Free Primary Education in Kenya Essay
Free Primary Education in Kenya
Acknowledgement I acknowledge my God for provision of good health, sound mind and in tender caring. I also express the same to my lecturer Mr. Malel for his diligent and industrious work he did to me in the process of writing up the project. I also acknowledge the contributions of my colleagues and my family for the patience and encouragement that they have given me since I begun the project. I also acknowledge the free access to the Kenya National Library Service in Kericho. Dedication I dedicate this report to my Almighty Father for His countless Mercies and Eternal Providence.
I also dedicate it to my family, my parents and my children. Abstract The study investigated the statistical relationship between the introduction of FPE and the enrolment of kids in ECD centers. The paper begins by assessing the changes in enrolment prior and after the introduction of FPE in 2002. It then delves into the question of why this happens. The covered Mogogosiek Zone although the findings is relevant for the whole country. The researcher sampled six schools as the sample to represent twenty schools in the zone. The random sample technique was used since all schools are homogeneous.
The researcher used questionnaires and observation to collect data in the field. The project is useful for the stakeholders in the ECD sector ranging from school heads to government administrators involved with ECD work. Table of Contents DECLARATION BY CANDIDATEii DECLARATION BY THE SUPERVISORii Acknowledgementiii Dedicationiv Abstractv Abbreviations and Acronymsviii CHAPTER ONE1 Introduction1 1. 1Background of the Problem1 1. 2 Statement of the Problem3 1. 3Objectives of the Study4 1. 4 Purpose of the Study5 1. 5 Justification of the Project6 1. 6 Significance of the Study7 1.
7 Limitations8 1. 8 Delimitations9 CHAPTER TWO10 Literature Review10 2. 1 The effects of the introduction of FPE on enrollment10 2. 2 Factors that have led to low enrolment as a result of introduction of FPE in Kenya13 2. 3 Impact of FPE on enrolment in ECDs16 CHAPTER THREE18 Methodology18 3. 1 Research Design18 3. 2 Location of the Study19 3. 3 Target Population20 3. 4 Sample Population21 3. 5 Sampling Method22 3. 6 Research Instruments23 CHAPTER FOUR24 Data Representation24 4. 1 The Extent to Which ECD Enrolment Declined as a Result Of Introduction of Fpe in the ten Sampled Institutions24.
4. 2 Reasons for the Decline Of ECD Enrolment as a Result Of Introduction Of FPE26 4. 3 Impact of FPE on ECD Enrolment per Economic Class27 CHAPTER FIVE28 Conclusions28 5. 1 The Relationship between the Introduction of FPE and Enrolment in ECDS Attached to Public Primary schools28 5. 2 The Effects of Introduction of FPE on Enrolment in ECDS in Private Primary Schools28 5. 3 Causes for the Low Enrolment of Pupils in Public Primary School ECDS as A Result of Introduction Of FPE. 28 5. 4 Effects of Introduction of FPES on ECD per Economic Class29 APPENDIX A30 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR ECD TEACHERS30.
APPENDIX B35 BIBLIOGRAPHY35 APPENDIX C36 Work Schedule36 APPENDIX D37 Budget37 APPENDIX D38 Introduction letter38 Abbreviations and Acronyms ECD = Early Childhood Development ECDE = Early Childhood Development and Education. MDG = Millennium Development Goals. UN = United Nations FPE = Free Primary Education. GER=Gross Enrolment Rate is calculated by dividing the number of children of whatever age enrolled in preschool by the estimated number of 3-5 year olds. UNESCO= United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural organization. OECD=Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
MOEST=Ministry of Education, Science and Technology CHAPTER ONE Introduction This chapter introduces the research topic. It begins with an introduction followed by a statement of the problem and finally the purpose of the study. 1. 1Background of the Problem As part of his campaign manifesto, President Kibaki introduced the Free Primary Education program in Primary schools. The program was meant to lead to high enrollment of pupils in both primary school and ECD centers in Kenya. The natural corollary was that the ECD enrollment would rise as a result of the introduction of FPE. However, statistics show the contrary.
