Rock stars and bands starting with Little Richard, Elvis Presley, and the Beatles advancing to Kiss, Queen, Marilyn Manson and numerous modern artist such as Beyonce and Woman Gaga ….
– use theatrical elements for their performances
– often used makeup and costumes to create theatrical characteristics
The popular movie Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf is based directly on
the play written by Edward Albee
Why should i study theatre?
is unique in how it represents the human condition
helps to better understand ourselves and the world around us
Experimental theatre that is is usually presented by one person, is typically personal in nature, and may be combined with art, dance, film or music is called
Film has been greatly influenced by theatre
in borrowing from theatrical traditions like melodrama when creating films based on comic book heroes
through writers, directors, and actors seeking to challenge themselves by working in both forms
providing dramatic material such as Shakespeare’s plays and musicals like Les Miserables
Most important difference between film and theatre is
the relationship between the performer and the audience
Sporting events are like theatre in that
often integrate theatrical elements
viewing sports in arenas function in much the same way as viewing a performance in theatre spaces
spectacles before the start competition, such as pre game ceremonies are highly theatrical
The popular film who’s afraid of virgina woolf is a good example of
how stories, characters, and dialogue can be taken straight from theatre and put on film
The two-fold appeal of theatre
it amuses and makes observations about the human condition
Theatre that reflects a trend toward revognizing, maintaing, and celebrating our differences such as the Congo Square Theatre www.
congosquaretheatre.org in Chicago or the WOW cafe theatre www.wowcafe.org in New York is called ____ theatre
This type of theatre is made up of semi-professional or experienced amateur groups who present plays that appeal to their audiences
What is an accurate statement regarding theatre?
theatre if often used as a metaphor to describe all kinds of activities in daily life
there is no area untouched by elements of theatre
Crossover theatre artists such as playwrights Tony Kushner, Neil Labute, and David Mamet have found success
writing for both theatre and film
Acoustic Tours by well-known rock stars
are designed to place the focus on the live performer
are a reaction to highly theatricalized concerts
Examples of role-playing in everyday life may include
people who imitate behavior they admire
children who copy adults
roles such as college, friend, romantic partner, student government leader
Contemporary critics argue that the focus on the performer in acoustic rock concerts is made possible by
using fewer special effects
diminishing spectacular scenery
Which of the following audience factors affects the performance and the performance?
-size of the audience
True or False: it is possible to live without art
Ther person who coordinates all the elements of a production and makes it exciting to the audience is the…
Which of the following are important collaborators in the making of theatre?
-The director and actors
-The business staff
Which of the following is not a performing art?
an independent film
The script or text serves as a for a production
Which of the following are true about space in the theatre?
-there must be space for the performer
-there must be space for the audience
-there are many kinds of stage spaces
In order for theatre to exist, there must be alive to witness it.
Which of the following are the correct categories of design elements in theatre?
-visual and non-visual
Which of the following are reasons why there are responsibilities and experiences for the audience in the theatre:
-it is a communal event that requires respect for others
-the performers can hear you
-the audience can hear you
Which of the following is not a category of art?
Which of the following are true about performers?
-Performers are part of the magic of live theatre; they transform.
-performers are always characters in front of an audience
-the audience has to accept their transformation to make theatre
Which of the following are ways in which the audience participates in theatre?
-clapping and laughing
-silence during the performance
-through their mind and heart
Scenery, costume, lighting, sound, space, director, script, actors are all major of theatre
What is the final collaboration that is essential to theatre and when does it take place?
-in performance with the spectators
In order to fully experience theatre an audience member must have the proper distance to stay separate but involved in the action onstage
From an audience perspective, which of the following are ways in which theatre differs from film:
-theatre is only “one” take
-each performance is unique
-there are no edits
Which of the following are necessary design elements in theatre?
-sets or scenery
What kind of space is needed for a theatrical performance?
Which of the following is a characteristic of art?
-art is selective
-art consists of visual, literary and performing arts
-art has a specific relationship to time and space
Which of the following are ways in which the audience has a more exciting experience in the theatre as opposed to watching film or television:
-each performance is different than any other performance
-the performance will keep moving no matter what happens
-anything can go wrong at any time
Which of the following are decisions a playwright must make when writing a play
select subject matter
decide on a focus
choose a point of view
develop a structure
create dramatic characters
establish a purpose
Since the beginning of time and continuing today, playwrights have drawn nonhuman characters in what form?
