercial institutions offering specialized education have come up everywhere. In view of globalization many corporate universities, both foreign and Indian, are encroaching upon our government institutions. Our Institutes like IIM’S and IIT’S have produced world class professionals. These institutes imparts quality education as per industry expectations and give due importance to institute Industry interface. Under the new scenario, Government – Private partnership is becoming important in Management Education. Now India is a transforming country. We are near to achieve status of developed nation.
The demand for higher education has been growing rapidly with comparatively faster growth in enrolment in higher educational institutions than the growth in number of higher educational institutions. The growth rates are doubled among the students enrolled in post- graduate and research, while the number of institutions for post –graduate and research studies has grown at a slower rate in 1990’s than in 1980’s. India is witnessing new era in the field of Management Education. Many Corporate groups like Reliance, Nirma, Tata, Sterlite etc have promoted Management Institutes.
Some reputed foreign universities are also coming to India. But government should issue some guidelines so that fees structure remains with in certain limit and those who are from economically poor background have same opportunity. Conclusion Globalization has had many obvious effects on educational technology and communication systems change the way education is delivered as well as roles played by both teachers and tudents. The development of this technology is facilitating the transition from an industrial based society to an information-based one.
At the same time, there is a dark side to globalization and to the very openness of the new information systems. While the richest countries grow richer, the poor are becoming poorer. Income, information and education gaps between the rich and the poor are widening not narrowing: economic crises, trade imbalances and structural adjustments have precipitated a moral crisis in many countries, tearing the basic social and ultural fabric of many families and communities apart, resulting in increasing youth unemployment , suicide, violence, racism and drug abuse and anti social behavior form schools.
In the 21st century, education systems face the dual challenge of equipping students with the new knowledge, skills and values needed to be competitive in a global market while at the same time producing graduates who are responsible adults, good citizens both of their country and of the world. Thus, globalization challenges us to rethink not only how much education is needed but also its ultimate purposes.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 17 February 2017
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