The rate of enrolment in ECD centers has reduced following the introduction of FPE. This shows a negative correlation between enrolment and FPE. This project sought to establish the fact that indeed enrollment in FPE has declined since the introduction of FPE in schools. Paper also sought to give reasons why the rate of enrolment in ECD bears a negative correlation with the FPE funding. This has been a surprise finding given that the aim of the government is to develop education in Kenya holistically. The project also assessed the likely statistical relationship between enrolment in primary and ECD It showed that .
the higher the enrolment rate in primary school the lower the enrolment in ECD. This project sought to give reasons for that relationship and provide for suggestions on how the problem can be solved. 1. 2 Statement of the Problem The problem was to study the effects that FPE has had on enrollment in ECDCs. The project also studied the causes of the negative relationship between FPE funding and low enrollment in ECDCs. The problem is that due to the introduction of FPE, pupils have been joining class one without going through the ECD classes.
This is a worrying trend as it suggests a low level of preparedness of the pupils in lower primary school. It also points to the need to consider ECD in public funding 1. 3Objectives of the Study The project studied the following objectives: [a] To establish the effect of the introduction of FPE on enrolment in ECDS attached to public primary schools. [b]To establish the effects of the introduction of FPE on enrolment of pupils in ECDS attached to private primary schools. [c] To determine the extent to which enrollment in ECDCs have declined in Mogogosiek zone as a result of the introduction of FPE.
[d] To determine the effects of introduction of FPEs on enrolment in ECDS per economic class. 1. 4 Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of the introduction of Free Primary Education on enrolment in ECDs in primary schools in Kenya. 1. 5 Justification of the Project This project is justified on the following grounds. First, little attempt has been made to determine the relationship between the introduction of FPE nationally and enrollment of pupils in ECDs locally. There is also need to determine the causes of the decline in enrolment in ECDs as a result of introduction of FPE.
The decline has mostly affected the poor who consist of the most vulnerable group. That the introduction of FPE has negatively affected the poor in terms of taking their children to the ECD has great implications to fighting poverty in the country. It shows that the children of the poor have poor foundation and will most likely perform poorly later in life thereby widening the poverty gap wider still 1. 6 Significance of the Study This study is important because of a number of reasons. First, the government must know the impacts of its funding primary schools or other institutions.
The FPE is an integrated development program and it should lead to a holistic development of the education sector in general and not a lopsided development of the country. Secondly, the government will get information on the level of foundational education in rural areas and design effective policies that will aid the state in ensuring high standards of education in ECD and ensure effective transition from ECD to primary school. Thirdly, there is an ongoing pressure on the government to fund the ECD sector in Kenya. This paper is meant to ensure that this goal is attained.
Lastly, educational practitioners particularly ECD teachers and administrators will be reminded of the need to ensure a high level of enrolment in ECDs and effective transition to primary schools 1. 7 Limitations During the study, the researchers were limited by the following factors. First and foremost, rural ECD managers were not willing to talk about the low enrolment in ECD centers. They feared that releasing the information would lead to negative publicity. Secondly, most residents were not very open to give information on where their children were learning to outsiders. Thirdly, the county is very large and expansive.
It was not very easy for the researchers to travel from one location to another due to poor and rugged terrain. Fourth, most residents have just recovered from the post electoral violence that affected most of the Republic. They are very suspicious of new comers and more so even residents asking questions. They easily take such gestures as police investigations. Fifth, though not least, the researcher was affected by lack of enough funds to carry out an in depth analysis covering the entire zone. Even if funds were availed, there was still the need for more time to carry out the work.
The researchers were affected by lack of sufficient time since they are full time teachers who need time to run their institutions apart from conducting research work. The project was also be affected by low literacy rate since most parents are not literate enough to interpret and respond to questionnaires. 1. 8 Delimitations The delimiting factor is that the researchers come from the study location and are highly familiar with the area. Secondly, the researchers being ECD and Primary teachers, have long and extensive experience and contact with ECD and primary school children.
They are also conversant the running of ECD centers in the country. Thirdly, the researchers used written questionnaires distributed to schools. This minimized the time needed to move from one institution to another and effectively reduce the time needed to talk with an interviewee. CHAPTER TWO Literature Review 2. 1 The effects of the introduction of FPE on enrollment Many studies have been conducted to ascertain the actual effect of FPE on ECD enrolment. Most of the studies have been conducted by International development Agencies such as USAID and DANIDA.
The most comprehensive overview, however, are the studies conducted by UNESCO and approved by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. A UNESCO Policy Review Report, UNESCO/OECD Early Childhood Policy Review Project, 2005, hereafter to be referred simply to as the UNESCO report 2005, reports that, ‘A 1969 survey counted about 200,000 children enrolled in 4800 ECD centers with about 5,000 teachers. The number of ECD Centers and teachers have been growing steadily and, after a stalled increase of only 15% between 1993 and 2000, the enrolment ratio leaped by 50% over the next three years.