The leading character in drama is called the ____ and the opposing character is called the ____
which of the following is true of the difference between story and plot in drama?
story has many of the same elements as plot
plot is the form story takes in theatre
plot must be shorter and more selective than story
when characters are of the nobility (kings & queens) and are extreme in their behavior they are called:
These elements: plot, action, conflict, and opposing forces are essential to dramatic
Which structure contains parallel plots, a mixture of serious and comic scenes and a cumulative effect?
Which of the following are possible dramatic purposes of a playwright?
to provide escape
explore the human condition
In a well made play, the final crisis is called the
Which of the following is true about an opening scene in a play?
the characters are thrust into conflict
sets the tone of the play
gives us important information about what we are going to see
which structure replaces a traditional plot with an open ended serial structure?
How are sports teams and conflicting characters similar?
evenly matched teams and characters are more exciting to watch
we usually do not know the outcome
it is boring and sometimes painful to watch teams or characters that are far out of their league or not able to compete
This structure is born out of ritualistic religious roots, practiced by the living theatre and the wooster group
True of serial structure
sometimes no connection between parts
a series of events strung together
sometimes a central theme holds the parts together
which plot structure limits the number of characters and locales and has a very compact construction
Why do playwrights often choose opposing forces to be in the same family?
audience can relate
The tension between two or more characters that consists of a fundamental struggle or imbalance that involves ideas, action or personalities is called _____
the very beginning of a play that thrusts the characters into a situation that they must react to is called the:
True or false: Modern playwrights often begin writing a play without a clear plan and only later make discoveries about structure, focus, and purpose
The word drama comes from the Greek verb _____ which means to do or act
Which of the following is true of extraordinary characters
hold a special place in society
when they fall, their downfall is tremendous because of their stature
often larger than life
When a series of presentations, or acts, or events are strung together into a whole it is called:
Which of the following is an essential element in dramatic structure
The tensions between two or more characters that consists of a fundamental struggle or imbalance that involves ideas, actions personalities
when two characters in a play have strong, clear, and differing goals and are willing to do anything to achieve them?
Opposing forces must also be____ so that there is the possibility of victory on either side
True about a crisis in a play?
the action takes a critical turn
leads to a climax
builds the tension and excitement
Which of the following are true of absurdist language?
-heavy use of nonsense
unlike traditional tragedy modern tragedy was written for and about .
the french word for category we use to describe different types of plays is .
when a situation in a traditional tragedy is on a course from which no one can turn back this is called tragic .
what is verbal humor?
characteristic of comedy
Which of the following are examples of modern film melodramas?
when a monarch in a play from the classical greek or elizabethan era has a serious downfall due to a human flaw, we call that circumstance:
Which of the following are characteristics of farce?
-broad physical humor
Which of the following types of theatre highlights the futility, the injustice and the ridiculousness of life through its dramatic technique?
theatre of the absurd
which of the following are examples of a tragic character accepting responsibility?
-oedipus putting out his own eyes
-king lear’s suffering on the heath
-antigone’s acceptance of her own death
Why is the comic premise set in motion?
the audience can enjoy the incongruity
Which of the following are characteristics of comedy of ideas?
-moral or social point of view
-witty and amusing
This type of comedy is similar to a drama of the same name. It usually revolves around a family or neighborhood caught up in complicated and amusing situations.
the two main genres of drama are tragedy and .
tragedy from the distant past is called .
which of the following are examples of comedy of character?
-character pretending to be a surgeon
-character who believes she is the most witty but is really not very smart
-stock or stereotypical character
True or False: characters in a traditional tragedy need to be of low stature so we can pity them.
What does the mood and the tone of the play indicate to the audience?
the point of view of the production
Which of the following describes heroic drama?
-serious but optimistic
-includes characters of high rank
-written in verse
characteristics of tragic comedy?
-sense that all will end well but characters actions often take on very serious repercussions
-comic often underscores the serious nature of the circumstances
traditional tragedy is written in this form in order to scale the heights of the ideas and the emotions.
Which of the following need to be combined in order to achieve integration of all aspects of acting?
vocal and physical skill
The three main challenges of acting
1. believable truthful acting
2. advanced vocal and physical skills
3. integration or synthesis
Stanislavski recognized that the ____ _____ could activate an actor’s imagination and transport him or her to new places, times and situations based on his or her belief.
