Ghuthisystem in Nepal

e Guthi System in Nepal Table of Contents 1. Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………… 1 a) Background ………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 b) 1. 2defination …………………………………………………………………………. 2 c) 1. 4 Objective of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………………… 2 d) Methodology ………………………………………………………………………………… 1. 5 Limitation of the Study ………………………………………………………………………….. 4 A Chapter2 2. 1 Before introducing Guthi act :……………………………………………………………….. 4 2. 2 Structure off Guthi Sansthan :…………………………………………………………………….. 2. 3 Types of Guthi:……………………………………………………………………………………………… Raj Guthi…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. (i) 2. 5 Kinds of Guthi land According to Revenue and Ownership…………………. Chapter 3 3. 1 Major function of guthi :………………………………………………………………………….. 3. Guthi Sansthan and Guthi practice in Nepal……………………………………. 3. 2 Guthi Sansthan and Guthi practice in Nepal……………………………………….. 3. 3 The functional pane of this organization is-……………………………… 4. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………… 1 4. bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. chapter 1 1. 2 Introduction: Guthi is a dynamic system of Nepalese Society guided by moral, ritual and traditional managerial system.

Modern management system has introduced after second great war in the western hemisphere.

Guthi system has various managerial outlooks that were introduced in our society by our ancestors, experienced at the time of king Mandev I, according to Changu Narayan temple script of Bhaktapur. This system has done attractive management for preserving ritual, traditional and cultural value in our society. In another words it is a cooperative system in modern concept and values.

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The purpose of establishing Guthi from our ancestors seems to be inspired under the true religious and social spirit. In fact, Guthi is a concept of welfare and preserving ritual and cultural value according to the Guthi founder’s interest.

Different type of Jatra, Parba (festival) also organized by Guthi like Machhendra Jatra, Sivaratri, Bisket Jatra, Indra Jatra, Kumari Jatra, Ram Nawami, Jhulan etc. as per their cultural rituals. The history of Guthi comes from the beginnings of A. D. at the time of king Mandev I.

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In those days and onward many people, Landlord, King and ruler donated their fixed ; liquid assets for the sake of society welfare and preserving ritual and cultural value in Guthi in the society. In brief, we can say Guthi is a benevolent concept for maintaing social peace, welfare of people.

It establishes the eternal ritual and traditional value of the society. All this type of Guthi is called Raj Guthi (Public/Government Guthi). Guthi Sansthan administers this by Guthi Sansthan act, 2021. Previously, there are two kind of Guthi management system under Raj Guthi- one is conducted by Guthi sansthan itself which is called Amanati Guthi, and the other is called Chhut Guthi which is managed by Guthi Sansthan and conducted by forming the committee or appointing the manager, who might be Guthiyar (Successors of Donors). 1. 2Methodology

This paper is based on the library study of literatures relating to the ighuthi sansthan of Nepal and its procedure.. 1. 3 Objective of the Study Objectives of this paper are, 1. To give a glance of trend in ghuthi sansthan in Nepal 1. 4 Limitation of the Study Due to the word and other resource constraints, the paper surveys only those Ighuthi sansthan.. Chapter2 2. 1 Before introducing Guthi act : Guthi activities used to be administered by Guthi Bandowasta office before 2007 (A. D. ). After 2007 coming of democracy, this organization goes under the Ministry of Finance.

Guthis’ central level work was administered by Guthi Bandobasta office at that time. Then after, it goes to Guthi Tahasil and Guthi Kharcha office under Department of Revenue. Later in 1964, (B. S. 2021) Guthi Sansthan is established concept of separating government revenue or Guthi revenue. Prior to this, government itself paid all the administrative expenditure for the Guthi management and its staffs. At these days, Guthi Tahasil & Guthi Kharcha Adda (office) administered Guthi’s activities. In addition to this Guthis’ work was also administered by managerial office at Janakpur, Morang, Bara-Parsa.

Land-tax offices also administered Guthi work where Guthi office was not established. In those days, Guthi Janch (check) office, Guthi Lagat office, Amulye Ratna paddati & Guthi Rakami Kitab Darta office, administered Guthi in central level. Guthi Lagat Tatha Tahasil office managed all this type of different organization. 2. 2 Structure off Guthi Sansthan : Board of Directors is a supreme body of Guthi Sansthan. It makes policies and directives. Similarly, it oversees, controls, directs of all the activities of the Sansthan.

