Advanced Technology in the Agriculture


Climate changes and rainfall has been erratic o ver the past decade. Plants required good climatic condition for his optimal growth . Due to the changes in climate changes the yield of crops is been reduced for long an year . To overcome this the automated agricultural assistant will guide us if any conditions fall out of the optimal range. Aim of the project is to assist the farmers to improve agricultural practices using the image processing technique. High precision camera and image processing technique will be used to monitor the agriculture field.

Sensors will be used to monitor the relevant agricultural parameters. Data will be stored in the cloud and can be retrieved at any time for future use and also u se animal repellent to reduce the animals and birds in the farm land. So we can maximize the crop and increase the production. Keywords: Optimal growth, Image processing. High precision camera, optimal range.


Pesticides are used in worldwide agriculture.

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Between 30% and 40% of crop losses can be prevented when harmful insects and diseases are eliminated by use of pesticides. This pesticides are destroy the diseases but that affect the human. This affection can reduced by this project. Here image processing is done by using the raspberry pi the frequency of this controller is high when compared to arduino, this can done by various parameter of images that can feed into the controller whenever the camera can detect the crop, the image can compare with various parameter and then controller gives the exact result, the crop can affected by infection or not.

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If the crop can be infected the sprayer can spray the pesticides into the crop otherwise it cannot be spray. The rover can move this position through overall crop land by using line follower technique. The crop can be identify by using proximity sensor and also using animal repellent for removing the insects from the crop land.


  1. The farmer can be safe while spraying of pesticide in the farm land and also reduction of manual cost.
  2. Reduce the toxic content in the food.
  3. Literature Survey It survey is conducted to understand the different spraying methods. N.Gandhiraj [1], FEB 2016 studies the Quad copter UAV based fertilizer andpesticide spraying system . B ut this one is costlier when compare to manual one, here analysing the pesticide  praying system.

Dr.S.Thangalakshmi [2], AUG 2015 studies the Electronic Trapping and monitoring of the insects pests troubling the Agricultural fields. But here drones are used, but these kinds of drones are restricted in some areas.

R.Pram odh [3], AUG 2016 studies the Concept, Design, Analysis and Fabrication of Pesticide Sprayer for Rose Farming. But here Copter with a pulley model was used, Healthy plants also got pesticides spray.

System block diagram

Hardware design: Power supply module Assemblies of solar cells are used to make solar modules which are used to capture energy from sunlight. Here we have used 3W solar panel. The buck boost converter is a type of DC -to-DC converter that has an output voltage magnitude that is either greater than or less than the input voltage magnitude.

Control module

The Raspberry pi Processor speed ranges from 700 MHz to 1.4 GHz and memory range is 256MB. Secure Digital (SD) cards are used to store the operating system and program memory. The boards have one to four USB ports. For video output, HDMI and composite video are supported, with a standard 3.5 mm tip -ring -sleeve jack for audio output. Lower -level output is provided by a number of GPIO pins, which support common protocols like I?C and this is used to image processing for the crop this controller is used to analysis the affecting crops by matching the various parameter.

Driver Module

L293D is a typical Motor driver or Motor Driver IC which allows DC motor to drive on either direction. L293D is a 16 – pin IC which can control a set of two DC motors simultaneously in any direction. It means that you can control two DC mo tor with a single L293D IC. The L293D can drive small and quiet big motors as well. It works on the concept of H -bridge. H -bridge is a circuit which allows the voltage to be flown in either direction as voltage need to change its direction for being able t o rotate the motor in clockwise or anticlockwise direction, Hence H bridge IC are ideal for driving a DC motor for this purpose.

  • Filter
  • Circuit
  • Raspberry pi
  • Controller
  • Solar panel
  • Rechargable Battery
  • Charge
  • Controller
  • LCD Display
  • Motor
  • Driver
  • Motor & Wheels
  • Ultrasonic
  • Sensor
  • Camera Crops
  • DC
  • Pump
  • Sprayer Relay
  • circuit

Spray Module

A Relay driver is an electro -magnetic switch that will be used whenever we want to use a low voltage circuit to switch a light bulb ON and OFF which is connected to 220V mains supply. The required current to run the relay coil is more than can be supplied by various i ntegrated circuits like Op -Amp, etc. Relays have unique properties and are replaced with solid state switches that are strong than solid -state devices. In order to drive the relay, we use transistor and only less power can be possibly used to get the relay driven. Since transistor is an amplifier so th e base lead receives sufficient current to make more current flow from Emitter of Transistor to Collector. The conduction of transistor can be controlled using base current and thus the spraying.

Obstacle avoidance module

Ultrasonic sensor HC -SR04 is used todetect the presence of human or objectwhile moving of the vehicle. To startmeasurement, Trig of SR04 must receive apulse of high (5V) for at least 10 microseconds, this will initiate the sensor totransmit out 8 cycle of ultrasonic burst at 40kHz and wait for the reflected ultrasoni cburst. When the sensor detected ultrasonicfrom receiver, it will set the Echo pin toohigh (5 V) and delay for a period (width)which is proportional to distance. To obtainthe distance, measure the width (Ton) ofEcho pin. Now if distance is within a l imitsystem stops and sends information.