Match the 20th cen acting teacher and their methods
copeau commedia dell’arte
commedia dell arte
When we take on the characteristics of another person for amusement or to tell a story it is called
When an actor is able to let go of unwanted tension both vocally and physically this is called _________
Identify the factors that resulted in the development of more realistic acting at the end of the 19th century
playwrights like Henrik Ibsen began writing more realistic plays
practitioners of theatre wanted to portray everyday life
audiences wanted to see themselves on stage
T or F: stage actors must always have an audience present
Early in his career Stanislavski believed that focusing on an _____ was the best way to produce believable action. But later in his career he believed that focusing on purposeful ____ would eventually produce true feelings on stage
When actors are working as a unit aware of and in conjunction with their fellow actors this is called ____ ______
For Successful, believable acting to take place, the actor and the audience need to be able to:
see a situation from a different perspective
develop empathy for a character
understand a viewpoint other than their own
If an actors projection is not good or they move awkwardly on stage we can surmise that they have not mastered the ____ pf physical and vocal acting
What is another name for a through line of a role
which of the following are examples of current approaches to actor training
Robert Benedetti emphasis on the beginning with the physical and then working inward for inner truth
robert cohen’s emphasis on using the text to find the all important action of the scene
uta hagen’s emphasis on emotion as a springboard to achieve truth on stage
The term ____ refers to the skill in Stanislavski’s system of acting whereby an actor focuses his or her entire attention on an object, person or task to the exclusion of all else
which of the following are examples of personal roles we play in our everyday lives
the first theatre practitioner to put together a system of acting that could be taught other in order to reproduce truth on stage was ___ ____
Which of the following statements about acting on stage are true?
must have an audience present
actor plays characters that are not real but representations of people
in order to critically watch and judge theatre performances we need to be able to explore and understand ____ techniques and practices
Which of the following best describes stanislavski’s term psychophysical action
an actor focuses on his or her goals
an actor has ___ when he or she is able to convince the audience of the truth of their characters
A popular actor training method that comes from asian martial arts training is called ______
examples which require an actor to pay particular attention to vocal training?
projecting the voice without amplification
Modern teacher who stressed emotional recall as the most important part of their teachings?
For new productions, the stage manager must keep organized rehearsal notes of potential script revisions to be later discussed between the director and the .
other than the actors, the director works closely with the point of view of this theatre artist and merges it with his own to translate the work into a successful production.
The dramaturg has several responsibilities to the production. what are they?
-working with directors on developing their scripts
-preparing materials for teachers whose students will be attending plays
-identifying important plays from the past that may have been overlooked
-discovering promising new plays
the is associated with non commercial theatre, whereas the is the person chiefly responsible in the commercial theatre.
performers are on stage with the realized scene, light, and costume designs for the first time in an effort to coordinate all the elements together
all the production elements are pulled together with the full involvement of the actors and performed as if the audience were present with no stopping
the production is tried out in front of a group of spectators so the director and performers can discover what is and is not working and make corrections
which of the following describes an auteur director?
-the point of view and the implementation of that point of view are drawn from the director, not the writer
one way to implement the directors concept is to .
-find a central or controlling image or metaphor
Determining the movement of the actors on the stage is called .
The text-based director, also known as the director, uses the script as a starting point.
Which of the following are examples of non realism?
the director underscores the meaning of specific scenes through the physical arrangement of actors on the stage. this is called
A is a controlling idea, vision, or point of view that the director feels is appropriate to the play.
this must have business acumen and be able to raise the capital needed to oversee all the business expenses of the commercial production,
with the assistance of the stage manager, this person rehearses the performers and coordinates their work with other theatre artists to make certain that the production is performed appropriately, intelligently, and excitingly.
The director is responsible for shaping the structure of the production through movement, pace, and rhythm. with this in mind, the faults most often associated with poor direction are:
-when the audience misses the words being spoken
-when the audience fails to understand what is going on
-failure to establish a clear rhythm that holds or maintains interest
The director who chooses to cast an actor who in real life closely resembles the character to be enacted is referred to as…
why is it helpful to remember that the director stands in, or serves as a substitute for the audience?
