Factors affecting growth and development Essay
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There are numerous factors that could potentially affect how an individual grows and develops. As Beyoncé was growing up she may or may not have experienced factors that could influence on how she lives and what her future plans out to be. In this assignment, I will explain different situations for 5 life factors that may determine how someone lives. One of these is the biological factor. This is anything that affects how someone develops for example FAS. The second factor is environmental, this affects how someone develops due to their surroundings e.
g. someone who is asthmatic. Thirdly is the socioeconomic factor, which according to Classroom.synonym.com (2017) “are the social and economic experiences and realities that help mold one’s personality, attitudes, and lifestyle. The factor can also define refine regions and neighborhoods.” Next is the genetic factor this factor is based on things that affect an individual’s development because of their DNA. Finally is the lifestyle factor this is where the life that someone lives can affect how they develop physically, intellectually, emotionally and socially.
A biological factor that I would be explaining is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), which ultimately is an avoidable condition caused by the heavy consumption of alcohol that the pregnant mother is in taking. When an individual is pregnant the baby depends on them to be able to survive and grow, this process is done from the mother passing nutrients and oxygen from her blood, into the unborn baby’s placenta which then travels to the baby’s bloodstream. The mother will also help with the removal of waste and CO from the unborn baby. When a mother drinks alcohol it gets into her bloodstream which then eventually will pass through the placenta, which separates the mothers and baby’s blood, then entering the baby’s bloodstream. Mackintosh. M (2017) says that “drinking alcohol in the first three months is linked to miscarriage and birth abnormalities.” This is due to the high rate of alcohol in the baby’s blood which reduces the rate of oxygen causing hindering the development of the baby’s lungs, heart and brain.
There are many reasons on why someone may want to drink alcohol whilst pregnant. One reason could be that they are addicted to alcohol meaning that they can’t usually stop without the help of other people. Another reason could be that the mother just simply is totally clueless of her pregnancy, therefore, has carried on as normal for the first couple of months of the pregnancy. However, for many of the different reasons, there are people who are willing to help to ensure the safety of you and the unborn baby. An individual living with FAS will normally have visible physical effects such as distinctive facial features which include: a small head, narrow eyes and a smooth philtrum (the area between the nose and top lip). However, these features are more apparent when they are younger.
It is known for some people who have FAS to have learning difficulties such as such as problems with thinking, speech, social skills, timekeeping, math’s or memory and mood, attention or behavioral problems – such as autism-like behavior or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (NHS.UK, 2017) According to psychiatry.emory.edu (2017), “Children and adolescent with FAS and other alcohol-related disorders may be developmentally delayed, have mental retardation or have problems with specific learning differences or disabilities. These conditions are often associated with social, emotional, behavioral, and academic problems.” When these and other deficits are not identified early in life, children may be viewed as being deliberately “bad” or having “emotional” problems when, in fact, they are unable to act in ways that caregivers ask of them. Such labels can be very damaging to self-esteem.”
There are many environmental factors that could affect an individual’s development, physically, intellectually, emotionally, and socially. For this factor, I will be explaining the effects of ‘Damp and Overcrowded Housing’. Dampness in buildings are mainly caused by the condensation of moisture in the air, the moisture settles and create perfect environments for bacteria such as fungi to grow. For example, If the mold/damp is present on a painted or wallpapered wall, it would cause the paint or wallpaper to peel away from them. If the mold continues to grow, it increases the risk of respiratory problems such as coughs and asthma, this is more likely for children. Many families live in a house that thrives with mold and dampness, leaving them open to the effects.
There are many children who will experience asthma attacks due to the mold and overcrowding, resulting in them missing vital days of school. Which then lowers their chances of getting good qualifications, decreasing the chances of getting well-paid jobs. Living in poor quality housing will also affect an individual’s mental state, they may end up being depressed and stressed, due to the pressures that they are put under. The effects of stress can lead to behavioral problems such as eating disorders, physical problems such as nausea and dizziness, and cognitive problems such as memory loss, (Helpguide.org, 2017). It may also result in miscarriages or premature births which isn’t really good for the mother or the child. Due to there not being enough room in the house it could cause fights and relationship pressures to occur. Living in a damp and overcrowded house can also lead to other environmental factors such as discrimination. Discrimination affects both the children and adults of the family. For example, if a child, living in a house that has damp went to school some children may bully that individual because their clothes may smell like damp. This will affect how they make friends, because they may be wary about how people will react to them due to the past or ongoing situations of where they have been bullied.
