Follow the link to the Being Critical study resource here and launch the online tutorial. When you have completed the online tutorial, write your response to questions in the boxes provided below (you can copy and paste some of your responses from the online tutorial into the boxes below).
What does being critical mean to you?
Being critical covers different skills that are both essential to academic study also useful in areas of our everyday life such as finding arguments, analytical reasoning and synthesising information.
It is about finding practical strategies that would assist me in my academic reading and writing to present a critical analysis in my assignments. Being critical means going beyond the theory use my imagination to understand arguments, discuss, visit similar theories and compare them. After analysis of different theories I can make suggestions.
Being critical is based on the following strategies: predict or anticipate something, an event in the future using your knowledge, a theory or experience, then try to discover or identify the links; how things are connected.
This will lead you into questioning to understand facts or ideas in a theory, clarity them and finally summarise.
Using the simple questions: what, who, where/ how, why and when to define the reliability; objectivity, and relevancy of an information or an ideas makes the critical thinking logical, and much easy to understand and use.
How might being critical apply to the ways in which we think about and use sociological theory and methods?
Being critical can be applied to the ways we think about and use sociological theory and methods in the way that we have to analyse, understand , interpret any sociological theory and methods before making any comments, criticise or use a methods. I have to compare, analyse different theories and methods before use them to agree or make any criticism or appreciation. It can be applied to it in the questioning that helps t formulate hypothesis, then push yourself into research t find answers. For example you can question: what is said in this theory, is true, reliable, who created it, can we trust them, are they neutral, objective, when? Find out how old is the information, is applicable to the actual situation, the publication date and where, source is the publisher a trusted one?
Applying those questions to your topic and answering them constitute a proer and quick thinking.
After reading the resources on reflective writing here and here, use this box to reflect upon your learning in week 1 of this course (you will need to do this after todays first tutorial, bringing this with you next week).
Reflective writing is evidence of reflective thinking. Academically reflective thinking is specifically based starting by by finding an idea, or an event that happened examine them in properly in different sides, and explain them applying theory from your topic as reference . Also it is about analysing the meaning of the event or the ideas for you and what you can use them for.
Analyse the event or idea, and trying to explain, often with reference to a model or theory from your subject. Thinking carefully about what the event or idea means for you and your ongoing progress as a learner and/or practising professional. Reflective writing seems to be more personal than other kinds of academic writing. We all think reflectively in everyday life, however not with the same depth a in academic way that is regulated and with high expectation.
The reading about Mary is an example of being critical. They took the time to analyse the different facts during the conversations. For example the person explained that their behaviour towards Mary was not good but provided an explanation then gave a suggestion It would have been better to have apologised as soon as I realised.
The person went back to analyse the situation in the conversation that happened in the past, reviews it about what was good or wrong so changes or improvement for the future conversations could be drawn.
Tutorial Sheet Week 2
Start by re-visiting your understanding and skills for effective reading and note-making here and here.
Now briefly summarise (in your own words see here and here) what you have learned (3 key points for each) from the essential readings for last week (i.e. the readings from your core texts).
Plagiarism means using someones work or ideas without providing the source or reference it. We read books, journals and news paper extract to use in our assignments and essays but we are required to reference them so the reader can see that you borrowed the ideas or the information from the named Author in the reference section. Sometimes plagiarism happens by mistake when you forget to add reference but when noticed the reader might think it was intentional. Therefore we have to be careful make sure any ideas, quotes and extracts from other people work ideas and books are referenced.
Use this section to reflect on issues of theory and method that you have found challenging. Reflect specifically on what you found challenging and what you did (or might do) to help address and overcome this challenge.
A same thing or object can have different meanings if placed in different context or environment. Both producer and receiver of language, depends on the everyday situations and experiences of humans.
In this context it is important to consider some factors that can influence the meaning of a word for example. You cannot just rely on the how the word is spoken or the orthography, it might be necessarily use methods and analysis to decode multi modal forms that give it more meaning such as drawing, pictures, music, art and historical documents. This is an important contribution to doing and understanding discourse analysis and how it can empower humans with knowledge about communication and interactions.
A individual personal experience, history and the interaction with other members of the society influence and guide their figured worlds, the way things should be in their normal understanding and vision.