There is an administrator, as an executive chief appointed by government. He is responsible for day-to-day functions. The formation of Board of directors is as follows: 1. Chairman – A ppointed by Nepal Government. 2. Joint-Secretary, Representative of ministry of home affairs – member  3. ministry of law, justice, and parliament affairs – member 4. ministry of cultural, tourism and civil aviation – member 5. Director General, land reform and management department – member 6. Three members appointed by H. M. G from different sectors – member 7. Administrator, Guthi sansthan – member secretary

In addition to this there is also an advisory board named Biddwat Samiti (Lerner’s Committee) chaired by Bada Guruju. Government appoints remaining committee members. Chairperson of Guthi Sansthan should take part in the meeting of advisory committee. The function of the committee is to give view and suggestion to the board of director relating to religious and cultural ritual, procedure and traditional values. 2. 3 Types of Guthi: •  Raj Guthi (Government/public Trust) •  Niji Guthi (Private Trust) 2. 4 Functionally, Raj Guthi is as follows- 1. Am anati Guthi -Management by Guthi Sansthan . Chhut Guthi -Management by stakeholders named Guthiyar Major Guthi property belongs in Kathmandu valley, Janakpur, Mahottari, Bara, Parsa districts. In addition to this Guthi Properties are also exists in 68 district of the country by the Guthi record published in 2056. At a glance, we can see the Guthi’s of valley as bellow. Chut Raj Guthi Amanti Raj Guthi Festival Guthi’s are in Pashupati Temple area: Amanati Guthi Chut Guthi Paid Workers (Rakami) Per year Animal/Bird Ponds, Temple and inns of RajGuthi in all over the country 2. 5 Kinds of Guthi land According to Revenue and Ownership . Guthi Raitan Numbary – only land tax is given to Guthi 2. Guthi Adinastha – Tiller should submit their income as a crop value 3. Guthi tainathi – this type of Guthi land has full owner of sansthan where no tikkership is given to any body else. 4. Niji Guthi – Guthi is manage by person and income also depended to their guthi’s management. This type of land management is administration by land tax office everywhere only the record is called in Guthi sansthan no detail record is collected still now. Guthi’s lands all over the country according to Guthi sansthan Bibarnika 2056 other source.

Many other guthi land are not registered so, Guthi sansthan is trying to search such Guthi land all over the country according to the Guthi Lagat, Chapter 3 3. 1 Major function of guthi : •  Getting the ownership on Rajguthi and manage it. •  Conducting Festival, and other perpetual worshipping according to Danpatra, Likhat (Registered document) •  Take over the ownership on Chut Guthi and private (Niji Guthi) and manage property. •  Preserve ; safe guard the ancient monumental properties. •  Utilization of resources towards the benevolent activities in the society. •  Managing the offering and donation of the monuments by pilgrims.   To manage the Rakami’s (paid worker of Guthi) appointment, wages and retirement system. •  To secure donation •  To manage Tainathi Jagga (sole Guthi Property land) by renting leasing and saling property. •  Rent out the Guthi houses. •  To convert the Guthi Administration Guthi litter land into Guthi Raitan namberi according to guthi act. •  To prepare the Guthi property details. •  Property to utilize the guthi income and property. 3. 2 Guthi Sansthan and Guthi practice in Nepal Guthi practice was developed as an earlier concept of the cooperative system as a community organization.

This has been at work, which has been going on for centuries in Nepal . The Guthi system was so effective in social, religious, and cultural work in the past that it set guidelines for the service to the humanity and society. Guthiswere the custodians of religious and cultural sites, activities, and traditions and accordingly carried out their activities to preserve our rich culture and tradition. Considering the importance and role of Guthis, the government set up the Guthi Sansthan (corporation) to manage, conduct, and coordinate the Guthis throughout the country more effectively and efficiently.

Guthi Sansthan was established in 2021-07-17 B. S. (1964 A. D. ) as an independent (self-run) institution entrusted to take care of and conduct religious, cultural, and social heritage of the country. It does not receive any subsidy from government nor is the revenue of Guthi Sansthan deposited in government revenue. Its property is called”Dewaswa” meaning divine property. Guthi revenue generated from Guthi property is spent for the sake of religious, cultural, and social activities and for management and administrative overheads.

It is completely a non-profit making organization and is concerned with the conservation and preservation of national culture, rituals, as well as heritage. It is of our great pride that our ancestors built religious temples and monuments, public parks, pilgrim’s rest houses, traveler’s guesthouses and many more such things under true religious and social spirit. To maintain our age-old rich heritage, our ancestors also established a perpetual source of revenue (mostly in terms of land and building).