The current (2001/02) GER in preschool is officially 35%, although the Government’s own statistics appear to show a GER of 48% in 1998, falling to 41% in 2002. ” Such a report shows a decline in GER in ECD. The year in which the FPE was introduced is 2002. Therefore, changes occurring between 2001 and 2002 truly indicate effects of FPE on enrolment. A UNESCO Policy brief on Early Childhood entitled the Impacts of Free Primary Education on Early Childhood Development in Kenya, Jan. to Feb. 2006, by Yoshie Kaga, claims that the overall effect of FPE has been the reduction of enrollment in ECD.
Here is an excerpt from the report, “Studies have been conducted to assess the effects of FPE on ECD centers. Some report on negative effects, while others note no major draw backs. While the overall impact of the policy is yet to be determined, the UNESCO/OECD Early Childhood Policy Review Mission, which took place in September 2004, observed that the policy did have a negative impact of FPE on ECD in Kenya and outline two major options that may mitigate possible negative impact. ” EFA Global Monitoring report, 2005, UNESCO Publishing reports that the gross enrollment rate for the age group 3 to 5 was 44.
4% in 2001. However, the theory that enrollment rates declined as a result of the introduction of FPEs is not automatically to be accepted. Some reports indicate that the GER increased as a result of the introduction of FPE. The UNESCO/OECD Report, 2005, reports in item number 3. 4. 1, “The Background Report of Kenya shows that, while enrollment increased substantially from 1,076,606 to 1,281,846 between 1998 and 2002. A closer look at the figures, however, suggests two rather disturbing trends.
First, GER’s in preschool have clearly declined since 1998 from 48% to 41%, and the major overall decline took place between 1998 and 1999 before the FPE option arose. In fact, a small increase occurred from 2002 to 2003, after FPE was introduced in January 2003. Second, while he 1998 GER was about the same for boys and girls, a gap of about 4% in favor of boys opened up in 2001 and grew to 6% in 2002. “ The figures in the above report are not the same as other documents. According to the Quantitative Study of the Early Childhood Development Project : Final report to MOEST statistics, the 2002 figure is 1,416,048 and not 1,281,846.
These dissenting views and conflicting figures show that the inverse relationship between FPE and ECD needs to be verified by qualified actuarial review. The extent of the relationship may need other factors to explain other than the factors stated above. 2. 2 Factors that have led to low enrolment as a result of introduction of FPE in Kenya Many workers have tried to give reasons for the decline in ECD enrolment as a result of the introduction of FPE. However, these are not in the form of complex scientific theories. The UNESCO Policy Brief on Early Childhood is one such document.
It explains the phenomenon in the following terms, “The main reason for this phenomenon is that since the implementation of FPE, poor parents are choosing to withdraw their children from ECD centers and/or keep them at home until they reach the age of primary school entry. They refuse to pay the fees for ECD on the grounds that ECD, lie primary education, should be free. ” However, this assertion needs to be corroborated by more extensive scientific studies on the causes of the inverse relationship. Economic theories may help to describe the situation better.
According to Ricardian analysis, low cost items such as table salt are already sold cheaply and are therefore associated with poor sections of the population. If the price of salt, for example is reduced further, it becomes too cheap and the buyers may shift for more costly brand of salt. This theory seems to hold true for the ECDs in rural areas of Kenya. They are considered very cheap. Due to government subsidy, the parents may actually feel that the quality of primary education in public primary schools will decline. They see children who have been idle at home, such as street children being brought to school.
This makes them to hate public school education and instead opt for the costly private schools. As a basic strategy, they decide to enrol their children in private ECDs with the reasoning that by the time the child enters primary school, he or she will have laid a strong foundation in ECDE. The UNESCO/OECD Report in section 3. 3. 5. Reports that, “Meanwhile, an assessment study of FPE on ECD carried out jointly by the MOEST and UNESCO in February 2004 found that ECD programmes had almost collapsed because children’s enrolment had decreased after the introduction of FPE.
The study found that parents opted to send their children straight to standard one, which became free, without having them go through ECD, which was still fees paying. Moreover, Standard one teacher reported that children who skipped ECD had difficulty coping with lessons in primary school and poorly performed. ” Section 3. 3. 4 reports that, “The Review Team found widespread anecdotal evidence of drops in enrolment at ECD centres, especially in poor provinces such as North Eastern…… many parents have by passed ECD altogether ; many others send their children only to pre-unit class of ECD to prepare them for primary school.
