Food safety and sanitation Essay
Food safety and sanitation
Purpose of this manual
This is an example of a Food Safety Manual that has been developed to assist your learning of HACCP-based food safety programs. The development of food safety programs based on the principles of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system is the most effective way of ensuring food safety. This manual is intended to be a very general guide for HACCP-based food safety programs and will show you how all the parts of the food safety program come together. This manual is an example of a HACCP-based food safety program for food service processes that include: cook serve
cook chill reheat serve (not extended shelf life cook chill). We have taken every effort to ensure that the sample guidelines in this manual meet the minimum standard for food safety for the processes described. However, when using these guidelines you need to undertake your own research to be assured that you have met current food safety standards and industry codes for the operations undertaken by the business for which you work.
Web sites that contain information on HACCP-based food safety programs include: Food Standards Australia New Zealand has information on the proposed food safety standard: http://www.foodstandards.gov.au Department of Health, Victoria, Australia has food safety programs: http://www.health.vic.gov.au/foodsafety/
The NSW Food Authority has some good information: http://www.foodauthority.nsw.gov.au/ Department of Health, Victoria, Australia, Foodsmart website http://www.foodsmart.vic.gov.au/FoodSmartWeb/ How to use this manual
This manual is divided into six sections:
Section 1: Manual Introduction
Section 2: Standard Operating Procedures
Section 3: Process Control Using HACCP
Section 4: Work Instructions
Section 5: Monitoring Forms for Supervisors
Section 6: Check Sheets for Staff
Each section of the manual starts with an explanation of the purpose of the guidelines or information found within that section.
At risk persons
A number of risk groups vulnerable to food-borne pathogens, have been identified. At risk persons include: the sick, and people with a weak immune system
infants and babies in hospital
If you are serving food to at risk persons then you will need to check your State or Territory food legislation. If the legislation includes a code of practice to address the issue of pathogenic contamination, then you need to develop strategies within your food safety program to include this code.
Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service.
An independent check of a food safety system to show that procedures are being followed and that the system achieves its aims. Calibrate
A check that measuring equipment is working, eg thermometers. Control measure
A measure taken to control a food safety hazard, eg time and temperature limits. Control Point (CP)
A point in the food production process at which control measures are advisable. However, loss of control may not lead to an unacceptable health risk. This process may be monitored. Core product temperature
The internal temperature of a product. It is taken at the thickest point. Corrective action
Corrective action is the set of procedures to be followed when a deviation occurs in the production process, for example when the internal temperature of cooked roast chicken has not reached 75ºC, the corrective action is to return it to the oven and bring up to temperature. Critical Control Point (CCP)
A point in the food production process at which loss of control may result in an unacceptable health risk. This process must be monitored. Critical limit
The minimum standard (of the control measure) that has to be met to control the hazard, eg cooking to 75C. Cross-contamination
The transferring of contaminants from one source to foods.
Egg based products
All foods consisting predominantly of, or thickened with, eggs. Food handling
Basic handling and inspection, preparation, cooking, cooling, processing, display, packaging, storage and transportation.
Food safety control method
Methods and procedures used in the workplace to control food safety hazards include both support programs and specific hazard control limits or requirements. Typical examples of support programs include product recall, cleaning schedules, pest control programs, personal hygiene practices, calibration procedures and related operating procedures.
Food Safety Manual
The key document for a food safety program. It demonstrates how processes are analysed to identify potential hazards and how each potential hazard may be controlled. It contains all the food safety instructions for staff, suppliers and contractors and details the responsibilities of all workers to ensure that food safety is maintained.
HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. HACCP is a system that identifies hazards, and then implements controls and management systems to ensure the food product is safe for consumers. HACCP can be applied to any food service operation. Hazard
A biological, chemical or physical risk that may cause a food to become unsafe. Impervious
Refers to a type of surface that does not allow fluid to pass into it. Non-hazardous foods
Foods that do not normally support the growth of food-poisoning bacteria, such as: fruit
unfilled cakes and pastries
dry stores, eg flour, sugar, rice etc.