Reflective practices are methods and techniques that help individuals and groups reflect on their experiences and actions in order to engage in a process of continuous learning. Reflective practice enables recognition of the paradigms assumptions, frameworks and patterns of thought and behaviour that shape our thinking and action. It also allows for the exploration of broader questions, such as: the paradigms that shape not just our own actions, but development as a whole; our position considering the assumptions we make; and if they are constructive or destructive to our goals. Also analyse if our goals are themselves limited by our paradigms. By trying out methods of reflection and personal inquiry we can nurture greater self-awareness, imagination and creativity, as well as systemic, non-linear modes of thinking and analysis.
Finally, refresh your understanding of plagiarism by taking the online quiz here. Reflecting honestly on this exercise and how you did, what areas of plagiarism are you still unclear about and how might you address these gaps in your knowledge?
I avoid plagiarism as much as I can and reference for any work I use in my essays or other works. I will try to remember all the time to reference every work.
Tutorial Sheet Week 3
Can you identify any emerging links or themes between your seminars (i.e. between theoretical issues and ideas and methodological ones)? Are there recurring concepts or principles that span both theory and methods? Use the link to the entry on the philosophy of social science here to help you.
There is general agreement among natural scientists regarding what the aims of science are and how to conduct it, including how to evaluate theories. At least in the long run, natural science tends to produce consent regarding which theories are valid. Natural science seeks to lay bare the methodological and ontological assumptions that guide scientific investigation of natural phenomena ( ). Given this evident success, many philosophers and social theorists have been eager to import the methods of natural science to the study of the social world. If social science were to achieve the explanatory and predictive power of natural science, it could help solve vexing social problems, such as violence and poverty, improve the performance of institutions and generally foster human well-being. Those who believe that adapting the aims and methods of natural science to social inquiry is both possible and desirable support the unity of scientific method. Such advocacy in this context is also referred to as naturalism.( This is to say social science is able to understand and provide a clear view of natural phenomenon and contribute to solving problems. Unification in this sense requires, as the hermeneutical approach suggests, that we view social science as social practice[[e. The efforts of social scientists should be seen as part of a wider, on-going human project to better understand ourselves and our world, and to make our world better
Naturalist believes that science is basically empirical enterprise that creates causal explanation grounded in law. They as well agree with the value free neutrality, its important role to describe and explain the world.(
Reflecting on the experience of reading a reasonably lengthy and complex piece of writing (above), what strategies for effective reading did you draw upon to make sense of it? Use the resources on strategies for effective reading here and here to help you.
-skimming, understand the title and read the abstract first to get the general idea of the text or the book.
-select paragraphs that contain relevant information you are looking for
Set target so you know what you are looking for and then you do not need to waste time on paragraphs or extracts that do not contain the information you need.
– Look for specific elements and be clear about what you are looking for; read something that gives you a information, and concentrate on the useful part of the text. Also read something that provides you a general overview first and for complex ides, It is better to choose the easiest book or text first and workup to more complex texts. It is a good idea to make note as you go along as this can give a natural break every few minutes in your reading. It is advisable to read faster can help memory of what you are reading, so it makes more sense
Social inquiry refers to interpretation of texts such as novel plays and different witings to make sense of actions, beliefs, social practices, rituals, value systems and institutions. A key objection to descriptivism is that it would limit interpretive inquiry to describing cultures or societies in their own terms, leaving no room for criticizing the beliefs, values or self-understandings of those cultures or societies ( The philosophy of social science, a peer-Review Academic Resource) .
Tutorial Sheet Week 4
Taking stock of your learning to date at level I (i.e. from your reading, lectures and seminars), briefly describe a) what you understand by the term epistemology and b) the core epistemologies within the social sciences. Ask your tutor to clarify terms you arent clear about.
a) Epistemology is defined as the study of knowledge and justified belief. Epistemology focuses and apprehends questions such as: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge? What are its sources? What is its structure, and what are its limits? It is a study of justified belief that aims to answer questions like: How we are to understand the concept of justification, what makes justified beliefs justified and question if the justification is internal or external Is justification internal or external to our mind. Understood more broadly, epistemology is concerned with the creation and distribution of knowledge in a given society (Bryman, A 2016).
b) Epistemology supplies the methods that are used by social scientists to acquire the knowledge on how to approach the social world and build up social theory. Epistemology enables them to study individuals and groups behaviour, also, understands, evaluates and criticizes the methods and the knowledge resulting from them. Epistemology particularly looks at the nature, source and limitation of knowledge, things such as beliefs or faith the feelings and emotions in certain circumstances are very important than real facts in this type of knowledge (Bryman, A. (2016).
Following the links to resources on how to read social theory here and here, consider carefully what each of them is advising. Reflect carefully on a) how learning to read social theory might differ from other types of reading and b) how you might incorporate some of the insights from these resources within your own practices.
