European colonization study Guide Essay
European colonization study Guide
The Monroe doctrine was essentially intended to prevent the Western Hemisphere off-limits to European colonization. European powers would attempt to restore Spain’s former colonies, attempts would be viewed as a hostile act against the U. S Second Continental Congress intercolonial assembly that met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775; all thirteen colonies were represented; still wanted to just get British acts repealed and wrote new appeals to British people and king, but raised money to create an army and navy Articles of Confederation Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the Articles established the United States of America.
The Articles granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states. The result was a poorly defined national state that couldn’t govern the country’s finances or maintain stability. The Constitution replaced them in 1789 Battles of Lexington and Concord The battles of Lexington and Concord initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war.
The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense in 1776; helped American public recognize the need to separate from the crown Lexington and Concord the first battle of the Revolutionary War in April 1775; twenty thousand musket-bearing “Minute Men” swarmed around Boston, thehre to coop up the outnumbered British Yorktown where Cornwallis was forced to surrender his entire force of seven thousand men on October 19, 1781 to Washington and de Grasse Saratoga where Burgoyne was forced to surrender his entire command on Octor 17, 1777 to American general Horatio Gates Treaty of Paris- 1783 treaty in which British formally recognized the independence of the United States; granted generous boundaries (Mississippi River to Great Lakes to Spanish Florida plus a share in the priceless fisheries on Newfoundland); Americans could no longer persecute Loyalists and had to restore their property to them; states vowed to put no lawful obstacles in the way of debt-collecting from British George Washington selected by the Second Continental Congress to head the improvised colonial army in Boston; had very little experience, but was of good character and was a Virginian (eased southern colonists minds about creating a big New England army); led the battle at Trenton Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 based on Richard Henry Lee’s resolution; formally approved by Congress on July 4, 1776 Alexander Hamilton Hamilton emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers.
Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, Alexander Hamilton spearheaded the government’s Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States.??? Alien and Sedition Acts A series of laws that sought to restrict the activities of people who opposed Federalist policies (1798)??? Dorothea Dix Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients – created first wave of US mental asylums Federalists Led by Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists believed in a strong central government, loose interpretation, and encouraged commerce and manufacturing. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States.
The Federalist influence declined after the election of Republican Thomas Jefferson to the presidency and disappeared completely after the Hartford Convention. Indian removal act This act granted the president funds and authority to remove Native Americans (1830) The XYZ Affair Three French agents asked for over ten million dollars in tribute before they would begin diplomatic talks with America. When Americans heard the news, they were outraged. Adams decided to strengthen the Navy to show France that America was a force to be reckoned with Treaty of Ghent: Treaty that ended the War of 1812 and maintained prewar conditions Treaty of Guadalupe -HidalgoEnded Mexican War – US received Texas (with Rio Grande border) and other states – US paid Mexico $15 million dollars???
Treaty of Paris (1763):The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years War in Europe and the parallel French and Indian War in North America. Under the treaty, Britain won all of Canada and almost all of the modern United States east of the Mississippi. Virginia Plan The Virginia Plan was presented to the Constitutional Convention and proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population. The Virginia Plan favored the large states, which would have a much greater voice. In opposition, the small states proposed the New Jersey Plan. In the end, the two sides found common ground through the Connecticut Compromise.??? William Lloyd Garrison White Abolitionist – Early 1800s – ublished The Liberator The Jay Treaty Treaty in which Britain agreed to evacuate its posts on the US western frontier (1794)??? The Pinckney Treaty Treaty with Spain which opened trade and redefined Florida boundary (1795) Tariff of Abominations 1828 – Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state’s rights. Missouri Compromise Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36? 0′ within the Louisiana Territory (1820) Henry Clay’s American System Plan for economic growth: establish a protective tariff, establish a national bank, and improve the country’s transporation system Embargo Act In response to impressment, this bill halted all foreign trade with disastrous economic consequences (1807) Articles of Confederation Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the Articles established the United States of America. The Articles granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states. The result was a poorly defined national state that couldn’t govern the country’s finances or maintain stability. The Constitution replaced them in 1789??? Whigs The Whigs were originally colonists supporting independence. In the mid 1830s, the Whig Party opposed Jackson’s strong-armed leadership style and policies.
The Whigs promoted protective tariffs, federal funding for internal improvements, and other measures that strengthened the central government. Reaching its height of popularity in the 1830s, the Whigs disappeared from the national political scene by the 1850s. The Whiskey Rebellion group of farmers refused to pay federal excise tax on whiskey, Washington responds decisively with troops (1794) John Locke believed all people have a right to life, liberty, and property; stated the government is “created by the people for the people” Sons of Liberty A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept.
After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere. Crispus Attucks One of the first men to die in the Boston Massacre. 1770 Battle of Bunker Hill May 1775 Tiny American force under Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold surprised and captured the British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point in Upper New York. Gunpowder and artillary for the siege at Boston was obtained. June 1775 Colonists siezed Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill). Americans numbering 1500 soldiers slaughtered the advancing redcoats.
