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In this essay, I will describe the evolutionary path of the human lineage from Australopithecus afarensis to Homo sapiens. I will integrate information from the readings and viewings. I will discuss the adaptive advantages of bipedalism and provide names, locations, physical features, and behavioral aspects of the species constituting the human lineage. Charles Darwin first addressed the question of human evolution in his book called the descent of man, this was important because he stated that man descended from some pre-existing form which is now known as evolution.
(Marvin 1990, 6).
To describe the evolutionary path of the human lineage we start with the Australopithecus afarensis, they lived about 3.7-3.0 million years prior to East Africa. Skeletally, they were still to some degree transitional from prior chimp species. This can be found in their legs which were moderately shorter than those of the later australopithecines and people. Afarensis additionally had slim bent fingers suggestive of chimpanzees. On account of these anatomical qualities, it has been proposed that they were less effective bipeds and more productive tree climbers than the later australopithecines.
Afarensis canine teeth were generally enormous and pointed, suggestive of primates. (Becoming Human, part 2)They anticipated to some degree past their other teeth yet not as much as in chimpanzees.
A portion of the male Afarensis had little sagittal peaks. After the Australopithecus Afarensis, in the evolutionary path came the Australopithecus africanus. Australopithecus africanus lived about 3.3-2.5 million years back in South and East Africa. Skeletally, they were less chimp-like than prior types of australopithecines yet were still generally little and light in outline like Afarensis.
Be that as it may, the teeth of Africanus were somehow or another more like people than like Afarensis. In particular, the front teeth of Africanus were moderately enormous like our own and their canine teeth didn’t extend past the others. Minuscule wear designs on Africanus’ teeth propose an eating routine comprising of generally delicate nourishments, which likely incorporated some meat alongside plants. This doesn’t really suggest productive chasing aptitudes. More probable, they acquired meat by rummaging what stayed on the deserted carcasses of enormous creatures slaughtered by lions and different predators. It is conceivable that they additionally did some chasing of little creatures in much the equivalent wasteful way of chimpanzees today.
They most likely ate creepy crawlies and eggs also. After that came the Paranthropus robustus, one of the early hominins they are commonly dated to have lived somewhere in the range of 2.0 and 1.2 million years prior. It had enormous jaws and jaw muscles with the going with sagittal peak, and post-canine teeth that were adjusted to serve in the dry condition they lived in. The post-canine teeth likewise regularly show pitting finish hypoplasia, thought to be brought about by a hereditary condition, known as amelogenesis imperfecta, and was likely basic because of precariousness in the pivotal gene subsequent to developing such enormous teeth. After the Paranthropus robustus we can look at Paranthropus boisei. The Paranthropus boisei was a super-strong East African species that lived about 2.0-1.4 million years prior. They would, in general, be more enormous and husky looking even than Paranthropus robustus. Male boisei were particularly strong. Like their South African cousins, robustus, they had conspicuous sagittal peaks and exceptionally huge pounding teeth with the thick finish. These teeth would have been fit for popping hard nuts and dry seeds. Be that as it may, such nourishment things might not have been significant in their eating regimen.
Tiny investigation of dental wear examples and carbon isotope examination of teeth demonstrate that what boisei dominatingly ate was delicate nourishments, for example, grasses, leaves, roots, and conceivably even meat. The eldest agent of the human species the Homo habilis occupied pieces of sub-Saharan Africa from generally 2.4 to 1.5 million years back. Early Homo habilis had littler teeth than Australopithecus, however, their tooth lacquer was still thick and their jaws were as yet solid, showing their teeth were as yet adjusted biting some hard nourishments (perhaps just occasionally when their favored food sources turned out to be less accessible) through research this was considered the recommending that the eating regimen of Homo habilis was adaptable and flexible and that they were equipped for eating an expansive scope of nourishments, including some harder nourishments like leaves, woody plants, and some creature tissues, yet that they didn’t routinely expend or spend significant time in eating hard food sources like weak nuts or seeds, dried meat, or hard tubers. Discussing the lineage of and evolutionary path of humanity is essential and important. Another critical aspect that I will discuss in this paper is the advantages of bipedalism.
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