Level Sensor

Level sensor detects the level of liquids andother fluids. The level measurement can beeither continuous or point values.Continuous level sensor measure within aspecified range and determine t he exactamount of substance in a certain place,while point -level sensors only indicateswhether the substance is above or below thesensing point.Generally the latter detectlevels that are excessively high or low.when the pesticides is goes on below toparticular level then buzzer will be on . Itindicates the pesticides quantity.


In these project t he mechatronics andelectronics system are c ombined andmaking a robot with spraying system. Therobot & sprinkler operated wirelessly. Theaim of our pro ject is spray pesticides on theplants who are affected by diseases andother organisms. For that purpose we aremaking the wireless operated robot withsprayer and it is operated by using RFmodule . The transmitter section of RFmodule is on user side that is remote sectionand receiver section is mounted on robot.The remote contains seven keys forforward, backward, right turn, left turnthese keys us ed for robot control and the up& down key u sed for adjusting the height ofspr inkler, one other key start and stop thespraying system. The powe r supply for therobot is comes through a 9V battery. TheRaspberry pi microco ntroller is used to theoperate many operations lik e move robot,spray pesticides, adjusting height at on etime for that we selected the Raspberry pimicrocontroller because it specifies ourrequirements and also with high precision.Another thing is battery that is of 12Vrechargeable is used & regulated po wersupply is used to gives the supply formicrocontroll er and for the motors. Thepower supply gives to motors throughmotor driver circuit (L293D IC). Here weuse the leve l sensor to detect the level of thepesticides and alarm us when the level ofpesticides is goes b elow on that levelsensor, when the level go es below to thelevel sensor then buzzer .will be ON and w eknows that pesticides tank is empty. We usethe two sprayer to spray pesticides on twosides at a time. Wh en robot is running thesprayer spray pesticides on both sides ofrobot .Figure 3: Image processing for detection ofinfecting crops.

Flow Chart

Sprinkler motor with PID controllerThe sprinkler motor is used to spraypesticides. In order to achieve precision inspraying and to improve the efficiencyvarious new technologies have beenproposed. Pre mixing of pesticides to aconstant thickness will not be efficient asthe pesticide re quirement varies with eachcrop so this will lead to wastage ofpesticides and the results will not beoptimum [15]. When Microprocessor,Differential pressure flow meter, Electricalcontrol injector is used in a system the testresults were as follows sta tic and steadystate errors were reduced significantly.Further improvements can be done toachieve the better spray rates of pesticides.When a PID controller is used in the closedloop feedback of the sprinkler motor foronline flow control for variable rate spray,linear and automatic flow control can beobtainedHere,SP – Set pointMV is the Manipulated variablee (t) – Error SignalPV is the Process variable


The paper was aimed at not just to extendthe application of advanced technology inthe field of agriculture, but also to bring thetechnology close to the reach of farmers infinancial aspect, in a very convenient way.The paper proposes smart machinery f oragriculture which promises to overcomecertain challenges which lie in the presentday agriculture. It encourages the use oftechnology to improve the productivity inagriculture. It reduces certain tedious workin agriculture and hence encourages manypeople to take up agriculture as anoccupation. In this regard, the paperproposes an agriculture vehicle whichproves to be feasible and economical to allclasses of farmers who do both large scaleand small scale farming. The vehicle is easyto operate a nd is user friendly. It also helpsthe farmers in hitting their target of highproductivity along with secured farming.The agricultural vehicle for sprayingpesticides proposed in this paper is acollaboration of all basic feasibletechnologies, to bring out a new and needyvehicle to assist farmers in tasks involvingrisks. Projects like this encourage people totake up cultivation as full time and part timejobs. This is very essential in developingcountries, especially India, whereagriculture is the b ackbone of the economy.


  1. Concept, Desi gn, Analysis andFabrication of Pesticide Sprayer for RoseFarming, International Journal of Scienceand Research (IJSR) ISSN (Online): 2319 -7064 Index Copernicus Value (2015) : 78.96| Impact Factor(2015): 6.391
  2.  Crop and Weed Detection Based onTexture and Size Features and AutomaticSpraying of Herbicides, Volume 6, Issue 1,January 2016 ISSN: 2277 128XInternational Journal of AdvancedResearch in Computer Science andSoftware Engineering.
  3.  Plant Disease Prediction using ImageProcessing Techniques, InternationalJournal of Comput er Science and MobileComputing ISSN 2320 -088XIMPACT FACTOR: 5.258 IJCSMC, Vol. 5,Issue. 5, May 2016, pg.394 – 398.
  4. Automatic Adjustable Spraying Devicefor Site -Spe cific Agricultural Application ,1545 -5955 © 2017 IEEE.
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Advanced Technology in the Agriculture. (2019, Dec 06). Retrieved from

Advanced Technology in the Agriculture

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