“Children from low-income families often forgo events that most of us would take for granted. They miss school trips; can’t invite friends round for tea; and can’t afford a one-week holiday away from home. While studies show that there are more play areas in deprived areas, their quality is generally poorer. Vandalism, playground misuse and danger of injury all act as deterrents to using what otherwise might be good facilities.” (cpag.org, 2017)
Income is the money that an individual or household gets and according to myaccountingcourse.com (2017) expenditures “are payments of currency or barter credits for necessary inputs (goods or services). This could be anything from purchases equipment to hiring employees. Obligatory settlements or payment of liabilities such as invoices, receipts, and vouchers can also be considered expenditures.” Both expenditures and income can affect an individual’s life in positive and negative ways, “your income has a greater impact on your health than lifestyle choices.” (Therecord.com 2017). An individual living in a high-income family may experience many positive interactions and opportunities that people who may be living in a low-income family may not experience. However, there are some disadvantages of being in a high-income family is that others may take advantage of them, for the money. Another disadvantage that applies to both high and low-income families is that the individuals within may start to become ungrateful towards things and not think of others.
Children who live in low-income households tend to struggle more than others with a higher income in many situations in life for example education or health, this is the secondary effects of an individual being poorer. Children living in poorer households are more likely to have low attendance/punctuality at school and are also more likely to get behavior referrals due to ‘bad behavior’. Lowered attendance leads too many missed lessons which put them behind hindering their intellectual development and their behavior which is seen as socially wrong would impact on them making friends. “Education is the process of learning. It includes the difference in the level of education that somebody has received and the qualifications that somebody has,” (classroom notes, 2017). Children from around the age of 5 may start to experience being bullied, due to their family income by other children, this can cause emotional outbursts triggering them to act out or even being extremely weary and quiet. Bullying can cause an individual to be emotionally unstable which will have impacts on their sexual relationships in future life. According to jrf.org.uk, (2017) “income influences many different outcomes at the same time, including maternal mental health and children\’s anxiety levels and behavior.”
Someone living in a high-income family will physical dress up well and they may have the latest fashion trends, whereas someone living in a low-income family may appear to have scruffy or large clothes that may most likely be handed down from a family member.
The genetic factor that I will be explaining in this assessment is cystic fibrosis (CF). Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which causes a mass production of mucus to build up throughout the individual’s organs in their body. An individual will only get CF if both biological parents were carriers of the gene. This means that parents that don’t have CF have a possibility of conceiving a child who has and shows CF. this disorder is very harmfully for an individual it affects their lungs due to the buildup of mucus in the pathways which then leaves them open to infections. Cysticfibrosis.org.uk (2017), states that “Cystic fibrosis can cause the pancreas to become blocked with mucus, and when this happens enzymes required for digesting food cannot reach the stomach. People with CF often need to take more than 50 tablets a day to help digest food and keep respiratory symptoms in check.”
Someone who has cystic fibrosis will have a lowered life expectancy the average life expectancy of someone one living with CF is 41years old. Cystic fibrosis affects someone’s daily life because for treatment an individual will have to go through daily routines such as physio and taken tablets. These help to control the effects of CF. “Living with a chronic disease, such as CF, can be emotionally challenging. Although moments of sadness and anxiety due to the uncertainty of your health may come and go, depression and persistent anxiety should be treated as part of your overall health and emotional wellness.” (cff.org, 2017). Due to appointments, a CF patient may experience a low attendance at school or college, the missing lesson will then have intellectual development issues on the individual because they have missed out on key information that the teacher has given out. This disadvantages that individual compared to their peers which might cause them to feel isolated.
For this factor, I will be explaining about the use and misuse of substances. There are 2 types of drugs that someone may use these are: medical drugs such as paracetamol are usually prescribed by a doctor, to either relieve pain or to cure illness. Mackintosh. M (2017), explains that “recreational drugs such as alcohol and tobacco are taken by people because they like the effects that they have on their bodies, but they are addictive. Heroin and cocaine are illegal recreational drugs that are very addictive.”
There are 3 main categories of drugs these are depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens (cause hallucinations or sensations and images that seem real though they are not). These will all influence an individual, however, the effects will be different depending on the type of drug that they have taken. Depressants such as alcohol and heroin tend to reduce the activity of an individual’s nervous system for a while. Some people will drink alcohol because they are feeling low/stressed, however, the effects of the alcohol cause the person to feel even lower so then they would drink some more, and the cycle will then continue. This may result in an individual beige pendant on alcohol which is a gateway to addiction. According to Wikipedia.org (2017), “alcohol intoxication affects the brain causing slurred speech and delayed reflexes.” Stimulants such as caffeine, speed up the reactions of the nervous system resulting in high performances in sports. According to Drugfreeworld.com (2017), “Stimulants can be addictive. Repeated high doses of some stimulants over a short period can lead to feelings of hostility or paranoia. Such doses may also result in dangerously high body temperatures and an irregular heartbeat.” This can cause individuals to feel socially cut off from everyone, which will affect them socially and emotionally.