Equipment Safety in Automobile Industry Essay
Equipment Safety in Automobile Industry
A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of 5 years Integrated MBA (Tech) Program of Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering, NMIMS 3
This is certify that Mr. Arjun Duvedi Roll No 602 completed the training & project as a part of Technical Internship in our company as mentioned below and the report is also submitted. (i) Project Title: Equipment Safety In Automobile Industry.
(ii) Date Of Joining: 5th February 2013
(iii) Date Of Completion: 27th April 2013
In partial fulfillment of XIII Trimester Technical Internship for MBA(Tech) program of Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering, Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies (NMIMS ) ( Deemed-to-be University), Mumbai. Industry Mentor: Mr. S.K.Kaushik
Date: 27th April 2013
The 3 month industrial training is indeed the most important and integral part of our curriculum at the Mechanical Engg. Deptt. At Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management and Engineering, Shirpur Campus. The industrial training gives us an ample opportunity to develop a veritable and first hand industrial experience not only towards technical but all round development also. Being able to see and learn about the actual implementation of the subjects we study is indeed a valuable experience. The work culture of the leading industrial establishment of the country enhances the person’s overall technical aptitude and provided me with ample opportunity to interact with senior engineers and learn from their experience and technical insight.
Training at MARUTI SUZUKI INDIA LIMITED has not only been beneficial in the technical aspects ( as it has given me an unprecedented opportunity to exercise and put into practice, some of the theoretical aspects of engineering) , but also contributed immensely and actively towards growth in the personal capacity, as a more thinking, efficient , organized and aware individual. I express my gratitude to all the people at Maruti Suzuki India Limited who in spite of their busy schedules took personal interest to ensure that this training period is a thorough learning process for me. I have no doubt now that my choice of training was right and the exposure and experience gained at Maruti has been unique. The Maruti family teaches strict self-discipline, and a goal oriented approach. I would like to thank Mr. Soarabh Pathak for giving me this opportunity to work in the SMED department and to know more about the systems at MSIL. I would like to thank Mr. S.K.Kaushik (my project guide) for guiding me, involving me in thought invoking discussions, giving me projects and getting me acquainted with the work ethics of this organization. 5
TABLE OF CONTENT
1. ABSTRACT 6
2. INTRODUCTION 7
3. Historical Background Of MSIL 8
4. PLANT LAYOUT OF MSIL 9
5. THE COMPANY VISION 10
6. THE PHILOSOPHY 10
7. QUALITY MOVEMENT IN MARUTI 11
8. ENVIRONMENT POLICY 12
9. COMPANY HIERARCHY 13
10. ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE 14
11. MILESTONES REACHED BY MARUTI 15
12. PROJECT REP0RT 18
12.1. Machine Guarding Safety Standards and guidelines 19
12.2. Conveyor safety Standards and Guidelines 39
12.3. Means Of Access Safety Standards 50
12.4. Robotic Safety Standards and Guidelines 58
12.5. Electrical Safety Standards and Guidelines 79
12.6. Hoisting Equipment Safety Standards and Guidelines 87
12.7. Biological Safety Standards and Guidelines 94
12.8. Automated Guided Vehicle Safety Standards 116
12.9. Radiation Safety Standards and Guidelines 127
12.10. Conventional Machine Safety Guidelines 140
13. References 159
The project on Equipment Safety in the Automobile Industry brings into focus the need to adopt safety mechanism in the automobile industry. Industrialization has bought in automation of a large number of tasks in the manufacturing of automobiles. With increase in machinery and automation there has been a corresponding increase in probability of occurrence of accidents resulting in injury hazard to workers, production slippages and financial losses. In order to reduce accidents and ensure safety, there is a need to lay down certain guidelines in the functioning in the automobile industry. Safety standards are the most accepted methodology to document the requirements for the safety in the industry. The project was undertaken at Maruti Suzuki India Limited plant at Gurgaon Haryana. The aim of the project is to improve safety and reduce probability of accidents in MSIL, insure safety and secure working environment for the operator, and to form a compilation of equipment safety standards that may be used throughout the company.
