Flood Hazard in Pakistan: A Review

In the recent past, Pakistan had experienced adverse and life-danger risks of flood and it is totally explained in the history of flood-disaster. Every year after a heavy rainfall of monsoon the ratio of the flood is increasing as water in the reservoirs and rivers so the hazard of flood turn into a disaster. Due to the disaster of flood economy of Pakistan disturbs a lot. life, money, shelter all them are all destroyed due to the devasting floods in Pakistan.

The developmental path is needed to prevent the economy and risk of disaster from floods. Disaster risk reduction programs are being held by councils and teams related to flood-disaster to aware people that how to cope with that kind of situation. Government should pay attention to these disasters and spread awareness programs to the people. Peoples living in the zone of that type of disaster should make structures that can uphold that kind of devasting conditions. Proper administration should be required for the elimination of floods in the history of Pakistan.


In Pakistan, there are many types of disasters present in the history and the effects of these disaster are very severe. As we know that Pakistan is very low-income country as compared to others. It is only because of a large scale of unemployment as literacy rate of Pakistan is very low as compared to other countries. Due to the poverty there is lack of food, no facilities of health, there is no proper shelters for peoples to live safe and sound, communication networks are very slow, transport facilities in disaster prone areas are negligible and also there is no skilled peoples working in the field of disaster risk reduction communities.

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All of these mentioned problems are because of inconvenience and lack of government interference in disaster areas.

Every year due to the effect of the disaster, in Pakistan people lose a lot of lives of their relatives, friend and their surrounding peoples. They lose shelter, property, money, life, houses, agriculture, food, jobs and etc. They also lose hope of being stable again. They remain disappointed in life for all things they make by their efforts and there is worry of money always rotating in their mind as well. Government as always do wrong promises of giving food, shelter, jobs, money, property and loans for agriculture but they did not do nothing. As they remain disappointed and poor for whole life. Their children did not go to school for study and their literacy rate became zero. As a resulted they and their children went hundred years before.

Floods are among the most frequent and costly natural disasters in terms of human hardship and economic loss. Approximately 90 percent of the damage-related natural disasters (excluding droughts) are caused by floods and associated debris flows. Floods can damage and devastate homes and farms, displace families, pets and livestock, damage crops, and disrupt agriculture and business. [1] Punjab and Sindh are more effected by flood because there is no system of storage of extra water as area of Punjab and Sindh is large than other provinces. There is large population living in these provinces so usage of water is more than others but due to lack of money government is not able to build a dam thus they did not avoid floods. Every year a lot of peoples are homeless, jobless and etc.

Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), the government’s long-term commitment to poverty reduction through more growth in agriculture and rural economic activities will result in a large scale of economic growth. With special working on vulnerable group the key to human development and economic growth depends on access to education, health, safe drinking water and rural infrastructure. The ultimate strategy is to mobilize and uplift women.


Key words used to search the articles are: Pakistan and floods, impact of Pakistan floods, disasters in Pakistan, monsoon rains in Pakistan, Disaster management Policies in Pakistan, NDMA, Poverty and floods, Disaster profile of Pakistan. Database searches were performed during November and December 2013 to retrieve the articles related to Flood-Disasters in Pakistan. Inclusion Criteria: Studies from 2003 to 2013 were retrieved on Floods in Pakistan. All the Government sites responding to flood response were also included in the review. Exclusion Criteria: Studies focusing majorly on earthquakes in Pakistan or any other natural calamity during 2003 to 2013. Though the articles published in the last 10 years were of prime concern initially, but data from a few older articles were also extracted in order to give meaning to the paper.[2]

Results and Discussion

Following are points to explain this in the form of result and discussion.

Impact of Floods

Pakistan is suffering from a lot of disaster in many areas with different type of disasters. It is due to low literacy level in Pakistan. It is mainly due to corruption in low quality material use in making dams and there is no checking of material in working areas. As dams are destroyed it will turn into flood and it will make a lot of problems many people lose their life. Some of them lose property, jobs, houses and etc. Fertile land is changed into unfertile land and causes barren land where there is no possibility of agriculture.

