French Decolonization: Conflict in Algeria Essay

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French Decolonization: Conflict in Algeria

In entire French history, France almost enjoyed great influence on what is happening in Europe and in the world. It was due to big colonial territory France could dispose with. There was period when the competing for influence with the Great Britain was very successful. It supported not only its political power, but colonialism had a considerable impact on the economic situation of the country. Algeria had a very important position in this system, which could be caused by a large number of Frenchmen who lived in the area.

To understand why there have been so much violence during decolonization, that grew up in war; we must also look to the position of Algeria in colonial domination of France, because here you can find many causes of Algerian conflict. [1] The emergence of the French colonies As the beginning of French colonial endeavors can be count the development of voyages of discovery. The first goal of French colonizators was North America and then Asia. At that time,Africa was hardly reachable, as it was the territory of the Ottoman Empire.

The chance to control the region occurred in the 18th and 19 century, when the Ottoman Empire became a “sick man on the Bosphorus. “[2] After the French Revolution and the advent of Napoleon Bonaparte to the position of consul, attention of foreign policy has been focused on the possible colonial expansion to the north Africa. The Egypt became the main objective of French colonizators. French Foreign Minister Talleyrand asked for its incorporation under French influence. “It was obvious that the point was to re-open the way to India and to the allies Tipu Sultan, who in 1784 became Maisuriem ruler.

However, France failed to get Egypt under its domination. Large ally of France, which was the United Kingdom, became the one who controled more or less control Egypt. United kingdom had not absolute control over it because the country still maintained largely independent government [3] France issued in Africa to the west. Trying to control west territory of the Egypt. The reason for this was mainly the fact that, in this area, they discovered massive deposits of gold and diamonds. That is why in this area France had competed with other European countries.

Again, they competed with the British, in addition, they were still pushing the Portuguese, Germans and partly Spanish. The emergence of the French colonies in the territory of Algeria Practically the biggest breakthrough in the creation of French colonial rule in Algeria became a convert under the administration of France. This area was for few hundred years the territory of the Ottoman Empire, but at the turn of the 18th and 19th century began to show its decline and slowly became this “sick man on the Bosphorus. [4]

Already in the late 18th century France realized that this weakness of the Ottoman Empire could be obtained under its administration of Algeria, which had strategic potential, mainly due to its mineral resources. Desire for Algeria was also presented as a solution to domestic problems which France at the turn of the century faced. These efforts continued and culminating and did escalate in 1827, when the French finally got an excuse for action. On 29th of April the Dey of Algiers, Husayn, stuck the French consul Pierre Deval in the face with afly-swatter.

This insult of the representative of France in the regency started a crisis in relations betweeen these two countries as a result of which the French stumbled upon one of its most important colonial ventures. The actual colonization began about three years later, in 1830. The French army invaded, whereupon ensued a brief but intense war for territory of Algeria. On 14th of June 34,000 troops from the fleet numbering 600 ships landed Algerian Coast.

Dey sent 7,000 Janissaries, that were gradually joined by up to 35 000 soldiers sent to other deyove of North Africa. Due to its better and advanced equipments French troops very quickly conquered the Capital on 19th of June. In the following days, Algerian Dey fled to Naples thereby Ottoman control over the area collapsed and Algeria came under the domination of France. In 1847 it was designated as a military colony, and its head became Governor-General, who had executive and military power virtually in his hands.

Algeria’s population almost never adopt their allegiance to the French Government and the entire existence of the colonial establishment and considered French to be occupiers and relationship with them was very complicated and not very friendly. [5] The system of colonial rule in Algeria In order to objectively examine the reasons and causes of so bloody conflict that accompanied the process of obtaining Algeria’s independence from France, I have to first, at least briefly mention how system enabling France to rule Algeria looked like.

As mentioned previously, this area was set up so-called military colony. This concept holds some elements that would distinguised from normal colonial establishment. Of course, it is almost impossible to summarize the colonial system by simple definition, in which the form of government would be generally described, because each country had dominated colonial specifics, which was system necessary adapts. In the introduction I mentioned that Algeria had a very special position in the French colonial domination.

This uniqueness had several reasons arranged that its influence on the functioning of continental France was greater than by the other colonies. It should also be noted that after Algeria succeeded to be at least partially stabilized, the military colony was reformed and at the end of the 19th Century the area came under civilian administration. Certain trait was also the fact that this area did not fall under the Ministry of Colonies, as other dependent territories, but directly under the jurisdiction of Ministry of Interior.

This also points to the importance that French attached to Algeria. [6] The first reason was the very position of Algeria. Located very close to France and could therefore become important to French traders, who were going to make a bussiness there. This is mainly due to cheap labor in the form of the indigenous population. Therefore, it is quite inappropriate to refer to French colony as disadvantageous. Yes, unlike the British colonies meant no colony for France large revenue to the state coffers, but the private sector have greatly prospered.

Taking into account the protectionism, which reigned in these “departments”, and the fact that it has been maintained Algeria in pre-industrial state, there was inserted into capital industry in France certainty of safe outlets. ” Another reason for which Algeria had a high position among the other colonies was the fact that in its territory over time moved large numbers of white French population. Algeria has evolved into a full-fledged part of the French political system and its representatives were elected to parliament. But the right to vote was granted only to French.

