Describe the tradeoffs that are involved for each method (such as exporting, direct foreign investment, etc. ) that Snyder could use to achieve its goal. ANSWER: Snyder can export the clubs, but the transportation expenses may be high. If could establish a subsidiary in Brazil to produce and sell the clubs, but this may require a large investment of funds. It could use licensing, in which it specifies to a Brazilian firm how to produce the clubs. In this way, it does not have to establish its own subsidiary there.
b. Which method would you recommend for this firm? Justify your recommendation.
ANSWER: If the amount of golf clubs to be sold in Brazil is small, it may decide to export. However, if the expected sales level is high, it may benefit from licensing. If it is confident that the expected sales level will remain high, it may be willing to establish a subsidiary. The wages are lower in Brazil, and the large investment needed to establish a subsidiary may be worthwhile.
15. Impact of Political Risk. Explain why political risk may discourage international business.
Some foreign projects would have been feasible if there was no political risk, but will not be feasible because of political risk. 17. International Joint Venture. Anheuser-Busch, the producer of Budweiser and other beers, has recently expanded into Japan by engaging in a joint venture with Kirin Brewery, the largest brewery in Japan. The joint venture enables Anheuser-Busch to have its beer distributed through Kirin’s distribution channels in Japan.
In addition, it can utilize Kirin’s facilities to produce beer that will be sold locally. In return, Anheuser-Busch provides information about the American beer market to Kirin. . Explain how the joint venture can enable Anheuser-Busch to achieve its objective of maximizing shareholder wealth. ANSWER: The joint venture creates a way for Anheuser-Busch to distribute Budweiser throughout Japan. It enables Anheuser-Busch to penetrate the Japanese market without requiring a substantial investment in Japan. b. Explain how the joint venture can limit the risk of the international business. ANSWER: The joint venture has limited risk because Anheuser-Busch does not need to establish its own distribution network in Japan.
Thus, Anheuser-Busch may be able to use a smaller investment for the international business, and there is a higher probability that the international business will be successful. c. Many international joint ventures are intended to circumvent barriers that normally prevent foreign competition. What barrier in Japan is Anheuser-Busch circumventing as a result of the joint venture? What barrier in the United States is Kirin circumventing as a result of the joint venture? ANSWER: Anheuser-Busch is able to benefit from Kirin’s distribution system in Japan, which would not normally be so accessible.
Kirin is able to learn more about how Anheuser-Busch expanded its product across numerous countries, and therefore breaks through an “information” barrier. d. Explain how Anheuser-Busch could lose some of its market share in countries outside Japan as a result of this particular joint venture. ANSWER: Anheuser-Busch could lose some of its market share to Kirin as a result of explaining its worldwide expansion strategies to Kirin. However, it appears that Anheuser-Busch expects the potential benefits of the joint venture to outweigh any potential adverse effects.
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