Pakistan’s 2010 floods were one of the biggest calamities ever with almost 20 million people affected. [3] Besides the slow response, absence of comprehensive DRR and preparedness mechanisms in the country was a major factor that caused the large-scale destruction. [4]

Disaster Risk Reduction

Disaster risk reduction programs are creating in disaster prone areas for the awareness of people. Disaster risk reduction communities also contribute well in training and also organize program of awareness. They also mock exercises for people that they are well trained for the disaster if ever come. This will help people a lot. Due to this they are well prepared of disaster so they are less effected as compared to era when they are not prepared for disaster and they not join awareness programs. Government and many NGO’s are working in reducing disaster risk in areas in hazard prone location.

The national DRR system focuses mainly on response and ignores other more sustainable and durable dimensions of disaster, such as prevention and mitigation which can address the root causes of disaster risk within the country, which because of its geographical diversity is vulnerable to a large range of physical hazards, such as floods, earthquakes, tsunamis, and cyclones. [5]

Flood Mitigation Activities

Flood mitigation activities do occur annually in Pakistan under the auspices of the FFC and the provincial irrigation departments. These departments plan, design, construct, and maintain flood protection works through-flow measurement at specific sites on rivers, canals, and ‘nullah’ and construction, and maintenance of flood protection irrigation channels, small dams and protective works. There is no easily available master plan linked to a national hazard and vulnerability atlas which could highlight the main points of vulnerability throughout the country and help in analyzing, whether these departments are focused on the most crucial points of vulnerability and how effectively and efficiently they are addressing them.

In addition, reduction of mitigation is a serious issue in Pakistan due to the construction of large-scale development project without adequate analysis of their impact on disaster risks. [6] Thus, communities view several large-scale projects as having increased their vulnerability, e.g., the World Bank-funded Left Bank Outfall Drainage Project (LBOD), which is viewed as having blocked most of the natural rainwater flow. [7]

Coordination With Federal and Provincial Agencies

As with the vertical linkages among the NDMA, PDMAs, and DDMAs, there is a need to further enhance coordination among these federal and provincial agencies horizontally. Since the total DRR agenda of prevention, mitigation, early warning, avoidance and response is divided across multiple agencies, they should coordinate more regularly and formally. Having one agency with complete oversight over the entire DRR national agenda would increase synergy among the different DRR activities.

Knowledge, Awareness-Raising, Attitude and Practice Change

Based on the above analysis the following priorities have to be considered: (i) Increase clarity regarding the roles of both government and non-government stakeholders, and established mechanisms for coordination among them; (ii) Given the scale of disaster risk, individual agencies can play a more effective role if they pool their resources and coordinate more effectively, especially locally; (iii) Increase attention to the DRR/M issue of vulnerable and marginalized groups, including persons with disabilities and older persons; (iv) Ensure sustained funding for dedicated human resources in Disaster Management Agencies at the Provincial and District levels; (v) Inclusive, participatory, gender-sensitive, child friendly, eco-friendly and disabled-friendly disaster management programs and policies.

The NDMA is active in undertaking awareness-raising and capacity-building activities on DRR in Pakistan. However, there is a need to collate information about actual DRR mainstreaming in the regular development work of the government. A high number of NDMA activities occur at the national and provincial levels, but there is a need to do more at the local and community levels. In the situation where rehabilitation of those who suffered severely from catastrophes in the form of severe 2010 and 2011 flood are still in another plague of such worst level would wipe out everything.


As we know, that Pakistan is a developing country so it should make efforts in disaster risk management for the betterment of Pakistan. We should arrange public awareness programs for their awareness toward disaster. We should perform mock exercises for practicing the vulnerable condition. Pakistan is a poor government that is not able to cope with the damaging effects of disaster. Government and peoples should take steps for mitigating the impacts of any disaster. Always be prepared for worst

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Flood Hazard in Pakistan: A Review. (2021, Apr 16). Retrieved from http://studymoose.com/flood-hazard-in-pakistan-a-review-essay

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