In some areas, parents are keeping their children at home until they reach the age of 6 entitling them to free education. ” Yet other factors have been suggested by the UNESCO Policy Briefs on ECD. Calling it the unintended consequence on ECD, the report went on to report that, “ECD classrooms set up on the premises of public primary schools have been shut down in order to accommodate the surge of enrolment in primary schools sparked by FPE. In some cases, ECD children and teachers must put up with reduced space; in others, they have been moved to the worst classrooms in the premises.
At the district level, inspection and supervision of ECD centres some of which is carried out by the district based Zonal Inspector of schools, have reportedly become less frequent. ” The UNESCO/OECD report presents a critique of the situation thus: ‘Despite these observations, the impact of FPE on ECD is still subject to dispute. For example, it is unclear whether FPE has been the main cause of falling ECD enrolments, given the evidence that the decline may well have begun well before the introduction of the policy.
Also, it is yet to be determined how many of the unprepared pupils newly flowing into standard one would have gone to ECD centres if FPE had not been in place. The influx could simply be explained by a rising enrolment of at risk children who would not have been able to afford primary education when it was fee paying, let alone ECD centres. 2. 3 Impact of FPE on enrolment in ECDs There is an indication that poverty may be a great factor determining patterns of enrolment in ECDs. The UNESCO/OECD Report 2005, reports in section 3. 3. 8. Suggest that there is no direct relationship between FPE and ECD.
Otherwise, such relationship could exist between FPE and other factors that mitigate leading to low enrolment. The paper points at poverty as one of the factors that lead to low enrolment as a result of the introduction of FPE. Section 3. 4. 3 on inequalities in the same report shows that, “There are obvious geographical inequalities. In Nairobi, for instance, far more children are likely to be enrolled in ECD than in other provinces with similar poverty levels. Meanwhile, North Eastern Province has the highest poverty level and the lowest enrolment rates. There are also gender disparities.
In Nairobi, girls are more likely to be enrolled whereas in North Eastern province, the reverse is observed. ‘The report claims that the poor are generally not able to access ECD services. “Even within Nairobi, middle and upper class children benefit most from preschool experiences. Overall, those lacking access to preschool services tend to be children from disadvantages communities such as semi arid and arid areas and urban slums. This observation is reinforced by the findings of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. (UNICEF/Government Survey, 2000) showing that 29.
5% of children whose mothers had secondary education were enrolled in some form of ECD compared to 10. 7% of those whose mothers had only completed primary school and 12. 4% of 2002 of those whose mothers had no schooling. There is also a clear association between GERs in 1998 and 2002 and the absolute poverty index (1997) at the district level, with eight of the ten correlations being negative and statistically significant though not very large. ’ The table below was meant to encapsulate the correlation between poverty index and Ger at district level.
If these reports are anything to go by, the researcher expects to find the decline in ECD enrolment to affect mainly the public ECD centres as opposed to the private ECD units. | 1998| 1999| 2000| 2001| 2002| Boys| -0. 355| -0. 252| +0. 145| -0. 096| -0. 271| Girls| +0. 007| -0. 287| -0. 272| -0. 048| -0. 290| Correlations between poverty index (1997) and GERs at District Level Ref: Kenya Human development report (2001). UNDP/Background Report of Kenya for the UNESCO/OECD Early Childhood Policy Review Project (2005). MOEST , Govt of Kenya.
Statistically significant p is less than 0. 05. The researcher will therefore study the impacts of socio economic status on enrolment in ECD centres. CHAPTER THREE Methodology 3. 1 Research Design The researcher adopted the diagnostic research design. According to Kothari, diagnostic research studies are necessary to establish causality and causal nexus of two or three phenomena. The diagnostic research design was be inevitable as the researcher was needed to establish causality among variables: school enrolment and enrolment. 3. 2 Location of the Study.
The study was carried out in Konoin District, Mogogosiek Zone. It targeted three schoo 3. 3 Target Population The study targeted ECD children, ECD teachers and primary school Head Teachers in Early Childhood Development centres. 3. 4 Sample Population The study sampled ten schools from a total of twenty two in Mogogosiek Zone, Konoin District, Bomet County. 3. 5 Sampling Method The researcher used simple stratified sampling. The listed schools were classified as boarding and day schools. Two schools were picked from private and three schools will be picked from day public schools category.