The project also attempts to suggest ways to improve the present safety awareness. The methodology adopted during the preparation of the project was to obtain knowledge of the equipment used for manufacturing process, thoroughly examine the work performed by the equipment/machine and analyze/identify the possible hazards associated with the equipment used .This would be studied in the light of the past experiences of the operator. Based on an analysis arrive at recommended safety measures to prevent the accidents. In doing the analysis various rules and regulations with regards to safety would be referred to. This would result in laying down safety standards for MSIL in particular and Automobile Industry in general. Worldwide existing standards and standard operating procedures of MSIL would be referred to. While there are chances that accidents could occur due to a number of reasons and verity of places, this project report covers only Equipment Safety in Automobile Industry 7
Occurrence of accidents in the work place is a cause of concern all over the world. Statistics in United Kingdom for the year 2011-2012 indicate 1.1 million working people suffered from a work-related illness, 173 workers were killed at work, 1,11,000 other injuries to employees were reported, 2,12,000 over-3-day absence injuries occurred, 27 million workdays were lost due to work-related illness and workplace injury and Workplace injuries and ill health (excluding cancer) cost society an estimated £13.4 billion in 2010/2011 (Source Health and safety executive-www.hse.gov.uk). The situation is not so different in India, albeit documented data is not readily available. Needless to say that there is a crying need to ensure safety at work place. The aim of the project is to get acquainted with the various machinery/equipment used in the automobile manufacturing industries, identify likely hazards, work out safety measures and form safety standards for the same 8
Historical Background Of MSIL
Maruti Suzuki India Limited was established in Feb 1981 through an Act of Parliament, to meet the growing demand of a personal mode of transport caused by the lack of an efficient public transport system. The actual production commenced in 1983 with the Maruti 800, based on the Suzuki Alto kei car which at the time was the only modern car available in India, it’s only competitorsthe Hindustan Ambassador and Premier Padmini were both around 25 years out of date at that point. Through 2004, Maruti Suzuki has produced over 5 Million vehicles. Maruti Suzuki’s are sold in India and several other countries, depending upon export orders. Models similar to Maruti Suzuki’s (but not manufactured by MarutiUdyog) are sold by Suzuki Motor Corporation and manufactured in Pakistan and other South Asian countries.
Maruti Suzuki has been the leader of the Indian car market for over two decades. Its manufacturing facilities are located at two facilities Gurgaon and Manesar south of Delhi. The Gurgaon Manufacturing Facility has three fully integrated manufacturing plants and is spread over300 acres. The Manesar Manufacturing Plant was inaugurated in February 2007 and is spread over 700 acres.
PLANT LAYOUT OF MSIL
THE COMPANY VISION
“To become an internationally competitive company in terms of production volume, costs and profits” is the vision of this company. They believe in: “We must not only maintain leadership in India but should aspire to be amongst the global players. The culture, thinking and actions have all to be consistent with this vision.” Today Maruti is stated as, The leader in the Indian automobile industry
Creating customer delight and shareholder’s wealth
A pride of India
The company’s vision for the future is to become an internationally competitive company in terms of production volume, quality, cost and profits. The vision is a realistic, credible and attractive future that the company visualizes for its organization and all its employees. It is an articulation of a destination towards which the organization is moving, a future that is substantially better than the current state. The vision helps the company in moving consciously, continuously and in a focused manner towards the desired state. If the vision is the destination, the mission is the means by which the company is moving towards it. If the vision is a goal, the mission is the tool for achieving the vision. A mission defines what the organization has been established to accomplish. It determines the purpose of its operations. 11
The company aims to make 3-R a regular part of its production life The 3-R stand for the following:
QUALITY MOVEMENT IN MARUTI
Maruti constantly endeavors to produce better goods and service, because this is the only way to retain market share and grow both in the domestic and the international market in line with company’s vision. Managers throughout the company support quality improvement process such as Kaizen, Quality Circle activities etc. Quality tools like 5S, 3G and 3K are also practiced extensively in the company. 5 ‘S’ OF MSIL
SEIRI – PROPER SELECTION
SEITON – ARRANGEMENT
SEISO – CLEANING
SEIKETSU – CLEANLINESS
SHITSUKE – DISCIPLINE
3 ‘G’ OF MSIL
3G means: “In case of an abnormality, all concerned members should actually go to the place where the problem has occurred, see the actual thing and
take Realistic action to solve the problem”. In the Japanese language this point is compiled in 3 words: – GEINCHI – ACTUAL PLACE
GENBUTSU – ACTUAL THING
GENJITSU – ACTUALLY
3 ‘K’ OF MUL
KIMERAARETA KOTO GA : What has been decided
KIHON DORI: As per the standard
KICHIN TO MAMORU: Must be followed
AVOID THE 3-M (Problems affecting production)
Muri – Inconvenience
Mura – Wastage
Muda – Inconsistency
Maintain & improve upon our environmental management system & performance Observe environmental laws & further follow our own standards. Decrease pressure placed on the environment resulting from business activities & product. Promote environmental communication.
Senior Executive/Asst. Manager
Department Manager (DPM)/DGM/AGM
Deputy Divisional Manager (DDVM)/GM
Divisional Manager (DVM)/CGM
Joint Managing Director
Maruti has believed, since the very beginning that it is its employees who could make it into an organization with a difference. Accordingly, as against the traditional hierarchical system of management, which causes unnecessary delays in decision-making, we have built up a flat organization with a family type of atmosphere at our place of work. The Company is divided into different divisions according to the various functional areas. A Divisional Manager heads each Division. Divisions are further divided into Departments that are headed by Department Managers who report to the respective Divisional Managers.
