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Facilities Planning Essay

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* To understand the basic fundamentals and importance of Facilities as applied in the Small or Medium-Scale Manufacturing industries

* To understand and apply the concepts of product and process design in terms of MANUFACTURING

* To develop alternative materials in to yield cost-reduction and productivity

* To understand and apply the concepts of evaluating, selecting, preparing, presenting, implementing and maintaining the workplace and formulate preventions and propose improvements.

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* To conduct improvements in product mix and design; processing and materials technology; handling, storage, and control technology; production volumes, schedules, and routings, and Management philosophies.

* To come up with assessment, findings, analyses and recommendations on how to quickly respond to varying customer requirements.

* To propose changes whether in the process, methods, or materials with the end view of improving the reduction of work-in-process and just-in-time manufacturing


Machines Can Only Produce as Efficiently as the People Who Operate Them


U.S. manufacturers are making a strong effort to gain back some of the consumer loyalty lost to their foreign competitors, who since the late 70’s have been offering American consumers higher quality products at lower costs.

U.S. companies believed that foreign competitors were able to achieve more efficient production through technological advances, when in fact the competition abroad was actually achieving increased production by relying on more productive people, not machines. Addressing this misconception, U.S. manufacturers have begun to concentrate efforts on making people more productive and machines more user friendly.

Manufacturers are beginning to realize the best way to improve quality and increase efficiency is through better training and more informed operators. A person who is given a clear direction� as to what the corporate objectives are for his or her function, as well as responsibility and authority, will produce a far superior product than a person who has no ownership in their job. There is no one better equipped to improve a process than the person working closest to it.

Modernizations have reduced the overall number of machine operators, a greater majority of those remaining are being asked to take a more responsible and participatory role in the manufacturing control process. Rather than being blindly driven by new manufacturing technologies, companies are demanding better ways for operators to interact with their machines or processes. Operators are being asked to become managers, to be more involved in the decision-making process, they are being trained to use tools designed to determine whether the manufacturing process will result in a quality product.

Effectively operators need fast access to accurate data. Since the operator workstation is at the heart of each manufacturing information system, the concentration has been to make workstations more responsive. Operators are demanding higher levels of information presentation in their workstations, so design engineers have been forced to seek technology that not only allows for a more sophisticated display of information, but also permits the operator to act on the information quickly, accurately and easily.

The demand for increased productivity and efficiency on the plant floor has prompted factory floor automation suppliers to develop more open relationships to identify effective methods of integrating new technology into the production process. Suppliers are beginning to realize the advantages of sharing their proprietary design information. While there is a risk associated with releasing technological information, the benefit to suppliers working cooperatively to give operators the tools they need to be more productive is increased market share domestically and worldwide. As we strive to deliver more information to the factory floor in less time through advances in computer technology, we should never forget that our most sophisticated technologies must eventually flow through the hands of a single operator. That’s why companies are devoting resources to bringing products to market which make the connection between man and machine easier, faster and better.


The Rotessa’s Garment was owned by Mr. Rogelio Habacon Sr. The operation started at the year 2003. They found out that the demand of denims or known as pants can be a good business. They sub contract the different kinds of pants like Diesel, Guess, Nafnaf, Abercrombie and many more. As of now their main client was the Swan Lake which is responsible for distributing in the market.

According to Mr. Rogelio Cu Sr., the assistant, being in the garment business is hard to manage. You really have to put more attention to be able to have a large profit. One of the main problems they are encountering was the sewers. They must be trained properly and there must be discipline.

Existing demand: 152 pieces/day (Standard) ; 19 units per hour

No. of workers: 25 workers

No. of machines: 22 machines

6 Special Machines


* Pipe thread

* Loop Machine

* Bartaxs

* Waist binding machine

* Button holes

16 High Speed Sewing Machines

Machine Cost:

All machines were second hand

PHP 20,000 – High Speed Machine(per machine)

PHP 25,000 – Buttonholes

PHP 15,000 – Pipe thread

PHP 20,000 – Waist Binding, Bartax, Loop Machine

PHP 15,000 – FOA

Working Time:

* 4 Hours per day

* 8 Hours per day

* Unlimited or 24 hours

Sales per Unit

PHP 125


Rotessa’s Garments main problem is manual material handling in transferring their products. They generate waste from the time on hand (waiting), distribution and processing of garments.

By assessing the company’s workplace the team found out that these problems were generated due to the lack of workers’ performance, the equipment being used, material handling and transportation techniques.

Since cutting, sewing, and pressing of buttons are involve in the operation, handling of materials play an important role. Work done causes difficulty since the method of work is time-consuming.