The proportion was used since there are only 1 out of 5 boarding schools in the zone 3. 6 Research Instruments The researcher used questionnaires and study schedules as the basic research instruments. The questionnaires will be designed and tested on a school that is not part of the samples. The test will enable the researchers to determine the efficacy of the questionnaire. The researcher then wrote to the heads of the sampled schools seeking permission to conduct research in their institutions. The researcher sampled three schools representing all types of primary schools in the study locale.
CHAPTER FOUR Data Representation 4. 1 The Extent to Which ECD Enrolment Declined as a Result Of Introduction of Fpe in the ten Sampled Institutions The researcher studied the data from ten schools relating to the rate of enrolment just before and after the introduction of FPE. The results were as under: SCHOOL| ECD ENROLMENT IN 2000| ECD ENRLMENT IN 2001| ECD ENROLMENT IN 2002| ECD ENROLMENT IN 2003| 1| 51| 50| 53| 43| 2| 48| 47| 53| 44| 3| 67| 69| 71| 58| A| 41| 43| 44| 61| B| 47| 52| 51| 58| The graph below depicts these data.
The results show that there was a general trend for the enrolment in ECD in public primary schools to decline in the year following the introduction of FPE in 2002. There was increase of the number of pupils enrolling in ECDs manned by private schools following the introduction of FPE. 4. 2 Reasons for the Decline Of ECD Enrolment as a Result Of Introduction Of FPE The researcher sought to establish the causes of declined enrolment in public ECDs following the introduction of FPE in 2002. The following responses were established. REASON GIVEN| % OF RESPONDENTS| |
Fear of low quality due to high enrolment in class| 44%| | Fear of poor foundation in public ECDs| 23%| | Need to give children good ECD foundation before joining private ECDs| 76%| | Decline in the status of public ECDs| 39%| | Demand for free education in class one | 17%| | These data show that most parents preferred private school ECDs to public school ECDs due to the reasons above: fear that the free primary education would lead to high enrolment hence low quality of education; the fear that the public school ECDs were not preparing pupils adequately for primary school education; need to children good ECD foundation and the decline of the status of public school ECD.
This was aggravated by the introduction of street boys enrolling in public primary schools. 17% wished to get free education in class one hence skips the ECD class in order to achieve this. 4. 3 Impact of FPE on ECD Enrolment per Economic Class The researcher sought to establish the effects that the introduction of FPE has led to decreased enrolment in ECD by economic class. She studied the composition of ten pupils in each sampled school to determine their economic class.
It is found that most of the high class parents of course send their children to schools A to D. However, the following statistics relate to the composition of the pupils in the ECDs attached to public primary schools. The parents were classified as either poor [earning less than 3000 per month] or average [earning between 3001 and 6000] per month. The statistics below show the effect that the introduction of FPE affected the composition of pupils enrolling in public school ECDs. SCHOOL| POOR| AVERAGE| LOWER MIDDLE| 1| 88%| 8%| 4%| 2| 78%| 9%| 13%| 3| 91%| 5%| 4%| CHAPTER FIVE.
Conclusions 5. 1 The Relationship between the Introduction of FPE and Enrolment in ECDS Attached to Public Primary schools The study established that there is a negative relationship between the introduction of FPE and the enrolment in ECD centres in ECDs attached to public primary schools. The introduction of FPE led to reduced enrolment in primary schools in these schools. 5. 2 The Effects of Introduction of FPE on Enrolment in ECDS in Private Primary Schools The study established that the introduction of FPE in 2002 led to increased enrolment in ECDS in private primary school 5.
3 Causes for the Low Enrolment of Pupils in Public Primary School ECDS as A Result of Introduction Of FPE. The study established that the introduction of FPEs led to low enrolment in ECDS in public primary schools due to the following reasons: First, most parents feared that the admission of many pupils in primary schools will lead to low quality of education. They therefore sought to enrol their children in private institutions to escape from the low quality education to be experienced in public primary schools.
Secondly, the parents associated the introduction of FPE in public primary schools to low prestige. The poor class could now take their children to school. This was not possible before. Those in the average class sought to take their children to better schools in order to maintain their status ahead of the poor class. Thirdly, the introduction of free education in primary school led to the poor class parents taking their children direct to class one in order to escape the fees paid in ECD and directly benefit from the FPE program 5. 4 Effects of Introduction of FPES on ECD per Economic Class.
