Four Learning Styles
Four Learning Styles
1.Sensing-Thinking or Mastery Learners
What Motivates Mastery Learners?
Master learners rely on sensing as a mode of perception and thinking as a means of judgment or decision making. They prefer well-organized, highly-reutilized classrooms where expectations are clearly described and strongly related to practical outcomes such as good grades, things they can make or do, and practical connections to jobs and careers. More than anything else Mastery learners want to appear competent, able to complete the work assigned as well or better than other students in their classrooms or grade levels.
How Mastery Students Learn Most Easily
The combination of sensing with thinking creates students with a strong need for purposeful action. They are frequently uncomfortable with both reading and lecture and prefer to learn from brief demonstrations followed by immediate opportunities to practice what they have seen or heard. They learn most easily in skill-based content areas where each step is modeled in a step-by-step manner, and where practice is followed by immediate feedback on how well they have done. They also look for clear instructions on how they can improve their performance. They prefer work that calls for short, right or wrong answers, and they learn most easily where there is a physical object they can manipulate or a visual diagram they can follow.
2.Intuitive-Thinking or Understanding Learners
What Motivates Understanding Learners?
Understanding learners rely on intuition as a mode of perception and thinking as a means of judgment or decision making. Intuition focuses the learners’ attention on ideas rather than details, abstractions rather than facts, patterns rather than components, forests rather than trees. The thinking function creates a strong need for logical consistency, a commitment to thinking things through, a preference for reason and discovery over demonstration and modeling. Though some Understanding learners share with Mastery students a desire for efficiency, they are motivated largely by a need to understand and question what they learn rather than simply accept and record what the textbook or the teacher claims. How Understanding
Students Learn Most Easily
The Understanding learner thrives in an intellectual atmosphere and has a strong drive for perfection. Rigorous texts, demanding and complex ideas, well-organized but provocative lectures stimulate Understanding learners’ brains to action. But this intellectual atmosphere needs to be balanced effectively with opportunities for them to develop their own ideas and to question, revise, and criticize the ideas of others. They may grasp a new concept with frightening speed and lucidity but may require more time to think things through and put the new learning into action. The demand for logical consistency means they have a strong need to question and test ideas. Finally, their concern with intellectual content and reasoning sometimes causes them to undervalue the need for routine work and practice resulting in boredom when teachers insist on drill and practice.
3.Intuitive-Feeling or Self-Expressive Learners
What Motivates Self-Expressive Learners?
Self-Expressive learners rely on intuition as a mode of perception and feeling as a means of judgment or decision making. The intuition of Self-Expressive learners uses hunch, guessing, and insight to organize the world into shifting patterns of possibility. Meanwhile, their feeling function applies association, memory, and emotion to the task of turning these patterns into concrete images they can use to understand what they are learning, and to create meaningful products. It is through these processes of imagination, creativity, personal expression, and communication that Self-Expressive learners become excited and motivated in the classroom.
How Self-Expressive Students Learn Most Easily
Self-Expressive learners need stimulation and surprise to engage and focus their attention. They thrive on imaginative literature and provocative prose in science and social studies. They master content when they can add a personal, creative hook to lessons or create a project to stimulate their imaginations: in social studies, they might look to bring in dusty diaries of ancestors or to write a history of the America Revolution through the eyes of a slave or Native American; in science class they might push for a trip to the local pond that’s been carved in the woods by a glacier; they might use their knowledge of statistics and percentages to create a business plan. They also need sustained, quieter times to work through and implement their ideas.
4.Sensing-Feeling or Interpersonal Learners
What Motivates Interpersonal Learners?
Interpersonal learners rely on sensing (focus on the physical nature of the world) as a mode of perception and feeling as a means of judgment or decision making. But, unlike Mastery learners who transform the data into separate details, Interpersonal learners look to extend these physical sensations into images and emotions and strive to connect this new information to their own body of personal experience. What Interpersonal students seek that Mastery students don’t is a sense of belonging and a reason to believe they are part of a team or cooperative group. Interpersonal students are strongly motivated by the quality of their relationships to the teacher, to the other students, and to their parents and friends.
How Interpersonal Students Learn Most Easily
The combination of sensing and feeling provokes in the Interpersonal student a strong need for conversation. The Interpersonal student best confirms and reinforces new learning through conversation, personal connections, and shared projects. When it comes to skills, both Mastery and Interpersonal learners need modeling and demonstration, but Interpersonal learners prefer a more personal approach where feedback and correction are carried by the human voice of the teacher or another student.
Though they show some preference for short answer work, they are quite comfortable with work that asks for their thoughts, feelings, and personal opinions .Physical objects and visual diagrams can aid in their learning, but it is the quality of the social content, learning partner, cooperative group, or relationship with the teacher that drives them to do their best work.