Designations in the Company are based on the functional responsibility and not levels as in terms of the Company’s philosophy designations and functional responsibility are de-linked from the salary levels. The total operations of the Company are divided into Divisions like Marketing & Sales, Spares, Safety, Engineering, Q.A. & Services, Production, Production Engineering, Materials, Information Services, Finance, Personnel & Administration, etc. Each Division is furthering divided into Departments and headed by Departmental Managers who is assisted by Supervisory Executives. 15
MILESTONES REACHED BY MARUTI
Launch of Kizashi
Launch of Wagon R New
Launch of Maruti Suzuki Ritz
Launch of Swift Dzire
Launch of Maruti Suzuki A-star
Launch of SX4
WagonR Lx & Lxi LPG car plant and the diesel engine facility commenced
operations during 2006-2007 at Manesar, Haryana 2005
The fiftieth lac car rolls out in April, 2005
Alto becomes India’s new best-selling car
LPG variant of ‘Omni Cargo’
Versa 5-seater, a new variant
Baleno LXi, a new variant
Maruti closed the financial year 2003-04 with an annual sale of 472122 units, the highest ever since the company began operations 20 years ago 2003
New Suzuki Grand Vitara XL-7
Enters into partnership with State Bank of India
Production of 4 millionth vehicles. Listed on BSE and NSE after a public issue oversubscribed 10 times 16
Esteem Diesel. All other variants upgraded
Maruti Insurance. Two new subsidiaries started: Maruti Insurance Distributor Services and Maruti Insurance Brokers Limited Alto Spin LXi, with electronic power steering
Special edition of Maruti 800, India’s first color-coordinated car MARUTI Finance in Mumbai with 10 finance companies
Zen LXi Maruti True Value launched in Bangalore and Delhi Maruti Versa, India’s first luxury MPV
SOME OF THE COMPANY ACHIEVEMENTS SO FAR
All Indian Engineering Export Promotion Council (EEPC) Award 1987-88
Excellent performance in Suzuki International QC Circle competition, National productivity Council (NPC) Award for best performance. MARUTI 800 & OMNI accepted as taxi by Maharashtra Govt. 1988
Indian National Suggestion Scheme Association (INSSAN) Award 1988-89
1st in CEI QC Competition.
Good housekeeping award by Haryana Govt.
Red Cross Blood Donor Award by Haryana Govt.
Good Housekeeping Award.
Performance Acknowledged by Economic Times & Howard Business School Association of India. Corporate Performance Award For Best in Public sector.
COP Certification from AIB VINCOTTE of Belgium.
Best Canteen & Best Crèche by Haryana Govt.
Runners Up in Best Production performance in Automobile Industry EEPC Award
National Award for Energy Conservation, EEPC award.
EXIM Star Trophy for outstanding Export Performance by JLN Port-Trust. 1996
Certificate of Significant Achievement under the CII Business excellence Award was given. 1996-07
Hero Honda Rolling Trophy
1st in CII (North) QC Circle Competition.
MUL has been granted STAR TRADING HOUSE STATUS w.e.f. 01/04/96 to 31/03/99 by Ministry of Commerce based on export performance of MUL in last 3 years. Our objective is to become SUPER STAR TRADING HOUSE by 1999 which could be
achieved by increasing exports @30% p.a. MUL has been awarded the National Export Award, for excellence in exports in the Engineering Goods category (Motor Vehicles, Auto Spare Parts & Components). 1998
CII-Exim Award for Business Excellence for 1998 was given to MUL. Recertification on ISO-9002
ISO -14001 certificate on environment management system
ISO –2001 certification
In addition to the above MSIL has bagged the J.D.Power customer satisfaction award a record four times consecutively, the years being 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003. 18
To provide proper safeguarding of the machines and operators. 2. Different Guarding Processes:
2.1 Machine Guards:
A fixed guard is a permanent part of the machine. It is not dependent upon moving parts to perform its intended function. This guard is usually preferable to all other types because of its relative simplicity and
permanence.(Section 4,13) Interlocked Guard: Interlocked guards automatically shut off or disengage the power when opened or removed. The machine cannot cycle or be started until the guard is back in place.(section 10) 21 Adjustable guards: Adjustable guards are useful because they allow flexibility in accommodating various sizes of materials to be cut, shaped, or formed.(Section 14) Self-Adjustable Guards: The openings of self-adjustable guards are determined by the movement of the stock. As the operator moves the stock into the danger area, the guard is pushed away, providing an opening that is only large enough to admit the stock. After the stock is removed, the guard returns to the rest position.(Section 14)
2.2 Pressure-Sensing Devices:
Sensing Device: It uses a system of light sources and controls that can interrupt the machine’s operating cycle. If the field of light is broken, the machine stops and will not cycle.