Those local people soon came to be called “pieds noirs”. [7] The original inhabitants of Algeria on their long-fought right to vote, because I felt in such a situation as quasi residents of France. The radical changes in the position of Algerians took place after the World War II in connection with the growing desire for independence, allowing them to have granted the right to vote (although not equal, because pieds noirs had a voice with more weight) and least educated part of the population had the opportunity to get a full French citizenship. 8]

Termination of the French colony of Algeria In the previous chapter I described coexistence of Algerians and French to be very problematic. I have several problems, which caused considerable dispute and the time when there was almost no change in the status of Algerian political life, not only in France but also Algeria itself, is began to show that such a system is no longer sustainable, and it will be necessary to significantly change if Algeria should remain part of France.

Right from the beginning of this chapter I would like to say that France good moment for these changes missed and it also turned out. But when the opportune moment to change ever occurred? You could say that whole 19th century could be a suitable moment. Thus, at least from the perspective of Algeria and its people. It was the ethnic group that did not have any significant national sentiment. [9] Practically the only element was the belief of belonging. This could be due to the changes that the whole problem in the 20th century prevented.

Also in Algiers created French civilizing influence foundations of political life and later inspired the emergence of internally differentiated nationalist movement”. For example, Ferhat Abbas, which was a pharmacist from the city of Setif, created movement during the 30-ties of 20th century that grew up in popularity and proclaimed the Algerian nationalist tendencies. But it is also necessary to take account of French foreign policy. Former French regime was very unstable and had enough problems with it to keep.

Should such changes occurred, unlikely that it scandalized the French, who had their business interests in Algeria, not to mention the pieds-noirs who would lose their advantageous position in the society of this area. In addition, there was the pressure that France felt for its falling position in Europe. Picked up a new superpower like Russia, Italy and Germany. In the event that France acceded to such changes, it could be in those countries seen as weakness, despite the fact that it might endanger their own colonial rule.

¬†Probably the last opportunity for reforms that would at least partially improve the position of Algerians in France arose after the World War I. It pointed to the weakening of France, but France did not have to worry about other European countries, especially the losers, since they would only hardly prevailed on some form of resistance. France has, however, even at this time other worries. After the war, the economy was heavily damaged and need to start it again and France with Great Britain gained at the expense of some Germany’s colonies, so focused on their mastery.

At this time, France obviously missed the last opportunity to improve the status of Algerians and thus chance to keep Algeria as French. The beginnings of Algerians fighting for independence After the victory of the movement for democratic values was ?? forbidden to create few other organizations that were more or less radical. But all have a common goal, to get rid of French domination of Algeria and the creation of an independent state. One of them was the Democratic Union of Algerian Manifesto.

Its main representative of Ferhat Abbas, the program relied not only Algerian Manifesto, but also just the movement for the victory of democratic values, because according to him, this movement could become a way to ensure understanding of the Algerian thing in Europe. [11] All movement, which was created in 1954, however, overshadowed by creating Queues national liberation (the only QNL). And just a year of its formation could be considered as the beginning of the war in Algeria. It was a very radical movement, in which many faces associated other organizations fighting for independence.

Conclusion Algeria was a 132 years under the rule. It was one of the most important French colonies, considered even as part of France, and the status of retail dependency. Achieved independence in 1962 as one of the last African States. Algeria retail trade and diplomatic relations, not only with neighboring Mediterranean countries, but also with France, which was signed by 57 of the Algerian government contracts for the friendship and alliance, recognized and confirmed the independence of Algeria.

At the end of the 18th century, when all of Europe fought against France, this was precisely Algeria that France supplied the grain and money. Reply by France on this “friendship” and the alliance was in the 1830 launch of a war in Algeria. The end of the colonial system meant the absolute change for France. The country fell into a totally new environment and especially to a new position in the world. It was already weakened by the defeat and devastation of France in World War II.

A disintegration of the colonial dominion that stretched practically worldwide its global impact on the backdrop of the Cold War, virtually minimized, which also led to the crisis and the subsequent change of the entire political system of the country. The course of decolonization, as I have described above, ran a very bloody way and subsequent development of the political system and political culture in Algeria practically impossible the establishment of closer relations. Subsequent years of Algerian independence was marked inclination towards the Soviet Union.

In this time mode through mistrust and hostility to France and tried to legitimize and maintain its integrity. At the same time, like many other Arab countries in the 20th century took independence gave way and Algeria socialist system. That does not work. Malfunction causes of that are many. This may be a very unstable situation in the country, away from France, who was willing to freedom after coming to this North African countries continue to work, or too little help from the Soviet Union, from which the former leaders of Algeria expecting support material and political.

Finally, in 1958, created the Republic of Algeria by the end of 1961, 32 countries of the world recognized. Ultrakolonialist uprising in 1961 was relatively easily defeated, and France was left to negotiate with other Algerians. [12] In March 1962 they were signed between the French government and the so-called Interim Government of Algeria. Evian agreements, which meant the ceasefire, the gradual evacuation of French troops and the full independence of Algeria. About This should finally decide referendum, which took place on 3 July 1962. 13] The French, however, continued to murder and destruction and a ceasefire.

In September 1962 announced the creation of the Constituent Assembly of Algeria and the Democratic People’s Republic. In 1963, Algeria was introduced land reform, nationalization took place all objects abandoned by owners, a new constitution was approved by Congress and the National Liberation Fronts in 1964 was called. Algeria Algeria rebuilding Charter proclaimed in the spirit of socialism.

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