The functional owners of such properties (land and building) are named after a particular festival or ritual. They are called ‘Guthi’ . There is a total number of 2082 recorded Raj (Government) Guthis in the country, which are meant for maintaining religious and social establishments, supporting various festivals and rituals and supporting other social and religious activities. 3. 3 The functional pane of this organization is- * To maintain and preserve religious, cultural and social establishments, * Property management, * Preserve source documents and records, Conduct and/or support religious festivals and rituals, In order for executing various tasks towards its responsibilities, Guthi Sansthan is organized into various central level and district level branch offices. Organizationally, there is Board of Directors at the top. The board members represent social, cultural, and educational field have been nominated by the government. Under the board is the Administrator as an Executive Chief, who is responsible to administer and manage its overall function. Head Office, basically, carries out policy and management related functions. It has branch offices in seven districts.

In the districts where it has no branch offices, district land revenue offices are entrusted to do the job. Guthi Sansthan has to oversee the 68 districts’ Raj Guthi . There are 717 temples and 647 rest houses across the country under Raj Guthi. The Raj Guthis have not only religious and social value, but also are of great pride of the nation in terms of the temples, monuments, pilgrim’s houses etc and their architecture and art. Such establishments have also become important tourist attractions. If properly managed and well preserved they can be of a very good source of revenue and contributes to the tourism industry of the country.

But the situation is not like what we imagine. Many religious temples and monuments are in the state of ruin. It is critical that such establishments should be repair and maintained in timely manner. To be a socially responsible organization, Guthi Sansthan: * Helps to maintain culture, heritage, and tradition of the country. * Helps ensure different Guthi members interest. * Helps make employees satisfied. * Helps to promote ethical and moral values in the work place. Guthi Sansthan has a responsibility of maintaining the traditional culture and national heritage that will benefit all sectors of society.

The most important social obligation of the organization is to reconcile and balance the various conflicting interests within the Guthi, Matha, and community’s etc. best possible manner. Nepal is a country rich in world heritages and cultural diversity. The cultural heritage has to be maintained and preserved. Guthi Sansthan has got an important and key responsibility towards state and the world. Pasupatinath, Changu Narayan, Durbar Squares of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur is the few heritage sites. The preservation and maintenance of all these mentioned heritages and cultures is the social responsibility of Guthi Sansthan.

As mentioned above, Guthis were the custodians of religious and cultural sites, activities, and traditions and accordingly carries out their activities to preserve our rich culture and tradition. Considering the importance and role of Guthis, the government set up the Guthi Sansthan (corporation) to manage and coordinate the Guthis throughout the country more effectively and efficiently. So Guthi Sansthan is a sole organization in the country responsible for managing and conducting the government Guthis’ of the country. Organizing the festivals in the country has been a major responsibly of the Guthi Sansthan.

Rato Machhendra (Bhoto Jatra), Seto Machhendra Jatra, Indra Jatra, Bisket Jatra is a very famous traditional, cultural festival of the Kathmandu Valley . Chariot maintenance and conducting the procession has been given to the stakeholdersof that Guthi, known as Rakami . The duties of the Rakami are to do all the construction maintenance and carry aRath (chariot) over the major core area of the city. Guthi Land and buildings are the property of Guthi Sansthan, which is the main source of revenue to carry out entrusted functions, at present, the recorded land property measures to 475,849 Ropani, which is quite significant.

In addition, there are buildings and shopping complexes that are rented out. Although the calculated revenue of the corporation is quite high, a significant amount is pending to be collected both from HMG and from other tenants, The management has not been able to control and monitor revenue collections. Furthermore, it lacks proper record of its property, which has handicraft the institution in properly managing its property, monitoring, and controlling the revenue collection thereof. Another more critical problem, the corporation facing is encroachment.

Lots of Guthi Land has been encroached, many of them have already been turned in to private land and register accordingly. Such kind of irresponsible activities are prone to be continued further, because it does not have proper record of its property. If such a situation continues, any one can imagine the effect down the stream. This is creating a very negative scenario. Wherever Guthi are created or established, contributions to the Guthi in terms of land, building, and /or fund are well documented. The purpose of Guthi, the revenue and expense details, what to be done, and what not to be done are all very well documented.

These documents provide the original authenticity of Guthi property. If such documents are lost or ruined, events like encroachment of Guthi land, turning Guthi property into private ownership can become a regular happening, and it may end up going to courts to get back its property with no substantial evidence. This strongly indicates the need of preserving such documents. Despite the fact that such documents bears such a significant importance, the situation of document storage and archival is amazingly poor. There is a very high chance of loss/damage of documents due to fire, natural disaster, mishandling, and various others.