This device should be used only on machines that can be stopped before the worker can reach the danger area.(Section 8.5)
It uses a radio beam that is part of the machine control circuit. When the capacitance field is broken, the
machine will stop or will not activate. Like the photoelectric device, this device should only be used on machines that can be stopped before the worker can reach the danger area. This requires A friction clutches etc.(Section 8.5) Electromechanical Sensing
Device: It has a probe or contact bar that descends to a predetermined distance when the operator initiates the machine cycle. If there is an obstruction preventing it from descending its full predetermined distance, the control unit does not actuate the machine cycle.(Section
i. Guards should have a provision for machine oiling, inspection, adjustment and repairs. j. The guards should be constructed such as to withstand/resist normal wear and shock. k. Guards should be durable, fire resistant, corrosion resistant and easily repaired. l. They should withstand long use with minimum maintenance.
m. Guards should not be the reason for any hazard by themselves. They should not have splinters, inch pints, shear points, sharp corners, rough edges or other sources of accidents. n. Guards should protect against operational contingencies, not merely against normally expects hazard. 3.2 The preferred material for guards under most circumstances should be metals. Framework of guards should be generally be made from structure sections, pipes, strapping, bars or rods. 3.3 The paneling material should be generally made of solid sheet metal, expanded or perforated metal or wire mesh. The use of plastic or safety glass is recommended where visibility is required. 3.4 Guards made of wood may be used but they have limited applications due to the lack of ductility and strength. They have a relatively high maintenance cost and flammability. 3.5 Guards should be securely fastened to the floor, the machine, wall, sealing or other rigid object/fixed structure and should be kept in place whenever the machine is operated. 26
4. Guarding Frame Work:
4.2 The minimum dimension of materials for the framework of the guards made from structural sheet should be in accordance with the following table(See
section 13) Types of Guards
Guards with a height of 75cm or less and a surface area not exceeding 1sq. m 1 cm diameter
Other constructions of equal strength may be used.
Guards with height more than 75cm and a surface area more than 1sq. m —
a. Other constructions of equal strength may be used.
b. The guard should be rigidly braced every 90 cm of fractional part of its height to some fixed part of the machine or building structure. Un-braced Guards:
When the guard is fastened on a working platform without any support or bracing —
Other metal construction of equal strength
5. Height of Guards:
The minimum height of guards should be 2.60 m from the floor or platform level. The dimension may change if special instructions are given. 27
6. Floor Clearance :
Guard should have a clearance of about 15cm from the floor (if practicable) to prevent interference with clearance around the machine. 7. Standard Railing and Toe-Board:
7.2 The standard railing should be 105 cm in height, with mid-rail between top rail and floor. 7.3 Posts should not be more than 240 cm apart. They should be permanent and substantial and smooth, and free from protruding nails, bolts and splinters. 7.4 If made of pipe, the post should be 30 mm inside diameter or larger. If made of metal section or bars, their section should be equal in strength to that of 38 x 38 x 5 mm angle iron. 7.5 The rails should be on that side of the post which gives best protection and support. 7.6 Toe-boards should be 10 cm or more in height.
8. Trip Guard Specifications:
8.1 Trip guard should be so arranger that an approach by a person beyond a safe limit causes the guard to move and the machinery to stop and/or reverse its motion before any part of the person can reach the dangerous part. 8.2 They are recommended to be used on machines which are normally in continuous motion where the hands have to temporarily enter a space swept by the dangerous part or where entangling in an article or material which is being fed to a machine may occur. 28
8.3 They can also be used where a person may be injured by being pulled against or through the feed opening of a fixed guard. In such circumstances the person comes in contact with the guard or part of the guard capable of movement under pressure and causes the tripping device to operate. 8.4 The effective performance of a trip guard is greatly dependent upon the stopping characteristics of the machine which shall be controlled within defined limits. An efficient brake is normally a necessity. Trip guards, while normally of a mechanical nature, also include electro-sensitive devices such as those employing the photoelectric principles. 8.5 The specifications of the electro-electric device are given as follows: 8.5.1 At all times while any part of a person is within the danger zone, the device should ensure that such parts of the machine whose movement is a source of danger cannot come into motion. 8.5.2 If a part is in motion and a person approach the danger zone, the part should be brought to rest in time so as to ensure that the hand or any other part of such a person does not get trapped in the machine. 8.5.3 When the device is completely assembled and is in correct working condition shall not be so affected by stray light (artificial, natural, or deliberately applied) as to cause danger. 8.6 The design of trip guards of mechanical type should be such that the machinery cannot again be set in motion unless and until the guard has been reset. 9 Two Hand Control
Devices And Two Hand Control System:
9.1 This method is employed to achieve safety of the worker by keeping both his hands away from the danger area. 29
