Essay, Pages 3 (734 words)
Sextant- allowed users to determine their latitude to within a sea mile or two The gnomon or sun-shadow disk- operated like a sundial, enabling the user to determine his latitude by the length of the sun’s shadow cast on a disk floating level in water.
The Arabian kamal- a rectangular plate that one moved closer or farther from one’s face until the distance between the North star and the horizon exactly corresponded to the plate’s upper and lower edges.
The distance the plate lay away from the face—measured by a string tied to the center of the plate and held at the other end to the tip of the nose—determined the latitude. cross staff
Tools used to measure longitude (Lesson 02.01) (use the first resource in this lesson to help you) Be able to list and describe the 2 main tools used to measure longitude in early navigation the chronometer- the sextant to figure longitude using the lunar-distance method
Current Navigation Tools (Lesson 02.
What tool do we currently use to determine location (latitude and longitude)?
The Global Positioning System,
Longitude and Latitude (Lesson 02.01)
Know the ways that longitude and latitude run (N to S or E to W) and what they measure Longitude E to W – know how far east or west they were of the Prime Meridian Latidude N to S – how far north or south they were from the equator
What are longitude and latitude measured in?
they measure in degrees
Challenger Expedition (Lesson 02.02)—Best resource link to use = “Account of the Voyage of the Challenger” Besides conducting sampling of the waters on its journey, what were the main findings from the Challenger voyage? found many new species, and provided collections for scores of biologists.
What tool was used to do measure the depths of the ocean?
The Challenger was equipped with 144 miles of sounding rope
What are the 2 pieces of equipment used to collect bottom samples on the Challenger? At left is a shallow-water dredge, whereas a deep-sea trawl is shown at right. What was a newly invented piece of equipment used on the Challenger ship to get water samples called? Buchanan Water Sampler
In which zone of the rocky shore would you most likely find only grasses and patches of lichens? splash zone
What type of animal uses the rocky shore for their ‘feeding’ grounds? white-tailed deer in the winter
What is the name of a plant-like species found in rocky shores? seaweed
What is the special adaptation of these organisms found in the rocky shore ecosystem?—to do this, match up the following (Match the organism with its adaptation)
Cky shore and tidal pools—what kinds of adaptations do they have that enable them to survive the pounding waves while staying in place, tidal changes (periods of time covered with water or periods of time with no water), sunlight exposure, evaporation of water that may leave concentrated salts behind, blending in to avoid predators
What are the physical changes that occur in the rocky shore (3 main ones—think tides, salt content, and wave action)?
Rock pools flat area of rock, back part forms a cliff where the front part is flat and in the water, formed by waves, wind, and rain Platform
sloping shoreline where group of large rocks found on calm shorelines Boulder fields?depression left from a boulder grinding into a rock that hold water
Crustaceans (Lessons 02.05 and 02.04)
What 3 special adaptations do crustaceans have that allow them to survive in the rocky shore ecosystem? What characteristics do all crustaceans share (need to be specific) What is the best characteristic to help you identify a crustacean? What are the 3 main example types of crustaceans?
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