The introduction of FPE led to decline in the number of the children of the economically poor members of the community as compared to the middle class and the rich who continued to take their children to private school ECDs. APPENDIX A Questionnaire for ECD Teachers This questionnaire is part of a research project carried out by the researcher in partial fulfilment for award of the Diploma in ECD. The information obtained will be used for academic purposes only and will not be divulged to third parties. PART ONE General Information 1. Number of Years You have worked in the station:____________________ Current position held:_______________
2. Kindly give the pupils enrolment in your class by filling the form below: YEAR| BOYS| GIRLS| TOTAL| STREAMS| 2002| | | | | 2003| | | | | 2004| | | | | 2005| | | | | 2006| | | | | 2007| | | | | 2008| | | | | 2009| | | | | 2010| | | | | 2011| | | | | 3. Who pays for your wages? Parents NGO County Council 4. Who collects the fees? Heat Teacher Pre-School Teacher 5. How is the fee collected if parents fail to pay? Sending pupils Teachers visiting parents 6. How are you paid your wages? Monthly Quarterly 7. Are parents willing to pay school fees? Yes No 8. Is the fees paid enough for your wages?
Yes No 9. Are defaulters of fees common? Yes No 10. If yes, what reason do they give for defaulting? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 11. Are head teachers supportive in dealing with defaulters? Yes No 12. ————————————————- What is your suggestion to the government in relation to free primary education and the way it affects preschool parents?
————————————————- ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 13. Briefly give the age range of the pupils in your current class. SEX| 3| 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9| BOYS| | | | | | | | GIRLS| | | | | | | | TOTAL| | | | | | | | 14. Briefly give the range of pupils in 2003 class. SEX| 3| 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9| BOYS| | | | | | | | GIRLS| | | | | | | | TOTAL| | | | | | | | 15. In your opinion, has the entry age changed since introduction of FPE?
Yes No 16. Do your pre school classes have a committee? Yes No 17. How often are parents meetings held? Once a term. Once a year. 18. Do you keep financial records of fees collected? Yes No 19. If yes, how many pupils failed to complete fees in the previous year ? _____________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Thank you very much for responding to questionnaire truthfully and for being mindful of our research. God bless you. APPENDIX B.
Bibliography 1. Economics Simplified, 2009, Saleemi Publications, Kenya. 2. EFA Global Monitoring Report(2004). New York: UNDP. S 3. MOEST, Government of Kenya,2005, Background report of Kenya for the UNESCO/OECD Early Chidhood Policy Review Project, Government of Kenya. 4. Ngwere M. W. et al (2004). Quantitative Study of the Kenya Early Childhood Development Project, final report to the MOEST, June 2004. Nakuru: Sermon educational Consultants. 5. UNESCO/OECD Early Childhood Policy Review Project, Policy Review Report: Early Childhood Care and Education in Kenya, by UNESCO, Paris, February, 2005.
6. Yoshie Kaga, 2006,UNESCO Policy Brief on Early Childhood, Impacts of Free Primary Education o Early Childhood development in Kenya, Paris. APPENDIX C Work Schedule MONTH | YEAR| ACTIVITY TO BE DONE| December | 2010| Preparation for the research proposal and budgeting| January-March| 2011| Writing of the proposal| April| 2011| Approval for the proposal| May| 2011| Compiling and revising of the research proposal| June-July| 2011| Collection of the data| August| 2011| Analyzing of the data| September-December| 2011| Compiling and presenting the final project. | APPENDIX D Budget.
ACTIVITY| PLACE/ITEM/USE| AMOUNT KSH| Travelling | For Literature review during data collection while typing and compiling the project. | 5001,5002,000| Stationery| Papers, pens, ruler, books, foolscaps, stapler, paper bunches | 2,000| Typing/photocopying | Research proposal and final project. | 3,500| Food| Lunch, tea break, snacks| 1,500| Miscellaneous Expenses| Emergencies| 2,500| TOTAL| | 13,500| APPENDIX D Introduction letter CHEBET JOYCE, KIRIMOSE PRIMARY SCHOOL, P. O BOX 174 , LITEIN. 25TH JUNE 2011. TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN Dear Sir/Madam, REF: PERMISSION TO CONDUCT RESEARCH IN MOGOGOSIEK ZONE.
I wish to seek for permission to conduct a research in your pre-school centre on THE EFFECTS OF INTRODUCTION OF FREE PRIMARY EDUCATION PROGRAM ON ENROLMENT IN ECD CENTERS in MOGOGOSIEK zone. I am a Diploma Student at Valley Teachers Training College The Kenya National Examination Council is requiring a research as part of examination from me. I am therefore required to collect data from your E. C. D. E teachers, parents, and head teachers of the selected school. I look forward for your positive respond. Thanks in advance Yours Faithfully Chebet Joyce.
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 15 October 2016
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