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The amount of extra oxygen required by muscle tissue during recovery from vigorous exercise. The extra oxygen gets rid of the lactic acid in your muscles after exercise. Difference between Aerobic and Anaerobic Training The main difference between aerobic and anaerobic training is that one uses oxygen whilst the other uses lactic acid. Aerobic training uses the oxygen in your muscles to produce the energy. To improve the amount of time which you are able to train at aerobic level you can do aerobic exercises, these are normally done at a moderate pace which your body can cope with.
On the other hand anaerobic training is when the oxygen in your muscles run out so you rely on lactic acid to give you energy. The energy released does not last for long however is very powerful. The lactic acid causes your muscles to start aching though and can result in vomiting. Anaerobic respiration occurs when you work your body flat out and use all the energy available. Effect of Lactic Acid on the muscles Lactic acid is a waste product that is produced by your muscles when exercising. When the body has no oxygen left in the muscles it has to revert to anaerobic respiration which uses lactic acid to form energy.
The lactic acid though makes your muscles ache and tire so is not very efficient. Difference in composition between inhaled and exhaled air The air that we breathe in and the air which we breathe out, have different compositions. The main difference is that in exhaled air there is more carbon dioxide compared with inhaled air where there is more oxygen. However in both types nitrogen is the highest percentage. Here are the components of inhaled air, 79% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, a little water vapour,0. 04% carbon dioxide whereas exhaled air contains79% nitrogen17% oxygen3% carbon dioxide, a little water vapour.
As you can see from the two lists they are basically the same however there is more carbon dioxide and less oxygen in exhaled air. Effects of exercise on breathing and heart rate A lot of exercise can also affect your respiratory and circulatory system, because your heart gets bigger due to aerobic training, it is now a better pump so more blood can be circulated around your body per beat than before. This also means that your resting heart rate decreases. A sign of good health is whether you have a low heart rate.
The average is 70BPM (beats per minute), if you are unhealthy then your heart will have to work harder to pump blood all around your body which makes heart attacks more likely. Effects of Training In this section I will explain the effects on the body that I will expect to see when my Personal Exercise Plan has been completed over the 6 weeks. After completing my PEP my muscles should change in size and strength due to the exercises I have chosen. The muscles should grow larger with the exercise because the muscle fibres in the muscle will get fatter. Muscles are built from fibres which are either fast twitch or slow twitch.
The strength of the muscle should also improve with exercise, by doing exercises with heavy weights and few reps the muscle strength will be increased. If I changed the exercise to many reps with a light weight then my muscles will gain more endurance. But as I am a goalkeeper then I will not concentrate as much on the endurance training. Changes to Vital Capacity and Tidal Volume in the lungs From completing my 6 week training routine I should be able to see changes in my Vital Capacity and Tidal Volume. VC= Your Vital Capacity is the maximum amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled from your lungs.
TV= Your Tidal Volume is all the air inhaled and exhaled in a minute. With training the respiratory system I will expect to see an increase in both of these factors. These increases are down to the lungs as training on my respiratory system will make them bigger so I will be able to inhale and exhale more air per breath. SV = Stroke Volume is the volume of blood pumped out of the heart during one contraction. Due to exercise this should increase as your heart will be stronger, therefore it will be able to pump a larger volume of blood around the body.
CO = Cardiac Output is the amount of blood which is pumped from your heart each minute. This can be worked out by multiplying your stroke volume with your heart rate. This should also increase with exercise, by the same reasons as your stroke volume increases, as your heart is stronger. Recovery rate = Your recovery rate is the amount of time it takes you to fully recover after exercise. The fitter you are the shorter your recovery rate is. As I am a goalkeeper I will not be concentrating on this too much as it is not that important, although for an outfield player it is very important.
SPORT Principles of training The main principles of training are shown in the acronym SPORT, by using these in my PEP I should end up with a successful training programme. The different sections are: S= Specificity Specificity means that I will train specific muscles used in my sport. This could include exercises and drills that relate to moves and skills I need in football as a goalkeeper. I will specify flexibility and muscular strength as these are the two components most vital for my sport. P= Progression Progression is when you gradually increase the amount or intensity of your exercise.
This will improve your muscles as you are increasing the amount of work they do. An example of progression is starting week 1 with a 2 mile run once a week then progressing to a 3 mile run in week 2. O= Overload Fitness can only be improved by doing more than you usually do. This is called overloading. You must be careful though as if you do too much training you will end up injuring yourself. An example is doubling the distance of your runs or doubling the weight of your weights. R= Reversibility Reversibility occurs when you do not train . As your muscles are not being worked they will begin to weaken.
All the improvements you have made from training will be reversed. For example if a sportsman becomes injured and is unable to train they will lose their work. So that reversibility does not affect me I will have 3 training sessions per week. T= Tedium Tedium is when you become bored with your training, this is because your training plan does not have much variety and you end up doing the same exercises. To avoid tedium I will include a variety of exercises so my PEP is not boring. FITT Principles When using overload I can use the FITT principles of training which are: F= Frequency
Frequency is to do with how often I should train. I will include 3 training sessions a week in my personal exercise plan; this is a sufficient amount as I am not a professional sportsman who will probably train around 5 times a week. By doing 3 sessions a week I will also minimise the chance of reversibility as I will not have a large gap of time when I am not exercising. To make sure that my PEP is well set out I will not have to exercise in 2 consecutive days, for example I will train on Monday, Wednesday and Friday. I= Intensity Intensity is based on how hard you push yourself whilst doing your training.
It is measured by MHR (Maximum Heart Rate) for example a 3 mile run at 70% MHR. As I progress through the training programme the intensity of my exercises will increase. For the first week I may start working at 65% MHR which is not too hard however by the 6th week I will be working at 80% MHR which will be working my body very hard. T= Time Time is the length I will train for during each session of my PEP. It can vary from sprinting for 10 seconds to jogging for an hour. Time will be used in my exercise plan as I will increase the length of time spent on each exercise as I progress through the 6 weeks to show progression.
T= Type There are different types of training, continuous training, fartlek training, circuit training, aerobic training and interval training, I will mainly use circuit, interval and aerobic training as these will be of most help to me. Fartlek and continuous training both contain a lot of running, which will not be useful to me as I play in goal. However I will use aerobic training as it will help me with my flexibility and agility, whilst interval and circuit training can use many exercises which I can choose myself. This will also lessen the chance of tedium occurring.