1) Explain & elaborate what is the meaning of management evolution & how does the evolution benefited management today.
The definition of evolution is slow process of change from one form or level to a better or higher one, or that brings into being a superior or new order. Evolution does not occur in a straight, steady progression but is marked by false starts and dead ends, random leaps in different directions, and long periods of no fruitful activity. And, contrary to the popular belief, constant adaptation (see natural selection) is not the main feature of evolution.
By far the most dominant evolutionary phenomenon is the preservation of whatever is working well. The fundamental natural principle as borne out by fossil (paleontological) research is: “If it works, don’t mess with it.” Over the past hundred years management has continuously been evolving. There have been a wide range of approaches in how to deal with management or better yet how to improve management functions in our ever changing environment.
From as early as 1100 B.C managers have been struggling with the same issues and problems that manager’s face today. Modern managers use many of the practices, principles, and techniques developed from earlier concepts and experiences. The evolution of management though the decades can be divided into two major sections. One of the sections is the classical approach. Under the classical approach efficiency and productivity became a critical concern of the managers at the turn of the 20th century. One of the approaches from the classical time period were systematic management which placed more emphasis on internal operations because managers were concerned with meeting the growth in demand brought on by the Industrial revolution.
As a result managers became more concerned with physical things than towards the people therefore systematic management failed to lead to production efficiency. This became apparent to an engineer named Frederick Taylor who was the father of Scientific Management. Scientific Management was identified by four principles for which management should develop the best way to do a job, determine the optimum work pace, train people to do the job properly, and reward successful performance by using an incentive pay system. Scientific management was widely accepted with productivity and efficiency improving dramatically however not everyone was convinced that this approach was the best solution to all problems. Administrative management evolved from Henry Fayol who published a book summarizing his management experiences. Fayol identified five functions and 14 principles in management. Typically all the writings in the administrative area strongly emphasize management in large corporations. Have many benefits of evolution in management
1) Risk management
The head of the ERM effort is the chief risk officer or CRO. In other cases, the whole executive team handles the risk management decision with specific coordinators. Many large corporations adopted a system called Six Sigma, which is a business strategy widely adopted by many corporations to improve processes and efficiency. Within this model of operation they embedded enterprise risk management. The ERM function at Textron follows the latter model. Textron’s stock fell from $72 in January 2008 to $15 in December 2008. Let’s recall that ERM includes every aspect of risks within the corporation, including labor negotiation risks, innovation risks, lack-of-foresight risks, ignoring market condition risks, managing self-interest and greed risks, and so forth. Take the case of the three U.S. auto manufacturers—GM, Chrysler, and Ford. Their holistic risks include not only insuring buildings and automobiles or worker’s compensation. They must look at the complete picture of how to ensure survival in a competitive and technologically innovative world.
The following is a brief examination of the risk factors that contributed to the near-bankrupt condition of the U.S. automakers: Lack of foresight in innovation of fuel-efficient automobiles with endurance and sustainability of value. Too much emphasis on the demand for the moment rather than on smart projections of potential catastrophes impacting fuel prices, like hurricanes Katrina, Wilma, and Ike. They did not account for an increase in the worldwide demand for use of fuel. Inability to compete in terms of quality control and manufacturing costs because of the labor unions’ high wage demands. Shutting down individual initiatives and smart thinking. Everything was negotiated rather than done via smart business decisions and processes. Allowing top management to stagnate into luxury and overspending, such as the personal planes in which they went to Washington to negotiate bailouts. The credit crisis of 2008 escalated the demise; it compounded the already mismanaged industry that didn’t respond to consumers’ needs.
Had risk management been a top priority for the automobile companies, perhaps they would face a different attitude as they approach U.S. taxpayers for their bailouts. ERM needs to be part of the mind-set of every company stakeholder. When one arm of the company is pulling for its own gains without consideration of the total value it delivers to stakeholders, the result, no doubt, will be disastrous. The players need to dance together under the paradigm that every action might have the potential to lead to catastrophic results. The risk of each action needs to be clear, and assuredness for risk mitigation is a must.