-other than the critic or reviewer, only the director sees the production from the audience’s point of view
also known as the literary agent, the is responsible for finding exciting new plays, working with the playwrights on developing scripts, and identifying significant but overlooked plays from the past
Allegory and expressionism are two well-known types of .
productions that broke long held taboos by dealing with subject matter such as sexual content, the oppression of women, and questioning of religious leaders
productions that deconstruct or take apart the text, abandon the linear plot structure, and employ cross gender or multicultural casting
post modern theatre
the spine of the drama is
-a working hypothesis that gives the director a foundation on which to base their analysis and their work with the actors
-determined by the primary objective or goal of the characters in the play
The Arena space goes by many other names. What are they?
theare in the round
The U-shaped theatre space is most widely used of all the stage spaces
Another word for circle stage is _______
Broadway style theaters or picture frame stage spaces, have influenced the design of theatres all over the country. They are more commonly referred to as _____
This European family dominated the art of scene painting for the proscenium space for over two centuries
A ____ environment is one that will use more than one playing area, and that some activity is happening in several of those spaces at the same time
The all-purpose black box space can transformed into which of these other kinds of theatre stages?
an example of a non-theatre structure which already has a space for performance and viewing and could be used as a found space with almost no architectural alteration is:
the _____ _____ is that opening in the proscenium arch that is transparent and allows the audience to look in on events happening on the stage
Large scale musicals that employ incredible visual effects such as those found in the Lion King, Wicked, and the Phantom of the Opera are more likely produced on this kind of stage space
Circle theatre and theatre in the round are two other names for the ______ stage
in those productions specifically created for non theater spaces, audiences
may move about from one location to another
may be placed in the middle of the action of the performance
t or f: the thrust stage is the most widely used of all the other stage spaces
Giacomo Torelli developed this technological innovation for the proscenium stage
created a means to quickly move scenery on and off the stage
Identify the characteristics most closely associated with a black box space
the seats, lights, and platforms can be adapted in almost endless configurations including proscenium thrust arena and multifocus spaces
Located behind the playing area of a thrust stage the ______ _____ allows for entrances and exits and also changes
The audience becomes aware of the environment of the performed event by noticing
large or small space
indoor or outdoor
space if formal or informal
One of Artaud’s theories was that the audience becomes part of the action of the performance and thereby establishes direct communication between the spectator and the spectacle this kind of performance space is called
created and found spaces
Which is an examples of theatre that is performed outside in nontraditional settings?
traditional plays in the streets
original plays that focus on the problems of a specific population presented in a community park
politically charged theatre produced by activist groups in the street called guerrilla theatre
When we speak of appropriateness, we are talking about
relationship of stage space to a play or production
At the same time that the English platform stage was taking shape in the courtyards of inns, the same idea was also taking shape in spain. the name of the spanish theatre also performed in the courtyards of inns, was _________
Examples of the kind of physical theatre in which Antonin Artaud wished to abolish the stage and auditorium and replace them by a single site without partition or barrier of any kind…
which of the following best describes the work of Jerzy Grotowski?
created different spaces that fit his plays rather than making the play fit the space
How does this illustration suggest some advantages when using the arena stage
greater sense of intimacy or closeness is achieved than in other theatre spaces
fewer if any barriers such as a proscenium wall to block the view of the audience
this kind of activist theatre is focused on bringing political issues to the people with the purpose of getting us more engaged
It is believed that one possible origin of the arena playing space evolved from the ancient ______ theatre
which of the following are ways the scene designer can influence the mood or the feeling of the audience when they come into a theater space
create a greater sense of intimacy by blocking off the balcony
use lights colors and banners to create an uplifting atmosphere
close the rear of the orchestra if the space is too large
Platform stages set up on one end of a courtyard in an inn were found in
spain and england
Rather than making the play fit the space, Grotowski
made the space fit the play
_____ represents a disadvantage to performance in an arena space
use of elaborate scenery
The wagon stage
was used in the medieval age as a platform on wheels that moved through the town from place to place allowing the audience to stand on three sides
of the 5 basic theatre spaces, why is the thrust arrangement the most widely used?
the 3-quarter viewing configuration helps to create an intimate space
many of the world’s great plays were written specifically with the thrust space in mind
Today computer assisted design or _______ is often used to create ground plans as well as 3-d models of what a set will look like when it is completed
in theatre style refers to….
