Genealogy of DNA

Categories: Gene


DNA is found in all living cells. A polymer looks like a ladder that has been twisted in a helical form. . The sides of the ladder are acknowledged as the backbone of the DNA helix, and are involve of replicating sugar and phosphate units. DNA has a very important responsibility in the cell, as it encodes for all cellular proteins. s. The proteins expressed in a cell classify the distinctiveness of the cell, and organisms are compilation of several cells.

Many of our physical characteristics are ascertained by the progression of our DNA.

Banana is the general name for herbaceous vegetation of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest farmed plants. They are inhabitant to tropical South and Southeast Asia. Banana is also used to depict Enset and Fe’i bananas, neither of which fit in to the abovementioned class. Enset bananas belong to the genus Ensete while the nomenclature of Fe’i-type cultivars is vague.

Removing DNA from a banana may sound like a complicated task, but it is not very difficult at all. The procedure involves a few common steps which include mashing, filtration, precipitation, and extraction. Squashing exposes a better surface area from which to extract the DNA. Substances are also added that will facilitate break-down cell membranes to discharge the DNA. The filtration step allows for the compilation of the DNA and other cellular substances.

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The precipitation step allows the DNA to break up from other cellular substances. At last, the DNA is detached from the solution. The DNA will be able to be seen at this stage because huge aggregates will have formed.


The lengthy, fat fibers of DNA store up the information for the working of the chemistry of life. DNA is present in every cell of plants and animals. The DNA establish in banana cells can be extracted using ordinary, daily materials. We will use an extraction buffer including salt, to split up protein chains that attach around the nucleic acids and detergent to liquefy the lipid (fat) fraction of the banana cell wall and nuclear membrane. This extraction buffer will facilitate and provide us entrance to the DNA within the cells. Rationale:

Students will monitor first hand that DNA is in the food they consume. Students will study the simple technique of extracting DNA and each step is essential. To learn how chemical substances can split up the cell structures adjacent to DNA. To see how DNA looks like in food. To learn and see the physical structure of DNA through the naked eye. Statement of the Problem:

Is the process of human DNA extractions similar from the banana DNA extractions?


If the process of extracting the DNA of human will be similar to extracting the DNA of banana then both of the proteins will isolate because in extracting DNAs of different kinds of cells (plants or animals), purification is the first step in the study and handling of DNA that allow scientists to see the genetic syndrome or pattern of chain ladders in each kind of cells. Although, plants and animals have different structure of cells but both create DNA in nucleus.

Scope and Limitations:

The scope for this lab is that DNA has critical part of each living thing, giving every cell its individual uniqueness, yet it is simply extracting from a cell. It would be appealing to watch this experiment open out in a laboratory with tools strong enough to observe this procedure and to see the individual strands of DNA. In addition, DNA might have been hard to understand but it’s amazing how this lab can see a lengthy DNA strands coiled. Lastly, it covers the aspect of the cells in nucleus and how the information of the DNA is kept deeper in human’s body, animal’s body, plants even in long or short period of time. DNA is a real secret hiding from every tiny cell in our body and surroundings. Lastly, we used the fruits to extraction because it’s a polyploidy.

The limitation of this lab is that the limit of comparing the DNA of an animal cells such as meat and plant cell because there will be an expensive material’s going to be use in extracting animal cells, mainly spinach, broccoli, chicken liver, peas. What I did froe experiment is to compare through internet. The limitation would also be the temperature for isopropyl alcohol. The isopropyl alcohol must be kept cool at most time. Lastly, the precipitated DNA can cause poor outcome because of splitting up the DNA strands. Terminology:

Chromosome – A threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information.

DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid; a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information. Filtration-The act or process of filtering; the mechanical separation of a liquid from solidify particles floating in it. Precipitation- the condensation of a solid from a solution during a chemical reaction Polyploid- more than two copies of chromosomes in cell, meaning lots of DNA II. Related Literature


“Genetic genealogy is DNA testing that’s done specifically for the purpose of learning about one’s heritage.” by Megan Smolenyak “DNA is the blueprint for life, and now it can serve as a computer to monitor life’s processes.” by Rebecca Boyle “The structure of double-stranded DNA is universal in all living cells, but differences occur in the methods for extracting genomic DNA from animal and plant cells” by Keiron Audain


“we describe mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in 423 Philippine samples and analyze them in the context of the genetic diversity of other Southeast Asian populations.” by Kristina Tabbada

DNA barcoding can differentiate between closely related species that are hard to tell apart, especially large fishes that are difficult to bring back from the field. It can identify products like fish fillets so you know if the grouper you ordered in a restaurant is really a grouper by DR. mudjekeewis D. Santos

Sa House Bill 2586 ni Western Samar 1st District Rep. Mel Senen Sarmiento, nakakalungkot umanong isipin na hindi nabibigyang pagkakataon ang mga anak sa labas na kilalanin ang kanilang mga tunay na magulang noong buhay pa ang mga ito kaya’t ang pagsama ng DNA testing ay makakasiguro sa implementasyon ng Family Code of the Philippines bilang bentahe sa paggamit ng makabagong teknolohiya. by GEMMA GARCIA


  1. Get all the materials.
  2. Cut the banana in smaller pieces. Put the entire banana in the Ziploc bag. Seal them tightly.
  3. Mash them for 2 minutes.
  4. In a plastic cup, mix the 1 tsp. of dish soap, 2 pinch of salt and 4 tsp of water. Stir thoroughly until the dish soap is dissolve in water.
  5. Add the mixed solution to the mashed banana.
  6. Next, make a well with the coffee filter and place it on a cup. Do not let the filter touch the bottom of the cup.
  7. Pour the liquid mixture to the filter paper and filter it for 3-5 minutes.
  8. In a test tube, fill the narrow tube with a super cold isopropyl alcohol.
  9. Add the 2 tsp. of filtered banana mixture slowly, to have two layers of liquid.
  10. Let the tube disturb up to 2-3 minutes.
  11. There will be a precipitate DNA forming at the tube.
  12. To get the DNA, use bbq skewer and twirl it.
  13. Place with capped tube filled with alcohol.
  14. Clean up all the materials

Data and Analysis:

DNA accumulated in Banana.

The finish product looks like:

Chemical | Functions|

Dish soap | Dispersing the lipid membranes

Salt | Eradicate the linked proteins|

Isopropyl Alcohol | Precipitate the DNA|


When mashing up the banana in the Ziploc, it helps the cell wall, nuclear membranes and cellular to break down. The extraction buffer helps to discharge DNA from the nearby cell components of the mashed banana. The filter makes easier to liquefy and removes bigger particles from the solution and extracting smaller cell components such as the proteins of the banana. When the filtrate alcohol is added, the DNA precipitated out of the solution. The DNA looks like a white, cloudy or fine stringy substance.

DNA is not visible as a single strand to the naked eye, however, if there’ are thousand of DNA strands present; we will be able to see the large group of DNA threads. Also, DNA is present in all living things in a long or short period, even dead animals or human’s centuries ago. That’s why DNA helps many scientists or doctors to identify genetics of each person and/or lineage. Even different kind of cells has DNA, animals or plants, because DNA is saved inside the nucleus. Also, the process of getting meat and fruits are the same because the experiment is to extract and purify the cell components and leave out all the unneeded substance to do the process. That’s why we used filter and dish soap.

Conclusion/ Recommendation

I therefore conclude that the process of extracting meat and fruits are the same because it has cell components and have same parts. The DNA of all kinds of cells is hidden in nucleus where they bring out the genes of each class and family of an organism. Even the person is dead or mummies can be extracted by DNA because there’s a cell living inside us. In doing this experiment, splitting up the cell wall, nuclear membrane and plasma membrane is important.

So does in the meat extractions, because this three cell components is present with plant and animal cell. In the lab, DNA extractions collected the sample cells. Second, breaking open the cells to get rid of the lipid membranes. Then, after DNA is free from the cell, it precipitated the DNA as of the solution. Adding salt to the solution triggers the cellular debris and unnecessary proteins in the solution to cluster together. Finally, the isopropyl alcohol is added and assorted into the solution. Since the DNA is not soluble in the alcohol, it will precipitate and become perceptible to the naked eye and simply tested.



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Genealogy of DNA. (2017, May 16). Retrieved from

Genealogy of DNA
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