Experimental Psychology

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 31 December 2016

Experimental Psychology

Remembering has to do with being able to recall information, being able to retrieve information kept in the log-term memory. Forgetting occurs when information that was encoded and kept in a person’s long-term memory is lost. This may occur gradually or spontaneously. Repeating or reviewing information reduces forgetting rates. Theories of forgetting include cue-dependent forgetting, organic, trace decay, interference theories and decay theory. Retroactive interference is when the past memory interferes with the later memory; Recalling depends on memory, retrieving the material that was learned.

It is closely related to recognition, being in a position to spot any material that one has once encountered. It is thought that the rate of forgetting is highest soon after the learning task is over. This rate is believed to be the highest on the first day but even after the first two weeks, this rate is likely to be high still. However, if an individual persistently and consistently covers or carries out the similar activity after two weeks, there are low chances of forgetting. It is also thought to be easier to remember what someone has read than what the person has heard (Fred, 2002).

Causes of Forgetting Forgetting is associated with retroactive interference in which case something new that has been learned usually affects something that was learned some time earlier. In this case, whatever is learned anew interferes with what was learned long ago. The other cause is interactive interference in which case the new and old knowledge tend to mix and interfere with any new learning that might take no place or recall of any new knowledge. Proactive interference happens when information learned earlier on interferes with the learning of any new knowledge.

The last cause of forgetting is reactive interference which occurs when either positive or negative feelings or attitudes that a person holds for sometime prevent an individual from learning new information (Eric, 2004). Once material is learned, it is important that it be repeated to memorize fully. Most things that an individual does not intend to remember at first are easily forgotten. Memory and forgetting are closely related as they are all determined by what experience an individual goes through at a certain time. Techniques for Remembering The individual should emphasize on concentration.

This means creating and sustaining attention while doing a certain activity. There should be no form of distraction, whatsoever to the individual. To concentrate effectively, a person is supposed to identify anything that will cause distraction while concentrating and try to eliminate or evade the distracting agent. This may be either internal or external interference. Internal distractions can be dealt with by writing down the distractions on a piece of a paper and dealing with them later. External distractions can be handled by avoiding them physically as they are in the environment.

It is important to comprehend information as this could assist in the remembering process. Comprehending entails getting actively interested in what one is doing. Memory assists much in remembering what has been learned in a certain period of time. Memory can be improved by sharpening on what has already been learned. Memory is perfected through work with passage of time. Sufficient concentration on what is being done also helps to sharpen memory. It has been discovered that forgetting forms part of remembering. There exist some competing memories in human beings.

For memory to function well, the brain has to actively block competing memories. The kind of forgetting that is induced is of great benefit as it assists to suppress the competing memories (Gresham, 2002). Writing Research Reports A research report is written aimed at giving people a chance to read the work you have done selectively. The paper will be read by various individuals; some of them are likely to be looking for just sections within that paper hence the report has to be organized in a sequence so as to give the potential readers an easy time looking for what they want in your paper. A research report is made up of various parts.

However a standard research report is made up of such parts as highlighted below. Each of the sections of a research report is supposed to begin on a new page. Various articles, journals have different contents and others deviate from the normal way of writing a report. The following sections are however generally considered as being key and must be included in the form given below. Title page, then the abstract, the introduction is to be next followed by materials and methods used in the report. The results for the report project are to come next followed by a discussion basing on the results of the report.

The literature cited is to come just after the discussion. Examples to illustrate what the report is about are to come afterwards. Some journals however tend to emphasize that a summary be included in the report just after the discussion. It is also possible that appendix having equations, calculations and formulas can be included in the report as other technical articles do. The above order is the standard order as the sections of the report are supposed to follow each other (McMillan, 1994). While writing a research report, it is important that paragraphs be used in separating major points.

These should be in a logical order and present tense has to be used in describing what is already established. Past tense has to be used in giving results relating to your own specific experiments. The title page is supposed to have a relevant topic that will inform the reader what to expect in the report. This should have names as well as addresses related to the author together with the date when the report was handed in. The abstract is supposed to give a summary of what the study is all about, important conclusions from the study and this is to be brief, only a paragraph. It is to be written in past tense.

The introduction is supposed to show why the study was carried out, how relevant the report is, how the aim of the experiment and the results relate to the thesis. It should not be as conclusive as the main body is to expound much. Methods and the materials give a documentation of main procedures in the study and this enables the other person reading your work to reproduce the work, if they so want to. It should be in past tense. Only information that is relevant to the intended party is included. In the results, an analysis has to be done and data presented as a table, graph or in narrative form, with the heading.

It should be changed data. The relationship of sections within the converted data has to be described vividly. In the discussion part, the data is interpreted. Give a decision on whether your theory is supported or not. Make a relevant conclusion and explain if any modifications can be done to test your hypothesis. It is important to explain the observations very clearly and these should base on relevant principles. Any data that you generate ion your own has to be clearly distinguished from that gotten from a published material (Joyce, 2002). Give a clear decision on whether design supported the experimental hypothesis.

Literature cited involves the material cited within the report, names of authors in alphabetical order. Here, only primary material is used. Where no references were used in the report, state so.

References

Eric, M. (2004). Educational Psychology. Washington: World ahead Publishers. Fred, R. (2002). Critical and Creative Thinking: Cases. New York: Prentice Hall. Gresham, P. (2002). Modern online auctioning. Ottawa: Heril. Joyce, J. (2002). How to Write a Research Paper. California: Cahners Publishers. McMillan, N. (1994). Paper writing in Biological Sciences (2nd edition). New Jersey: McGraw- Hill.

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  • University/College: University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Date: 31 December 2016

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