Thinking about proper storage and easy retrieval Guthi Sansthan recently made a preliminary study report involving consultants. Guthi Sansthan needs fund to implement the project as it has already started facing the problem of insufficient fund. It conducts and supports various festivals and rituals all the year round across the country. There are 2013 festivals and rituals in Kathmandu valley alone in a year. There are a myriad of small tasks and expense items involved in such festivals. Guthi Sansthan does not have stablished a recording and information retrieval system on festivals, festival calendar, and festival task items and expense items, which allows an efficient management of such festivals and rituals. The Kathmandu Valley possesses a unique concentration of cultural, historical, and religious sites in the country. In addition, its traditional built landscapes, architecture, art and crafts and scenic natural settings all have contributed to create its unique identity. Mounting development pressures are taking a toll on heritage sites. Encroachment in various forms continues to deteriorate the environment of heritage sites.

This poses a serious challenge as to how these cultural heritage sites and landscapes could be saved from extinction or deterioration in the face of rapidly ongoing development of the Valley. The identification and conservation of various sites and landscape of cultural, historical, and religious significance are important in order to preserve culture, history, tradition, and values. However, the sustainable conservation is possible only when the community is involved as the guardian of these heritage sites and landscapes. The role of community-based conservation approach bodes well for the future conservation effort.

Community Heritage Resources are the physical elements that make each community what it is. They are tangible embodiments of historical, cultural, and social values. They are cultural expressions of what that place is. Heritage conservation has many potential cultural, social, and economic benefits. The preservation of cultural heritage is by far the most frequently given reason for the conservation of structures and sites. Conserving heritage allows a community to convey a sense of history; it provides aesthetic enrichment as well as educational opportunities.

A community maintains a more interesting urban environment by retaining symbols of its past. Chapter 4 4. 1cases u’7L ;+:yfg ;~rfns ;ldlt, u’7L ;+:yfg s]Gb|Lo sfof{nosf7df8f}+ / cf? gf xsdf ;d]t u’7L ;+:yfg s]Gb|Lo sfof{nosf k|zf;s ;]dGt/fh rfkfufO{ =============== ! lj? 4 Gf/fo0fk|;fb nfld5fg]sf] d’=;=ug]{ sf7df8f}+ lhNnf sf7df8f}+ dxfgu/kflnsf j8f g+= ( a:g] OZj/L b]jL nfld5fg] ======== ! P]=sf] d’=;=ug]{ P]=P]= a:g] k’is/k|;fb nfld5fg] ================= ! P]=sf] d’=;=ug]{ P]=P]= a:g] hgfb{g nfld5fg] ====================== !

P]=sf] d’=;=ug]{ P]=P]= a:g] ejfgLk|;fb nfld5fg] =============== ! P]=sf] d’=;=ug]{ P]=P]= a:g] ls/0fk|;fb nfld5fg] =============== ! P]=sf] d’=;=ug]{ P]=P]= a:g] an/fdk|;fb nfld5fg] === t;y{ dfly ul/Psf] ljZn]if0f ;d]tsf] cfwf/df ldlt @)%).! @. @! df k’g/fj]bg cbfnt, kf6gaf6 ePsf] clGtd km};nfnfO{ lj:yflkt ug]{ u/L ljjfbsf] ls=g+ #^% sf] If]qkmn $#–%–#—) hUufdf k|ToyL{sf :juL{o afh] 1fgk|;fb nfld5fg]nfO{ btf{jfnf df]xL dfg]/ k|ToyL{ gf/fo0fk|;fb nfld5fg] ;d]tsf] df]xL xsdf lg/Gt/tf lbO{ df]xLofgL xsnfO{ oyfjt sfod ug]{ u/L ePsf] k’g/fj]bg cbfnt kf6gsf] ldlt @)%(. . @) sf] km};nfnfO{ ;b/ u/]sf] o; cbfnt ;+o’Qm 31Ohnf;sf] ldlt @)^#.!!.! # sf] km};nf ldn]sf] gb]lvFbf pN6L x’G5 . 4. 2 conclusion On the present changing social environmental context, Guthi sansthan should have to extend its scope pragmatically and need to undergo significant change to develop and deliver services in effective ways that customers and citizens want. The introduction of a corporate governance and capacity assessment presents a further challenge for corporation in the ‘modernization’ process.

In conclusion, we can say that Guthi is our cultural symbol of tradition and ritual system. All of us should conscious to preserve the Guthi property for the existence of cultural value and dignity of Nepalese people; the activities of Guthi should be traditional before the people immediately. It is give good massage and people will eager to participate in our activities. .

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Ghuthisystem in Nepal. (2020, Jun 02). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/ghuthisystem-in-nepal-new-essay

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