9.2 Two push buttons or levers are interlocked mechanically, electrically or both in such a way that it becomes necessary for the operator to push both the buttons to operate the machine. 9.3 In case there is more than one device provided on the machine, it should be necessary for the operator to push all the buttons/levers simultaneously to operate the machine (See Section 12.3). 9.4 Two-hand control should be located in such a position that after leaving the control buttons/levers, the hands of the operator cannot reach the point of operation before the motion of machine has been stopped. 9.5 This safety distance between the control button/lever from the point-of operation is determined on the assumption that the speed of the hands moving from button/lever to the point-of-operation is 1.6 m/s. The safety distance for various ‘stop times’ is given in the following table: Time, ms
The ‘Stop time’ is the total time required to bring the moving parts at the
point- of-operation to stop. 30
10 Interlocking guards:
10.1 Interlocking guard should be used on a machine as the first alternative if a fixed guard cannot be used. 10.2 The interlocking system may be either mechanical, electrical or a combination of both. All parts of the interlocking system should be as far as possible, it should be incorporated in the design of the machine for which this type of guarding is to be used. 10.3 If practicable, these guards should be designed for sequential operations. They must guard the dangerous part before the machinery can be operated, maintain the guarding until the dangerous part comes to rest and shall be failsafe. 10.4 Hydraulic or pneumatic systems used to operate certain types of machines, including presses, may be employed for interlocking guards. In such cases, however, the guards have to be carefully designed to ensure safety. 11 ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA FOR DESIGN OF MECHANICAL GUARDS:
11.1 Data based on human body measurements have an important influence upon the proper design of machine guards. Reach is limited by the length of the arm, and in the case of opening, by size of the fingers and hand as well. The distance a man can reach determines the minimum height of certain kinds of guards, or the minimum distance of barriers from the machines they are intended to fence. 11.2 Dangerous part that is within an upward reach of 2.60 m should be fenced. Any part beyond this will be regarded as positionally safe in the absence of facts to the contrary. 31
11.3 When a machine or part of machinery is fenced with a barrier and regarded as safe by position, the barrier shall be of such construction that no person can reach the dangerous parts from over or through the barrier And no unauthorized person can enter the enclosure formed by the barrier. As far as practicable the clear distance of the barrier from the machinery it is guarding shall not be more than 225 mm. 11.4 Reach around barriers can be interrupted by providing additional barrier and positionally safe area. The nearer the edge of the barrier to the reach curve, the less can the arm be bent around it. The following figure explains the above statement:
11.5 The safety distance through regular openings in the guards are shown in the figure below:
12. Additional Safety Precautions:
12.1 Where possible the entire length of the pedal and its lever should be covered to prevent any part from being struck by material. Side 34 panels prevent accidental operation through sliding the foot across the pedal and under the cover. The following figure illustrates the above point: 12.2 In Two Hand Control device, to protect against accidental operation the buttons, they should be shrouded. The following figure shows an illustration 35
12.3 The following figure shows the minimum distance between the two buttons in the two hand control devices. For buttons without guards the minimum distance between the buttons should not be less than 21.6 inches (550mm). This distance can be less 21.6 inches for push buttons which are equipped with guards. 36
13. Opening in Fixed Guards:
The following table shows the distance of the fixed guard from the danger zone Distance of Guard From The Danger Line,
B in MM
Permissible Width of the Slotted Opening in the Guards,
A in MM
The following figure shows the representation of the above table diagrammatically 38
14. Automatic Guards:
14.1 This type of guard should only be used where neither fixed nor interlocking guards are practicable to safeguard a particular danger area. Automatic guards should operate to remove any part of a person exposed to danger to a position of safety. 14.2 Automatic guards should function independently of the operator and its action should repeat as long as the machine is in motion. 14.3 The mechanism of automatic guards should be carefully adjusted in relation to the movement and physical characteristics of the dangerous parts and should be frequently examined to ensure that the safeguard is properly maintained. 39
1. Objective :
To discuss the basic safety guidelines and devices used for conveyor safety. 2. Hazards Associated with Conveyors:
a. Power transmission moving-part hazards:
These hazards are associated mainly with the power transmission parts between the motor and the drive drum. They include shafts, couplings, pulleys and drive belts, chains and sprockets. Dragging, crushing or entanglement on contact with rotating parts or pinch points can result in serious injuries. The following figure shows the various dangerous parts:
b. Hazards associated with other moving parts of a conveyor: These are associated with the moving conveyor belt and in-running nips when in contact with rollers and drums. These hazards can result in injuries to a worker from being dragged into in-running nips, or in abrasion and friction burns from rubbing against the belt, or in injuries from being struck by a ruptured belt or a falling roller. c. Confinement area hazards:
Injuries result from shearing and crushing between the load, the conveyor belt and a fixed object. d. Moving-load hazards:
Injuries result from crushing between the load and a fixed object. Injuries can also be caused by falling loads or impacts with loads. 3. Safe Guarding Principles:
A guard is a machine element that makes the danger zone inaccessible by isolating it. Guards on conveyor belts are required to be designed with operating conditions in mind. The guards should satisfy the following requirements:
I. They should be capable of resisting the loads to which they will be
subjected. II. These devices must not create additional hazards or tempt workers to bypass their use. III. The dimensions and weight of movable guard components should to be designed to allow for easy handling. 42