how a playwrights uses language
the way in which a work is done
how scenery looks
how actors portray characters
The term PROP comes from the term
the ____ designer determines what the visual world of the play will look like
elements of design…
line – outline or silhouette
mass – the overall bulk or weight
composition – balance and arrangement
texture – feel
color – shadings and contrasts of color
major differences between set designs for the stage and the environments in which we find ourselves in everyday life
The designer will create this to assist the director, actors, and stage technicians with the locations of furniture, wall, windows, doors and other scenic elements
Various steps of scene design process
director and designer meet to discuss ideas about the design out of which they will develop a style or visual concept
designer reads the script and begins to develop rough ideas and perhaps sketches to illustrate her ideas
create a rendering more complete sketch that will include color based on discussions with the director
scene design concept
unifying idea carried out visually
complement the directorial concept
arrived at in consultation with the director
because it conforms to our observations of everyday life the top scene is ____ as when the design at the bottom reflects a ____ setting because it departs from observable reality
______ is the relationship of the actor in the set to his or her surroundings
the stage designers blueprint or _____ ____ helps illustrate to the director, performers, and stage technicians the exact location of furniture walls…
set design that should develop and adapt as a performance progresses rather than function independently of the actors
a musical in which characters sing and dance: like shakespeare’s hamlet
solves overall technical problems…
creates and executes all props including special furniture and deciding magical equipment
scenic change artist
make sure sets are built and painted
n charge of painting the set
examples of props
low platform set on wheels that may be brought onstage electronically or by stage hands
a sustic, dusty saloon, messy bedroom, a hot and humid courtroom, a dark palace or forbidding forest help indicate to the audience
location and period
the design work of creating a total environment means
goes beyond scenery and special effects to design an entire theatre space, rearranging seats and orienting the stage to the audience
building an entire theatre space out of a gymnasium or warehouse including seats
a strong scene design
harmonizes with other elements
informs the audience as to where or when the action takes place
sets the tone and style
A more complete sketch, usually in color, based on discussions between the director and the designer is called a _____
the audience perspective should
be conscious of the specific aural and visual signals that are continually being sent
Presenting on the stage people, places, and events corresponding to those in everyday life is called
from the perspective of the audience an actor standing on the right side of the stage but is on the audiences left
perspective of the audience an actor standing on the left side of the stage but is on the audiences right
area of the stage is the farthest away from the audienc
closest to the audience
accurate about scrims
useful in memory plays when looking in the past
effective in scenes where ghosts appear
when scene design becomes more complex?
scene design became more visually spectacular with the arrival of the proscenium arch in italy, and later france and england
Which of the following are important costume collaborations?
-costume shop supervisor
which of the following tools of a costume designer can separate characters, help the audience understand mood and tone, and show character development?
the art of is the art of making women’s hats.
the following are essential of the costume designer: silhouette, color, accessories, shape, fabric, line.
for this related element of costuming the designer designs and then a specialist usually creates a in order to create a unique style of hair often for specific time periods.
costume choices in color, fabric, richness and style can help the audience characters.
which of the following are true about costumes?
-they suggest a point of view
-they require special technical skills
-they must be integrated as part of the whole
-they are crucial in helping an actor create a character
this aspect of costuming is over 2500 years old and was used in the classical greek theatre
When a character is wearing the uniform of a general or the rags of a peasant the audience can glean information about the character’s by the clothes that they wear.
which of the following choices could suggest time and place of a production?
-costumes from the time period in which the play was produced
-costumes from a futuristic time period
-costumes from the era in which the play takes place
in addition to giving the audience factual information about a character, a costume also can convey a or specific idea of the playwright
Which of the following are objectives of costume design?
-unify with other design elements
-contrast characters and groups
-meet the needs of the actors
-indicate time and place
the most important aspect of a costume is:
does it work for the actor
the cut of the fabric for a costume is called .
when we see how a character is dressed on stage we immediately:
-infer things about them
-form our opinions
true or false: unlike other designers the costume designer works alone and has little interaction with others until final dress rehearsal.
please rank the following steps in the order a costume designer would perform them when designing costumes:
-read the script
-meet with director and other designers
-colored rendering with swatches
-meetings with actors.
-final dress rehearsal
when a costume designer rents costumes from another theatre or costume shop or uses stock he or she already has this is called .
Through silhouette, fabric, and other specifics costumes can and should indicate the and location of the play.
which of the following are examples of the lines of a costume?
following fabric of greek toga
-straightness of 1940’s dresses
-bustle of a 19th century dress
which of the following is true of the accessories of costume design?
-the suggest period and locale
-each must be unified with the design as a whole
-they add magic to the theatre
much like a painter has paint, has been described as the costumes designers medium
Which of the following is true of the processes of a set designer and costume designer?
-they first read the script
-first they present thumbnail or preliminary sketches
-they meet with other designers and the director
The purpose of this plan is to show the location, color, and type if every instrument used in the lighting design.
A property of stage lighting is brightness or _______
What are the ways in which the gunshot sound effect could be created in theatre?