Signs are situated at the left area of the vicinity. It is posted on the wall where some workers can’t see. Because of this, some workers forgot to follow proper procedures and policies inside the building. This creates difficulty with respect to the processing sequence of the industry.

We have observed that the operation in the shop environment is manual creating complexity with the tasks being utilized by the workers. There is an improper placement of raw materials and poor layout of the orderly flows of material, equipment, people and information.

We can say that the equipments being used are over-depreciated, which can no longer be used to utilize production effectively. The reason why poor equipments are present is because of improper maintenance of equipment.

Tools like scissors, cutters and screwdrivers are not properly secured. This happens because there are on policies that involve good handling of equipment.


The following objectives of this study should be considered:

* Create an environment that results in the production of high-quality products

* Provide planned and orderly flows of material, equipment, people and information

* Design a layout and material handling system that can be easily adapted to changes in product mix and production volumes

* Reduce work-in-process and provide controlled flow and storage of materials

* Reduce material handling at and between workstations

* Utilize space most effectively, considering overhead space and impediments to cross traffic


This study focuses on the methods, layout and processes used in the Garment industry. We limit our scope within the product mix and design; processing and materials technology; handling, storage, and control technology; production volumes, schedules and routings; and management philosophies. All the data collected in this study must meet the requirements stated in the objective of the study. However, each study has its limitations that will be discussed below.

* Inflexible in the number of products manufactured

* Improper labeling, storage and arrangement of materials

* Inflexible layout

* Large deviation in production rates in case of equipment failure in the line

* Waste arising from unnecessary motion (unlikely event)

* Waste arising from producing defective products

* Waste arising from transporting

* Waste arising from processing itself

* Waste arising from unnecessary stock on hand








1. Marking or Stamping

2. Edging of pockets

3. Heaming

4. Watch pocket to front pocket

5. Front pocket to lining

6. Lining to front panel

7. Staynant

8. Zipper to ply

9. Zipper to panel

10. Tap zipper

11. Connecting riser

12. Back seam

13. Attach back pocket to back panel

14. In seam

15. Side seam

16. Tap side (side binding)

17. Waist band

18. Closed band

19. Making loops

20. Heam leg

21. Button holes

22. Bartaxs / loops attaching

23. Trim

24. Revise and fold






In order to determine what specific problem we will be focusing on, we will use the Pareto principle to determine the significant few (80%) of the main problems in the company. We will focus on the significant few problems of the company however, we will still propose an improved plan for the trivial many after payback period of the first investment in order to fully utilize production rates effectively. The reason behind this is because the company does not have enough funds to support the entire plan that will be proposed. After saving enough money from the minimization of the top problems, the company will implement the entire plan that will be proposed.

Identifying the reasons of the impact on the facilities design function, the researchers surveyed the reasons of such event. The survey resulted as follows:


We design a plan in order to solve the significant few problem of the company. This program is designed to provide the smoothest flow of materials, achieve flexibility, improve quality, increase productivity and space utilization, and simultaneously reduce facilities and operating costs. The following trends can be utilized:

* Eliminate or minimize non-value-adding activities

* Simultaneously use Material Handling

* Improve design

* Proper storage and arrangement of materials

* Anticipate unlikely events

* Proper labeling

* Need for test/ inspection

* Ergonomic orientation

* Minimize the use of time and space resources

* Manufacture in the shortest cycle time possible

* Stockless production

* Material as needed and required

* Continuous-flow manufacturing

* Zero-inventory production systems

In conclusion, we recommend this plan that we designed to improve the performance of the company and to improve the impact of the facilities design function. The continued trend toward just-in-time manufacturing puts the material handling and layout functions to the front line. By designing and implementing the plan we were able to meet out objective and creates the essence of the material handling function by 50%. The following elements will be further discussed:

* Right Amount

How much inventory is needed?

What is needed?

What is not anticipated?

* Right Material

Simplifying the parts numbering system and maintaining the integrity and accuracy of the database system are more fundamental tasks

* Right Sequence

Eliminate unnecessary operations or improving those that remain.

* Right Orientation

Means positioning the material for ease of handling

* Right Place

Addresses both transportation and storage. It is desirable to directly transport material to the point of use rather than store the material at some intermediate location.

* Right Time

It means on-time delivery. The goal is to develop a material handling system that will result in lower production cycle times, and not to lower material handling delivery times.

* Right Cost

To design the most efficient material handling systems at the most reasonable cost. This would entail the lowest possible cost that can be acquired from the “From-To Chart”.

* Right Method

Using more than one method is generally the right thing to do

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