Policy Amendment Register
A register where changes to the food safety program are recorded. Potentially hazardous foods
Foods that are capable of supporting the growth of food-poisoning bacteria:
eggs — out of their shell
soy bean products
Ready to cook hazardous foods
Foods that require cooking and are capable of supporting the growth of food-poisoning bacteria: meat
Ready to serve hazardous foods
Foods that do not require cooking and are capable of supporting the growth of food-poisoning bacteria: meat (for raw meat dishes)
fish (for raw fish dishes)
eggs — out of their shell
unpasteurised fruit juice
soy bean products
To eliminate or reduce micro-organisms to a safe level.
Sample policy amendment register
This register is used to note any amendments, updates or improvements made to the Food Safety Manual. The Manager has responsibility for maintaining this register and communicating these changes to staff. Amendments Register
Our commitment to food safety
Most Food Safety Manuals start with a statement of the organisational philosophy and responsibilities to food safety as well as identification of the members of the HACCP team. Consider this example: This business firmly believes in providing its customers and staff with a safe food product. This business wholly accepts its legal duty to comply with the National Food Safety Standards and all related legislation. We expect all suppliers to also have this philosophy.
Our staff members are expected to abide by the policy and all procedures and codes of practice set down by the management. It expects that they will make every effort to maintain all written procedures. It is the aim of our business to operate all food production and food service with due diligence which is regarded as a top priority.
Name of Business ____________________________________
Organisation responsibilities and duties
The owner will:
be responsible for implementation, control, monitoring and review of this policy ensure that all staff are trained in the food handling techniques and the requirements of food safety be qualified to implement and review the Food Safety Policy regulations and practices ensure that all records and systems in relation to food safety are maintained and filed.
The manager will:
be responsible for the day-to-day implementation and control of food safety ensure that all records and systems in relation to food safety are maintained ensure that staff will follow all personal hygiene rules
ensure that all work areas are kept clean and free from pests ensure that all staff are trained in the food handling techniques and the requirements of the food safety policy be qualified to implement and review the food handling techniques and the requirements of the food safety policy.
All kitchen staff will:
be responsible for food safety in the kitchen, preparation and storage areas be qualified to implement the food handling techniques and the requirements of the food safety policy complete all records and systems in relation to food safety in the kitchen, preparation, receiving and storage areas as directed abide by all personal hygiene rules
report incidents that impact on the quality of food, to the manager (eg sightings of pests, malfunctioning or defective appliances, etc) keep all work areas clean and free from pests
be trained in food handling techniques and the requirements of the food safety policy report to the manager if they are suffering from any communicable disease. Other staff (eg assistants, bartenders, waiters, cleaners) will: be responsible for food safety during service
abide by the Food Safety Policy regulations and practices
abide by all personal hygiene rules
keep work areas and equipment clean
report incidents that impact on the quality of food, to the manager (eg
sightings of pests, malfunctioning or defective appliances, etc) report to their supervisor if they are suffering from any communicable disease. The HACCP team
The following staff members are responsible for the implementation of the HACCP-based food safety program at this business: (This information is provided as a guide only). The owner (in conjunction with the manager) will coordinate the development of the food safety program. The manager will coordinate the development of the food safety program. Staff representatives (ideally one from each section, eg kitchen, bar, wash up, store, cleaning) will play an important role in the team by advising on operation issues related to the food safety program.
External expertise, eg consultant, food technologist or microbiologist, qualified in their field and in the principles of HACCP-based food safety programs will play an important role in the team by advising on issues related to the food safety program. Note: The size of the team will vary, depending on the size of the business. Where the food establishment is small, the proprietor or manager may undertake all of the above roles and be solely responsible for the coordination and implementation of HACCP.
These persons will combine their skills and undertake training to: identify potential hazards associated with all aspects of food and beverage preparation assign levels of severity of risk based on previous experience recommend controls, specifications and procedures for monitoring and verification in line with the Australian standards and government regulations recommend appropriate corrective actions, including training for all staff, when deviations occur be familiar with, or be able to research, all relevant legislation/technical information related to the food safety plan.