Explain the reasons for the Sino-Soviet split in the 1960s Essay
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In this essay I will be showing the reasons for why the Soviet-Split happened in the 1950s and 1960s.
In 1959 a treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance was established and was signed by soviet Russia and Peoples Republic of China.
Whilst Russia had the Technology the Chinese could offer the man power to support this which seemed like a perfect partnership.
This treaty was about Russia and China sharing ideas and technologies together but Russia often refused to share there knowledge of such things such as the A-bomb and the fact that the soviets didn’t offer assistance when China had their confrontation with Taiwan in 1958 and India in 1959, the Chinese were again disappointed with the Soviet response.
From the Chinese perspective, the U.S.S.R. seemed to be promoting its own national agenda and losing sight of the shared ideals and goals of Communism. The Sino-Soviet relationship was strained as tension between the two countries began to grow.
Because of these reasons the split was obvious by the end of 1950s.
The leaders of the union were alarmed at Mao’s hatred of America and they refused to help China develop there own atom bomb.
China did manage to blow her first A-Bomb in 1964 followed by an H-bomb in 1969. This was all accomplished without soviet Aid.
Mao seemed to advocate a nuclear war on the enemies of the communists.
During the 1950s the Chinese leader Mao thought that China was being used as a Soviet satellite and rather than an equal partners which was stated in the treaty.
It was clear that Mao and Khrushchev had different ideas on Communism and Capitalism because in one of Mao statements he noted that
“I talked about the danger of nuclear war with a foreign leader. He believed that if a nuclear war was fought the whole of mankind would be killed. I said that if the worst came to the worst and half of mankind died the other half would remain while capitalism would have been smashed and the whole world would become communists.”
This statement shows that Mao was confident in the fact that Communism would flourish if the world was drawn into a nuclear war.
Khrushchev said that:
“Anyone who thinks that communism can be advanced by war belongs in the lunatic asylum.”
Khrushchev statement tells us that Communism could never be achieved no matter what happened in the world.
These Statements by both leaders tells us that when they signed the treaty they were going to complete there own goals no matter want so overall the treaty was nothing more than a sham.
The suspicions that China had against the soviets was supported greatly in the year of 1959 when Khrushchev went to the United States to have meeting with President Eisenhower.
China viewed this as a betrayal of the Communist plan and that it was an attempt for worldwide revolution.
This had a very important part in the crumble of the Sino-Soviet split because China wanted to be communist and not be part of the worldwide revolution which the United States of America wanted. Overall this was part of a long term effect on the Sino soviet split.
Short effects that made a small contribution to the Sino-Soviet split were that the soviets made fun of the fact that China was not able to handle the technologies that Russia had.
“How can the Chinese be qualified to manufacture nuclear weapons when they eat watery soup out of a common bowl and do not even have trousers to wear.”
These statement made by the soviets is clearly mocking the Chinese because it states that they are not advanced enough to handle the technologies.
Because of this the Chinese did not receive the bomb and of course broke the treaty yet again adding more conflict between Russia and China.
On 16 July 1960, the U.S.S.R. withdrew all its specialists and technical advisors from China. Though the quality of the relationship between the two countries had been slowly declining for years, this recall of personnel is often considered the definitive moment for dissolution of Sino-Soviet cooperation.
This was seen as a big turning point in the cold because the threat to the United States was diminished.
During the year of 1969 the governments accused each other of provoking incidents along the border that separated China and Russia from each other. This disputed territory was surrendered to Russia in 1858 and 1860; When China was to weak to fight back and had to surrender it. The tension has been building up since and each side has armed forces on it. This clash had been threatened to brake out in 1969. Between March and August, in a series of incidents, Shots had been fired between the border guards and some guards got shot as a result of this.
Each of the countries accused each other of being the aggressor and for a time there seemed to be a danger of a full scale war.
Because of this incident war seemed imminent but war was averted and became a close call between the tensions that the countries shared against each other.
In conclusion I thought that the Sino-Soviet split was predictable. There was too many differences in there believes and ways of life’s for the treaty to stay together through the years.
This could have been different if there were different leaders in charge of the countries and the communist and capitalist parties.