2) Human Resources management
The first class is an overview of American labor history from the colonial period to the early 1900s. There was little actual HR management during this time, but it is important history that sets the stage for understanding the development of human resource management in the 20th century. The second class covers early labor unrest at the beginning of the 20th century; the Depression; World War II; and the post-war years of the 1950s. In this time period, we see the rise of the industrial relations professional and the personnel administrator, forerunners of contemporary HR managers. The last session starts with the civil rights movement of the 1960s and ends with contemporary issues that continue to shape today’s HR management in its current strategic role.
Throughout the material you will see commentary on major historical events that, while seemingly unrelated to HR practice, will enable students to place the evolution of HR into the context of the times. The material covers the social, political and economic issues that shaped the current practice of HR. The intent of the module is to introduce students to the major historical events that influenced contemporary HR. This learning module is appropriate for undergraduate students in a human resource management or business management program.
2) Are leaders born or made? Explain this by supporting by some examples.
The definition of leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal. Put in even simpler terms, the leader is the inspiration and director of the action. He or she is the person in the group that possesses the combination of personality and skills that makes others want to follow his or her direction (Ward). Which brings us to the most basic and most often-asked question in all leadership development, are great leaders born or made?
Some people believe that leaders are born with the set of skills to become a successful leader. While others believe that leadership can be learned and developed through life. With that being said I am sure we have all been told once or more in our lives that leaders are born, not made; that leadership is about ego, and nice guys finish last (Kjerulf, 2009). Well think again my friends, leaders are not born, they are made. What makes someone a good leader is the aspect of discovery. It is the set phrase of a person at their finest whose endeavor is to change something for the better and to expand this forthcoming in others. Many individuals often get caught up in believing that leadership is based on a title or position but in reality this is far from the truth. Leadership qualities are derived by any individual who is enabled and encouraged to express themselves while working with purpose and meaning.
Leadership is a process in which leaders and followers engage to achieve mutual goals. We are all leaders and followers at different times. “Followership” is not a passive role but a dynamic one: Followers ensure that the leader follows the purpose (Owen, 2002). Leadership entails the following components; passion, values, vision, knowledge, drive, and creativity. If leadership means being courageous and willing to speak out for the betterment of those around you, I would think that leaders do not have to be born as such.
I have seen people who consider themselves introverts and overall followers become successful leaders when faced with an issue they are passionate about. If we define leadership as having atypical intelligence, creativity and/or drive, then I am back to believing that it’s a trait you’re born with, although you may or may not continue to develop that trait through your life. So what does all this mean? Anyone Can Be a Leader
We all have areas of our lives where we have talent and propensity for success. If this is also an area you feel passionate about, you may exude qualities that are absent from other areas of your life. So while you may not be a natural born leader in the strictest sense, you can certainly overcome many obstacles and develop a desire and ability to lead when you are inspired to do so. Say you are an animal lover, and you volunteer for an animal rescue group in your free time. The group is planning a huge fundraiser but lacks the direction necessary to execute it effectively.
Without a leader in place, the event is destined for failure. You may not be completely comfortable talking in front of others, making decisions for a group and managing others, but you feel so strongly about the need for the fundraiser that you are willing to overcome these challenges. With the support of several volunteers who are experienced in various areas (marketing, event planning, community outreach, etc.), and your knowledge of the group and the background of the fundraiser, you successfully manage the group and event.
Aside from having a passion that translates into action, there are several ways you can develop your own leadership skills: Work on improving your communication ability, especially your ability to listen to others Be willing to take risks
Network and look for ways to expand your contacts
Focus on working and living with integrity and respect for others Encourage those around you to find their own leadership qualities Be confident in yourself and your abilities
Know your strengths and be ready to ask for support in areas where you are lacking Create a vision and share your vision to inspire others
Think positively and commit to reaching your goals