Foundations of teaching and learning
Foundations of teaching and learning
I am going to deliver a lesson to my students, which will include the three main schools of learning, Behaviourism, Cognitivism and Humanism. I will incorporate these ways of learning into my lesson plans to ensure my students are offered a range of learning strategies. “The behaviourist learning theory suggests that we learn by receiving a stimulus that provokes a response. So long as the response is reinforced in some way that response will be repeated. ” (Reece and Walker 2007)
I think behaviourism is important within the classroom as it is controlled Education, where the teacher takes control of the class and the environment that the students are in. Behaviourism is the educational theory that is based on the underlying ideology that the environment has direct influence on behaviour. Aims and objectives must be shown at the beginning of the class, to ensure the students are aware of what is expected of them. Reinforcement should be used to strengthen behaviour that you want to encourage. Students should be rewarded immediately so it gives the student motivation and confidence to move on to the next stage.
Rewards can be offered in a variety of ways e. g. praise, letting them take part in something they enjoy doing, and should be used often when starting a new subject. To ensure students are kept motivated. Behaviourists look for rewards from others such as teachers, family and peers etc. … Some behaviour is inappropriate so a punishment is given to stop that particular behaviour occurring again. People learn by copying from others, for example, performing a demonstration (you are the model) students will learn behaviours from the model.
Within my lesson plan I have covered behaviourism with discussing previous background knowledge of subject matter so I am able to gain the required information to move on to the next stage and by applying praise to give them confidence to be able to move on to the next stage. I will take control of the class; the environment within the class will be relaxed and non-threatening. I will offer encouragement and appraisal throughout my lesson, before the end of the lesson I have arranged practical session as a reward.
The Cognitivist school believes that learning by doing, and asking students challenging questions, will help students make their own sense of what they era studying, and enable them to make use of their learning in real life” (Geoff Petty2009) The Cognitivist approach to learning focuses on students and how they gain and store knowledge. It looks into how students interpret information given to them and what technique is best for them to use to understand it. The information that is given to the students must be understood to ensure leaning is taking place.
It should be presented in a step by step fashion and goals should be in place for each stage, Feedback is essential and should be given out promptly to ensure learning has taken place before moving on to the next stage. There are three modes of learning • The Enactive mode – learning by doing • The Iconic mode – imagery- depends on visual senses • The symbolic mode – using codes to learn This approach should be used in an attempt to promote learning using the cognitive structure. Students learn more when they have a greater understanding of the knowledge within the subject matter.
This information is taken and added onto existing information, which is known as deep learning. Deep learning is where new learning makes a connection to old learning so you are able to build on knowledge, Deep learning is good learning; students should be taught a way that encourage them to adopt a way of learning, so they have a deeper understanding. There is also surface learning where there is no connection at all from old learning to new. There is only a small amount of cognitive skills used, and the new subject material has no relevance to previous learning. Studies more recently have shown deeper approaches to learning are related to higher quality learning outcomes” (Ramsden 1992; Prosser and Miller 1989; Trigwell and Prosser, 1991).
Learning takes place through individuals changing and processing information from their social and physical surroundings. The teaching strategies for this theory should include things such has class presentations, debates and lectures, videos, readings and case studies. Work material should always be clear to understand, and produced in an organised manner, precise objective feedback should be given to facilitate learning.
The amount of knowledge and understanding already attained will influence the speed and capability to add subsequent learning. I have used the cognitivism school of learning within my lesson plan by using deep surface learning, I am going to be building students’ knowledge through learning new subject matter to add on to old. I will take into account the structure of the subject matter delivering it in a step by step manner that is meaningful and understandable to them so they can relate new information to what they already know. My teaching methods will emphasis common principles and transferable skills.
I have set tasks so they will have to think for themselves and discover new ways of finding out things about themselves and finding answers within the tasks. There will also be class discussions throughout the lesson, so students have the opportunitiy to express themselves, the classroom environment will be pleasant and relaxed so the students do not feel afraid to speak out. I will be performing a demonstration for students so they will be able to understand exactly what I want them to learn” by doing “. “The only way to learn how to do something is by doing it! ” (Paul Ginnis 2002)
Humanism is about the learner feeling good about him or herself and being able to determine their strengths and weaknesses. The learner should believe that able to have the ability to improve. It is important that students feel good about themselves so they are able to set goals that are achievable; this should be encouraged by the teacher to help develop student’s self-esteem. ] All topics should be relevant to the student so it keeps them interested and motivated. Students should not feel that they have done wrong, but use mistakes as an opportunity to learn. Hierarchy of Basic Human Needs [pic] Abraham Maslow 1962)
It is essential that the lower needs are met before moving up to the next level in a step by step way. In a classroom setting, these needs must be fulfilled to ensure effective learning can take place. Starting with physical needs working up to self- actualisation. The teacher should make the classroom environment feel warm and friendly with a positive atmosphere, and give students the choice to work at their own pace and let them take responsibility to learn for themselves, so that they become highly motivated by working in an area of their own interests and curiosity.
Humanistic teaching enables students to figure things out for themselves because over helping from the teacher will discourage and de motivate the student. Students are encouraged more by active learning than passive learning. It gives the student great motivation when they are able to solve their own problems. The prize for the humanistic theorist is through self-evaluation and self-direction humanists like to reward themselves. Self-assessment is a crucial skill it helps students to be responsible for their own improvements where tests set by teachers are thought of as discouraging – and lowering student’s self-esteem.
I have incorporated humanistic teaching within my lesson plan through classroom environment; the layout of my class room is designed to suit the student’s needs. There will be adequate breaks, I will ensure comfortable surroundings, all students will be treated fairly and with dignity and confidentiality will be maintained at all times. I intend to promote interaction between students and show that I care. I will encourage independence and welcome ideas and offer prizes when appropriate, promote optimism and be enthusiastic and supportive and be positive about their future plans.
So with this support I have applied basic needs within the classroom so my students will reach self-actualization I have set tasks where students will have to think for themselves and come up with their own conclusions. I have also included a practical activity where students will work in pairs and have to think between them to evaluate the outcome. We will be in an environment where the students are comfortable and the learning subject matter is relevant to the learner’s objectives.
I think that the three main schools of learning should be incorporated within a lesson because I strongly agree with Maslow’s hierarchy of basic needs. You need to meet physical needs to be able to move up the ladder without these needs you are unable to achieve or reach self – actualisation. I believe that the humanistic approach to teaching and learning is used through all ages of teaching but is more influenced with adult education. Whereas behaviorism I believe is for the younger generation. Behaviorism teaching starts from an infant they are influenced by reinforcements and that is how good behavior is determined from bad.
I think this is more effective with school age children. It helps to promote learning when a child is praised. The cognitivist theory plays a big part in learning, learning should be a part of life humans have a natural urge to learn, discover and develop new skills. I agree that it is important that the learning that is taking place and the information is recognized. Marking and feedback is essential and plays a big part in student achievement, so you can evaluate where the students understood.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 30 December 2016
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