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Final_Essay_Proposal Essay

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CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN SECURITY(Final Project Proposal)Climate Change and Human SecurityDescription Many countries and international institutions including the United Nation Environmental Program (UNEP) have over the years intensified their campaigns on climate change to curb the effects it has on the society. Although enough policies and strategies are already in place, the negative impacts of the greenhouse effect are still being recorded in different parts of the globe, especially in the Asian continent. These developments have negatively affected the growth and security of human beings in various parts of the world.

For instance, Syria has over the last decade experienced civil unrests that have primarily resulted from the limited resources that can no longer support its population. Climate change has been considered to decrease the security of human being through decreasing the availability of natural resources, a rising temperature that enhances disease transmission, reducing food yield, displacement, and migration of people and increasing terrorism. Notably, the research will evaluate distinct aspects including how the decrease in the number of valuable resources due to the effects of climate change has resulted in an increasing level of competition among different societies.

The trend is also intensified by other aspects including a high rate of population growth, sectarianism, and tribalism that could, in the long run, lead to violence among various communities. Moreover, the study will also evaluate how unpredictable weather has weakened the agricultural sector, thus reducing the amount of food produced to support the growing population. As a result, many states, especially in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, are recording high rates of poverty and low economic growth. Therefore, most of the affected population have resorted to migration to better economies such as the United States and other western countries for survival. The study will also evaluate the long-term effects of these security threats brought about by the changing climatic conditions and how governments and other relevant agencies have helped in curbing the effects of these factors. Annotated BibliographyWheeler, T., & Von Braun, J. (2013). Climate change impacts on global food security. Science, 341(6145), 508-513. The article by the three researchers highlights some of the food security problems brought about by the changing weather pattern in different parts of the world. According to the authors, this trend could interrupt the progress made by various agencies as well as governments in fighting hunger among their population. The paper defines food security as the availability of ample food quantities, water, healthcare and sanitation that can be supplied to the population from both domestic sources and imports. Wheeler also notes that two out of the 7 billion people in the globe suffer from severe food insecurity especially in areas such as South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa Hsiang, S. M., Burke, M., & Miguel, E. (2013). Quantifying the influence of climate on human conflict. Science, 341(6151), 1235367. According to Hsiang, Burke, and Miguel, the establishment of different institutions that help in maintaining peace and stability has not been successful despite the high investment made by different governments. The authors state that climate change disrupts the functioning of some of the institutions established to promote positive interactions being various populations and as such promote conflict and violence in the society. For instance, the researchers provide an example of how the alteration of the supply of natural resources may in the long run cause disagreements on the appropriate methods of allocation thus resulting in conflict and war. Although the changing weather patterns are not the only contributing factors to the increased rate, the authors state that it may in future influence the relationship between different communities of nations in the world. McMichael, A. J. (2013). Globalization, climate change, and human health. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(14), 1335-1343. The article by McMichael highlights explicitly factors such as globalization and climate change as some of the elements affecting human health. Additionally, trends such as declining rainfall and rising temperature have a definite relation to dropping food yield, social stressors and increasing health complications. The author also emphasizes the deregulation of the international market and the over-concentration on alternative food sources that are not healthy to curb the deficiency of nutritious foods. According to the author, the decline in the availability of some of the seafood rich in protein that is the primary source of nutrients among the low-income families living along the coast poses a high health risk to these populations. Adger, W. N., Barnett, J., Brown, K., Marshall, N., & O’brien, K. (2013). Cultural dimensions of climate change impacts and adaptation. Nature Climate Change, 3(2), 112. Adger responds to the increased discussion on the effects of climate change on culture and adaptation of human beings. According to the authors, culture is embedded in different aspects of society including consumption, production, social organization, and lifestyle. As such, the increased level of greenhouse emissions has over the years changed how human beings in various societies interact the methods they employ in production process thus increasing the cost of decarbonizing their economies. In the process, the researchers also define traditions as symbols that are used to show meaning including aspects such as art, rituals, beliefs, and stories that help in shaping behaviour. The adverse effects of climate change have over the years changed how populations interact and how they take their responsibility to protect the natural environment. Theisen, O. M., Gleditsch, N. P., & Buhaug, H. (2013). Is climate change a driver of armed conflict? Climatic Change, 117(3), 613-625. As opposed to how many scholars analyze the effects of climate change on human security, Thaisen, Gleditsch and Buhang take a different approach that links the increase of political confrontations and conflict to global warming. The authors explain that trends such as globalization, financial crisis, and population growth have all contributed to the increasing effects of the changing weather patterns. With the growing negative impacts of climate change, the number of deaths and conflicts between communities and states have grown over the years primarily due to the fights over limited natural resources such as oil. Other aspects promoted by greenhouse effects that reduce human security cited by the researchers include migration, economic instability, social fragmentation and inappropriate strategies by the governments. ReferencesAdger, W. N., Barnett, J., Brown, K., Marshall, N., & O’brien, K. (2013). Cultural dimensions of climate change impacts and adaptation. Nature Climate Change, 3(2), 112.Hsiang, S. M., Burke, M., & Miguel, E. (2013). Quantifying the influence of climate on human conflict. Science, 341, 12.McMichael, A. J. (2013). Globalization, climate change, and human health. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(14), 1335-1343.Theisen, O. M., Gleditsch, N. P., & Buhaug, H. (2013). Is climate change a driver of armed conflict? Climatic Change, 117(3), 613-625.Wheeler, T., & Von Braun, J. (2013). Climate change impacts on global food security. Science, 341(6), 508-513.

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