Reading social theory May not be straight forward, is takes time as there is a need to understand. Patient and effort are a must, in order to benefit of it. it is very rewarding into fundamental social institutions and processes. It is suggested suggestions to look in the first instance through the assigned text , skim lightly, before going into details of the structure of the text that is being read. It is good to skim such as reading the introductory and concluding paragraphs because they contains the summary of main text ideas. Take note of section structure & headings would help to remember in few word what the text is about.
Once you have an overview of the assigned text, return to the beginning and read more closely. A focus on the author’s main points and what is more important from it is very important for a good understanding of the social theory.
Taking notes in text margins, keeping a running dialog with yourthe author and record their important ideas in a notebook and my reactions and responses.Taking the time to question or remember the author man ideas, summarise them verbally or in writing or discus them with an other student in in my course contribute to good understanding.
If necessary, outline the author’s argument.
Read many times in order to get author points, structure and arguments MI t is advised to learn together with other student, it help to understand and support each other. Dictionary can be useful to find the meaning of difficult words. Using different resources such as introductory text also asking questions to academic concerned staff for a good understanding the information and ideas in the text.
Bryman, A. (2016 chap3) .
Edles, L. D. and Appelrouth, S. (2010)
Tutorial Sheet Week 5
Watch the BBC4 documentary Marx: Genius of the Modern World here. Summarise in your own words the main take-away points of the documentary and how these relate to wider insights about Marxs thinking from your learning to date.
The documentary highlights three major thinkers of the 19th century: Karl Marx, Fredrick Nietzsche and Freud Sigmund. The three thinkers have a lot of things in common from their young age. They all were philosophers in the time of the 19th century industrialisation and revolution, the time where regimes were troubled by mass uprising break down. The science was challenging the church authority. Their work was to find out what maters individuals in a fast growing world. They have the most important commitment to identify the forces that controls peoples mind using their powerful knowledge as a weapon. They were considered as the regimes enemies. Their explanation and view on the world are still alive and help people in the society to make sense of their lives( Marx; 1844/1977; Edles; Appelrouth 2010)
Drawing upon your learning to date, describe in your own words Marxs notion of historical materialism (including its development and deviation from German idealism).
Marx’s theory, of “historical materialism” is based on the German idealist Hegel claims that history occurs through a dialectic, or clash, of opposing forces. Hegel was a philosophical idealist who believed that we live in a world of appearances, and true reality is an ideal. Marx accepted this notion of the dialectic, but rejected Hegel’s idealism because he did not accept that the material world hides from us the real world of the ideal; on the contrary, he thought that historically and socially specific ideologies, prevented people from seeing the material conditions of their lives clearly( Marx; 1844/1977)
Watch the following video about Karl Poppers practice of falsification and views on Marxism. First, summarize the key points. Second, explain which 20th century Marxist theories evade the criticism outlined and why.
Karl Popper claims that science is all about falsification not confirmation; scientist starts with hypothesis ; bold hypothesis that can be falsified by evidence; could rather than looking for supporting evidence, Popper argued that scientists go out of the way to refute their own hypothesis. Science is all about falsification not confirmation. He means science is about questioning and testing It is a serious conjecture and refutation; a former Marxist himself Popper was not sympathetic with Marxism (Marx, K. (1844/1977).
Marxist argues that In scientific analysis, everything was determined by class struggle and workers revolution was inevitable. However when the workers failed to revolt rather than taking this as a refutation of the view Marxists suggested that workers were simply victims of false consciousness unable to see the situation as truly it was. So Popper explained in this case that this was a immunised hypothesis dealing with contra evidence which was originally testable turning into irrefutable sudo-science ( Marx; 1844/1977).There is no imaginable observation that can prove that the Marxists were wrong if the workers revolted that shows that the Marxists were right. But if the workers did revolt that also shows they were right, what mean a double win: as Marxism defends their ideas in both sense like if the workers revolt that means they understand and share the same frustration the collective consciousness ; but if they do not that means they are na?ve, do not understand what is happening around them; thus live in a false consciousness; in both cases they still can justify the situation what Popper called a double win.( Marx, 1844/1977; [Edles and Appelrouth 2010] , Bryman, 2016).
IMPORTANT: Portfolio workbook pit-stop: i.e. bring in what you have done to date so that your tutor can offer guidance and support.
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Follow the link to the Being Critical study resource here and. (2019, Dec 07). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/follow-the-link-to-the-being-critical-study-resource-here-and-best-essay