A: black cartridges in a gun
hinged pieces of wood slammed together
Question: this form of sound design has been utilized in theatre for several centuries:
A: sound effects
example wooden drum made from slats was used to produce the sound of wind
Question: How does the lighting in this scene from Eurydice create mood?
A: the light create a clash of shadows and abstract shapes
the colors are different at the top of the scene from the bottom
Question: Often found climbing on catwalks and ladders in remote areas of the theatre, the ___ ____ is responsible for the preparation, hanging, and focusing of the lights
Question Numerous light changes from 75 to 150 to many more, created ahead of time that range from blackouts to fades to cross-fades
Question: During the past two thousand years, there have been several sources of stage lighting. Which of the following have been used to illuminate the stage?
A: incandescent lamps
brightness can be controlled by dimmers making the lights brighter or darker
placing a material or gel in slots in front of the lighting instrument
the position and type of lighting instrument as well as angle at which the light strikes the performer
shifting the audiences focus as it is carried from place to place such as when lights go down in one area and comes up in another area
Question: ____ or illumination is the most important function of lighting
Question these are the key design elements that together help to create the mood and style of the production
By choreographing shifts in light in a time continuum, the designer can help the director establish___
____ is the position and type of lighting instrument being used and the angle at which the light strikes the performers on stage
A microphone that is highly directional and aimed from a distance at a specific area is called ____ mike, whereas one that picks up sounds in general area toward which it is aimed is called a ____ mike
Strobe lights can create a special effect of:
Sound reproduction that is called in the script or noises or everyday life that are heard as background, or produced by mechanical or human means to create a sound associated with the play
Scenery, costumes, and ____ are key elements in creating mood and style of a production?
This stage light creates a bright, hard edged spot that can be softened with focus or filter, and can be hung almost anywhere in the theatre?
ellipsoidal reflector spotlight
when the beams of light are aimed at particular area on the stage this is an example of:
A: focus as it relates to theatre lighting
The successful lighting designer possesses
an ability to translate words and actions and feelings into color, direction and intensity
a background in the technical and mechanical aspects of lighting
broad creative visual imagination
Blending sound by balancing all the elements from the various microphones with the master sound recording in order to achieve an overall balance of sound is called ____
The Special effect uses a very dark blue light that causes costumes and scenery painted with phosphorous to glow
To enhance the visual world of the play by revealing the shape and the form of 3d dimensional objects, the lighting designer
side top bottom
In theatre lighting, ____ refers to the fact that beams of light are aimed at a particular area
Sound amplification in theatre is sometimes thought to be controversial because
its detractors believe it is often overdone with the sound being too loud, mechanical or artificial
arranged ahead of time, these light changes or can range from blackouts to fades to cross fades
which of the following statements reflect contemporary sound effects in theatre?
-use of digitally recorded sounds are easy to find and widely used
-devices used to control intensity
-devices that vary the amount of power going into the light
true or false: west side story is a modernization of shakespeare’s the taming of the shrew.
Many advances and inventions in the aftermath of WWII served as a backdrop to developments in theatre. these include:
-advances in medical science
– 6 characters in search of an author
the Sea Gull was writtne by one of russia’s best-known short story writers…
in talking about his antirealistic drama A Dream Play tells us that the events of the play are dramatized in “the disconnected but apparently logical form of a dream”
in an effort to reinforce the ridiculousness of existence, including human relationships and human language, as nonsensical or futile playwrights
-set the plays in sometimes unrecognizable places
-used plots that do not have traditional structure
-created the appearance of nothing seeming to happen
the period immediately following WWII between 1945 and 1975
-is one of a great deal of experimentation in theatre
began in germany and used distortion such as grotesque images, lyrics and unrealistic dialogue to characterize subjective stages of mind
streetcar named desire
is the most famous playwright of “slice of life” drama.
theatre in france under the direction of Paul Fort was dedicated to presenting anti realistic drama and production styles
theate d arte
After 1975, major changes in the musical theatre include
-emergence of director-choreographer
-rise of british composers and musicals
which of these artforms contributed to the development of the american musical?
departures from realism may include
-ghosts or witches
this avant-garde dramatic form suggests that life is ridiculous and cannot be explained logically, and that the ridiculous human condition in which we find ourselves should be expresses in dramatic action
theatre of the absurd
practitioners who attempted to bridge the gap between realism and antirealism arguing that each play should define its own form were called
a few of the best known independent theatres were