IV. It is preferable to have articulated or hinged guards.
V. Guard removal and reinstallation should be quick and easy. VI. Ideally, guards should be self-locking.
In general there are three types of guards used for conveyor systems. These are listed as follows: 1) Fixed Guards:
A fixed guard is a permanent part of the machine. It is not dependent upon moving parts to perform its function. It is constructed of sheet metal. A fixed guard is usually preferable to all other types because of its permanence and relative simplicity. Fixed guards are of further following types:
i. Surrounding fixed guards:
This is a fixed guard that either completely or partially surrounds the danger zone. These guards must extend beyond the in-running nips between the belts and rollers so as to make them inaccessible from above, below and from the ends. The following figures show the aspects of surrounding fixed guards: 43
ii. Barrier guards:
Barrier guards do not completely surround danger zones but rather restrict or prevent access by their size and separation from the danger zone. The following figure shows an example of Barrier guard. 45
The height of the barrier from the ground is adjusted as pre requirement. The specific dimensions may be taken from the table given below. Height of
Height of fixed barrier or protective structure* (in mm)
Protective structures less than 1000 mm in height are not included because they do not sufficiently restrict movement of the body. 2) Interlocking guards:
A guard equipped with an interlocking device should have the following characteristics. It should: 46
i. Cause the machine or the operation of its hazardous components to stop as it is slightly opened. ii. Make it impossible to start the machine or to operate its hazardous components for as long as it is not in place. iii. Not cause the machine or its hazardous components to restart once it is fully restored to its place. This type of guard may only be used if the hazard disappears before a worker can access the danger zone. The following figure shows an example of interlocking guards: 3) Interlocked guard with guard locking:
An interlocked guard equipped with a locking device should have the following characteristics. It should remain locked in place for as long as the hazardous components are moving. 47
It should make it impossible to start the machine as long as it is not in place and reactivated. It should not cause the machine to be restarted once it is restored to its place and reactivated. This type of guard may be used when it is possible to access the danger zone before the hazard has disappeared. The following figure shows an illustration of the interlocked guard with guard locking: b. Deterrent Devices:
These are devices (other than guards) that reduce the risk of contact with a danger zone. They are often physical obstacles which, without totally preventing access to a danger zone, reduce the possibility of access. Deterrent devices include guardrails with mid rails. The following figure shows an example of deterrent devices. 48
4. Safeguard Activities For Maintenance :
The following table shows the various activities performed along with the safeguard measures: SAFEGUARDS FOR MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES
Repairs: changing mechanical, electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic parts on conveyors or related accessories Lockout conveyor or related accessory.
Belt replacement and splicing
Lockout and application of a written safety procedure
Welding and cutting
Lockout if conveyor is located under the welding area. Conveyor belts can be left running if hazard assessment determines no danger to workers. Lockout if the unprotected danger zone is less than 2700mm from the work area. Adjustment and fit
It is authorized at all times, provided adjustment points are outside the danger zone. Lockout if adjustment points are inside the danger zone.
Greasing and oiling (lubrication)
It is authorized at all times where grease points are outside the danger zone. Lockout if grease points are inside the danger zone. Housekeeping under and around conveyor; disposal of material recovered on the belt
It is authorized at all times as long as the danger zone remains protected by a guard. Conveyor parts cleaning or maintenance (drums, rollers, chassis, etc.) Lockout procedures are applicable.
Operation is authorized if housekeeping can be done with an automated (air or water) jet. Inspection
Visual and auditory inspection is permissible at all times as long as the worker remains outside the danger zone. If the conveyor remains operational while the worker enters to make contact with a machine part (for example, to measure vibrations), the point where the measurements are taken must not create a hazard to the worker. Lockout for all other cases.
Unclogging or unjamming
Lockout procedures are applicable.
Maintenance activities not covered above
Lockout procedures are applicable at all times.