Colonists were short on gunpowder and were foced to abandon the hill. Daniel Shays led a rebellion because farmers were unable to pay in Continental Dollars and banks were foreclosing farms in Massachusetts. checks and balances created because of the bicameral legislature. A system that ensured that no particular branch of government gained too much power over another. It demonstrated the fear of absolute power in one group/individual as well as preventing one branch from overpowering the others. Constitutional Convention convenes to revise Articles of Confederation, suggested that a new Constitution be written. Land Ordinance of 1785 land in the northwest would be surveyed and then sold to help pay debt.
Great Compromise aka the Connecticut Plan, combined the Large State Plan and the Small State Plan… created the bicameral legislature (House of Representatives and Senate). Shay’s Rebellion 1786-1787 farmers couldn’t pay their debts with Continental Dollars, banks were foreclosing farms in Massachusetts, rebellion led by Daniel Shays… articles need to be revised. Bank of the United States 1791, gives sense of unity, debt shouldered by federal government, place to keep money. 3/5 Compromise It was a compromise between the northern states with the southern ones that decided that although slaves were not citizens, each one would count as 3/5 of a man for representation. It got Southern states to ratify the constitution.
Federalist Papers The papers were a collection of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison explaining how the new government/constitution would work. Their purpose was to convince the New York state legislature to ratify the constitution, which it did. Judiciary Act of 1789 established a Supreme Court and district courts (1789) Publius Elderly senator who witnesses the assassination; Brutus sends him out to tell the citizens that no one else will be harmed Bill Of Rights Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny.
The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens. Marbury v. Madison(1803) Marbury was a midnight appointee of the Adams administration and sued Madison for commission. Chief Justice Marshall said the law that gave the courts the power to rule over this issue was unconstitutional. established judicial review Thomas Jefferson A prominent statesman, Thomas Jefferson became George Washington’s first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government.
As the nation’s third president from 1801 to 1809, Jefferson organized the national government by Thomas Jefferson Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality War of 1812 Resulted from Britain’s support of Indian hostilities along the frontier, interference with American trade, and impressments of American sailors into the British army (1812 – 1815) The Louisiana Purchase U. S. acquisition of the Louisiana territory from France in 1803 for $15 million. The purchase secured American control of the Mississippi river and doubled the size of the nation. The Lewis and Clark Expidition Overland expedition to the Pacific coast lead by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Commissioned by President Jefferson, the expedition of the far west brought back a wealth of scientific data about the country and its resources. 804-1806 War Hawks Congressional leaders who in 1811/1812 called for war against Britain to respect America’s maritime rights. Samuel Slater Father of the Factory System in America. Skelled British mechanic of 21 who was attracted by bounties being offered to British workers familiar with the textile machines. Industrial Revolution The period where western expansion and urbanization happened in America distinguished by factories, new inventors improved transportation, communication and production. “Lowell System” Developed in the textile mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, in the 1820s, in these factories as much machinery as possible was used, so that few skilled workers were needed in the process, nd the workers were almost all single young farm women, who worked for a few years and then returned home to be housewives. DeWitt Clinton Governor whose grand project was the Erie Canal which linked the Great Lakes to the Hudson River. John Quincy Adams Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams’ work.??? Abolitionism The militant effort to do away with slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840.
Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830s to the Civil War. John C. Calhoun Part of the “immortal trio”; “Great Nullifer, proposed to leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, give the south its right as a minority view that presidents elected, one from south and one from north. ” Frederick Douglas Self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star. Grimke Sisters Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement. Horace Mann Brilliant and idealistic graduate of Brown University.
Secretary of Massachusettes Board of Education, campaigned effectively for more and better school houses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum. Elizabeth Cady Stanton Mother of seven who had insisted on leaving “obey” out of her marriage ceremony, shocked fellow feminists by going so far as to advocate suffrage for women. Women’s Rights Convention Convention for women advocates at Seneca Falls to rewrite the Declaration of Independence to include women. “All men and women are created equal” -Declaration of Sentiments Declaration of Sentiments Revision of the Declaration of Independence to include women and men (equal).
It was the grand basis of attaining civil, social, political, and religious rights for women. Susan B. Anthony Militant lecturer for women’s rights who fearlessly exposed herself to rotten garbage and vulgar epithets. Transcendentalism Belief in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
Ralph Waldo Emerson Leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom and self-reliance, spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of the abolitionists. Henry David Thoreau Transcendentalist and friend of Emerson who lived alone on Walden Pond with only $8 a year from 1845-1847 and wrote about it in Walden. On Civil Disobedience, he inspired social and political reformers because he had refused to pay a poll tax in protest of slavery and the Mexican-American War, and spent a night in jail. Extreme individualist and advised people to protest by not obeying laws (passive resistance). Margaret Fuller Social reformer, leader in women’s movement and a transcendentalist.
Edited “The Dial” which was the publication of the transcendentalists. It appealed to people who wanted “perfect freedom” “progress in philosophy and theology and hope that the future will not always be as the past”. Alamo- Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force. San Jacinto- surprise attack by Texas forces on Santa Ana’s camp on April 21, 1836. Santa Ana’s men were surprised and overrun in twenty minutes. Santa Ana was taken prisoner and signed an armistice securing Texas independence. Mexico 1500 dead 1000 captured Texans 4 dead.
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 9 June 2017
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