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Gilded Age in United States

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Essay, Pages 2 (431 words)

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Essay, Pages 2 (431 words)

United States History
“The Gilded Age” Unit
Portrait of America:
Heilbroner, “The Master of Steel: Andrew Carnegie”
McCullough, “The Brooklyn Bridge: A Monument to American Ingenuity and Daring”

“Gilded Age” – Key Terms
Transcontinental Railroads
Union Pacific & Central Pacific
Land Grants
Power – natural monopolies: Vanderbilt
Industrial stimulation
Corruption: stock watering, rebates, pools
Regulation – Wabash case? ? Interstate Commerce Act (1887)

Captains of Industry (Robber Barons)
Carnegie – steel (Bessemer process) – “vertical integration” Rockefeller – oil – “horizontal integration”
Morgan – banking – “interlocking directorates” – buys out Carnegie for 0 mil.

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, US Steel “The American Beauty Rose can only be grown by sacrificing the early buds that grow up around it” Standard Oil – by 1877 controlled 95% of oil refineries

Gospel of Wealth – justification?
Natural selection – Social Darwinism
Regulation – Sherman Anti-Trust Law (1890) – forbade combinations in restraint of trade South lags behind – kept there by systems like “Pittsburgh Plus”

Unions
Workers hurt by “ironclad” and “yellow-dog” contracts, company towns National Labor Union (1886)
Knights of Labor (1877) – for economic and social reform
Haymarket Square, 1886
American Federation of Labor (1886) – only skilled workers – led by Samuel Gompers – for better wages, hours, and conditions – used walkout and boycott

Life in the Cities
10 million immigrants between 1860-1890
New Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe – faced challenges to assimilate and yet preserve culture and tradition “American fever” – land of opportunity, “streets paved in gold”? Patronage – trading jobs and services for votes for a political “boss” Settlement House (e.

g. Hull House by Jane Adams) to help immigrants Nativism

Unions
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
Question of leadership for blacks
Booker T. Washington vs.

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W.E.B. DuBois

The Great West and Farming
Problems for Indians: Broken treaties, railroad, diseases, alcohol, killing of the buffalo (from 15 mil to less than 1,000 by 1885) Dawes Severalty Act (1887) – forced assimilation  Carlisle Indian School  Mining in the West – gold and silver attract settlers (Pikes Peak, Comstock Lode) The Long Drive – Texas cowboys driving cattle to “cow towns” to put cattle on railcars Homestead Act – 160 acres – promises and realities

Dry farming – needed to confront the challenging climate
Wheat flourished in the West  1890 census declares the frontier “closed” – significance? (Turner’s Thesis) Cash Crops – due to technological advancements, e.g. the combine Vulnerability – unprotected, competitive world markets vs. TARIFF protected manufactured goods 1870s lack of currency forced crop price down – hard on DEBTORS (farmers have mortgages) Droughts – starting in summer of 1887

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Gilded Age in United States. (2018, Sep 01). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/gilded-age-in-united-states-essay

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