This standard lays down the safety requirements for ladders used for various jobs in industries including maintenance and access routes. 2. Classifications of ladders:
Ladders are classified in the following types
2.1. Built-Up Ladders/Fixed Ladder:
These are built on the job to its particular requirements. They are fastened to the structure in a fixed position, securely held in place. 2.2. Portable Ladders of Rigid Construction:
These are used as and where required to give access to scaffolds or platforms, in the industry to any required location for repairs or maintenance. Portable ladders are further classified as: 2.2.1. Stock ladders:
These ladders have only one section, in which the side rails may be either parallel or spread wider at the bottom. They are lean-to-ladders, that is, their upper ends are supported by leaning against a wall or any other rigid support. 52
2.2.2. Extension ladders:
These lean-to-ladders have two or three sections with proper locking system. The upper sections can slide in guides or brackets. These guards or braces are so arranged that the length of the ladder can be varied as required between the fully extended position and the fully retracted position of the ladder. 2.2.3. Step ladders:
These are self-supporting ladders hinged near the upper end. When such a ladder is arranged for use, it is in the form of letter ‘A’. Wide flat steps are secured to the side rails which form one of the sloping sides of ‘A’. The other sloping side acts as a strut to support the ladder. 3. Ladder
Metal ladder may be either of steel complying with IS 1977 : 1975 or of aluminium alloy complying with the suitable grade of IS 617 : .l975. 4. Ladder Construction:
4.1. General Requirements:
4.1.1. All ladders shall be constructed to carry their intended loads safely. 4.1.2. Side rails of metal ladders shall be of sufficient cross-section to prevent excessive deflection when in use. 53
4.1.3. Ladders which are to remain as a part of the permanent structure shall satisfy any local, state or municipal bye-laws which may be applicable. 4.1.4. Safety shoes, lashing or other effective means shall be used to avoid danger of slipping. 4.2. Built-Up/Fixed Ladders:
4.2.1. All surfaces of the ladder shall be planed, free of splinters and edge of hand rails used shall be bevelled. 4.2.2. Rung spacing shall be uniform and not over 300 mm on centers. Rungs shall be recessed at least 12 mm into rails. 4.2.3. Ladders shall not exceed 6m in length.
4.2.4. Top and bottom of each built-up ladder shall be securely fastened. 4.3. Portable Ladders:
4.3.1. Stock Ladders:
18.104.22.168. The overall length of stock ladders shall not exceed 10 m. 22.214.171.124. The width between side rails at the base shall in no case be less than 290 mm for ladders up to 3 m in length. 126.96.36.199. For longer lengths, this width shall be increased at least 6 mm for each additional 0.3 m of length. 188.8.131.52. The metal rungs shall be made of solid round steel rods, steel pipe or angle sections and securely fastened to the side rails by riveting, bolting or welding. 54
184.108.40.206. Metal treads shall be flanged downward not less than 50 mm at each end and secured to each side rail by two bolts or rivets. 220.127.116.11. Safety type treads may also be used with angle supports at each end. 18.104.22.168. All bolts and rivets shall have a close fit in the holes prepared to receive
them. 4.3.2. Step Ladders:
22.214.171.124. The overall height of step ladders shall not exceed 6m. 126.96.36.199. Step ladders higher than 3 m shall be equipped with rope or chain placed midway between the automatic spreader and the bottom of ladder. 188.8.131.52. Steps shall be secured to the side rails by means of nails, or screws and reinforced with tie rods between side rails under alternate steps. 184.108.40.206. Ladders shall be provided with an automatic locking device or spreader to hold it in an open position. 220.127.116.11. The minimum width between side rails at top step, inside to inside, shall be not less than 300 mm with a spread of 25 mm for each 300 mm of length of spread ladder. 4.3.3. Extension Ladders:
18.104.22.168. The overall length of the extended ladder shall not exceed 18 m. 22.214.171.124. The sliding section shall not exceed two in number. 55
126.96.36.199. Locks and guides shall be of such design and construction as to make the extension ladder equal in strength to a ladder of equal length constructed of continuous side rails. 5. Cages for Fixed Ladders:
5.1. Cages must not extend less than 27 inches (68 cm), or more than 30 inches (76 cm) from the centerline of the step or rung and must not be less than 27 inches (68 cm) wide. 5.2. The inner side of cages must be clear of projections.
5.3. Horizontal bands must be spaced at intervals not more than 4 feet (1.2 m) apart measured from centerline to centerline. 5.4. Vertical bars must be spaced at intervals not more than 9.5 inches (24 cm), measured centerline to centerline. 5.5. Bottoms of cages must 7 feet (2.1 m) from the bottom of the ladder. 6. Inspection and Testing:
6.1. Metal ladders shall be inspected at least once in three months and all parts checked for wear, corrosion and structural failure. 6.2. All ladders shall be carefully inspected if damaged during use. 7. Maintenance:
Metal rungs shall be cleaned to prevent accumulation of materials which may
reduce the non-slipping properties. All fittings shall be carefully checked. 56
To standardize the dimensions of stairways.
2. General Guidelines For Stairs:
2.1. Stairs are used for accessing heights above 4m.
2.2. The stairs should satisfy the following requirement:
2.2.1. Treads and risers should be of uniform width and height in any one flight. 2.2.2. Minimum width of stairs should be 1m.
2.2.3. There should be no unbroken vertical rise of more than 4m. 2.2.4. The maximum angle of ascent should be 50 degrees.
2.2.5. Stair should railings on all open sides.
2.2.6. Stairs should have hand rails on all enclosed sides.
2.2.7. Stairs should have standard railings and toe-boards on all landings. 3. Maintenance:
The stairs should be cleaned to prevent accumulation of materials which may reduce the non-slipping properties. All fittings shall be carefully checked. 57
Ramps or Gangways
To standardize the dimensions of ramps and gateways
2. General Guidelines for Ramps and Gateways:
2.1. Ramps or gangways are advantageous for access of scaffold platforms from hoisting towers or from adjacent floor levels, but are not practicable where there is appreciable difference in levels. 2.2. Ramps and gateways should satisfy the following requirements: 2.2.1. They should be built to provide strength equal to that specified for scaffold structures. 2.2.2. If the ramp or runway is 1.5 m or more above the ground or floor level, the open sides should be protected by standard railings and toe boards. 2.2.3. The slope of the ramp shall not exceed 2 in 3.
2.2.4. If the slope is more than 1 in 4, proper foot holds shall be provided by means of stepping laths of minimum size 50 X 30mm at intervals not exceeding 45 cm. 3. Maintenance:
The gateways or ramps should be cleaned to prevent accumulation of materials which may reduce the non-slipping properties. All fittings shall be carefully checked. 58
To discuss the various safety standards related to robot/automated equipment’s. 2. Type and Classification of Robots:
2.1. Industrial robots are available commercially in a wide range of sizes, shapes, and configurations. 2.2. They are designed and fabricated with different design configurations and a different number of axes or degrees of freedom. These factors of a robot’s design influence its working envelope (the volume of working or reaching space). 2.3. The following figure shows the different types of robot design configuration: 60
3. Servo and Non-servo Control:
3.1. All industrial robots are either servo or non-servo controlled. 3.2. Servo robots are controlled through the use of sensors that continually monitor the robot’s axes and associated components for position and velocity. 3.3. This feedback is compared to pre-taught information which has been programmed and stored in the robot’s memory. 3.4. Non-servo robots do not have the feedback capability, and their axes are controlled through a system of mechanical stops and limit switches. 4. Types of Path Generated:
4.1. Industrial robots can be programmed from a distance to perform their required and preprogrammed operations with different types of paths generated through different control techniques. 4.2. The three different types of paths generated are Point-to-Point Path, Controlled Path, and Continuous Path. 4.3. These paths are further explained as follows:
4.3.1. Point-to-Point Path:
188.8.131.52. Robots programmed and controlled in this manner are programmed to move from one discrete point to another within the robot’s working envelope. 184.108.40.206. In the automatic mode of operation, the exact path taken by the robot will vary slightly due to variations in velocity, joint geometries, and point spatial locations. 61
220.127.116.11. This difference in paths is difficult to predict and therefore can create a potential safety hazard to personnel and equipment. 4.3.2. Controlled Path:
18.104.22.168. This path or mode of movement ensures that the end of the robot’s arm will follow a predictable (controlled) path and orientation as the robot travels from point to point. 22.214.171.124. The coordinate transformations required for this hardware management are calculated by the robot’s control system computer. 126.96.36.199. Observations that result from this type of programming are less likely to present a hazard to personnel and equipment. 4.3.3. Continuous Path:
188.8.131.52. A robot whose path is controlled by storing a large number or close succession of spatial points in memory during a teaching sequence is a continuous path controlled robot. 184.108.40.206. During this time, and while the robot is being moved, the coordinate points in space of each axis are continually monitored on a fixed time base, e.g., 60 or more times per second, and placed into the control system’s computer memory. 62
220.127.116.11. When the robot is placed in the automatic mode of operation, the program is replayed from memory and a duplicate path is generated. 5. Robot Components:
5.1. Industrial robots have four major components: the mechanical unit, power source, control system, and tooling which are shown in the following figure. 5.2. These components are explained as follows:
5.2.1. Mechanical Unit:
18.104.22.168. The robot’s manipulative arm is the mechanical unit. 63
22.214.171.124. This mechanical unit is also comprised of a fabricated structural frame with provisions for supporting mechanical linkage and joints, guides, actuators (linear or rotary), control valves, and sensors. 126.96.36.199. The physical dimensions, design, and weight-carrying ability depend on application requirements. 5.2.2. Power Sources:
188.8.131.52. Energy is provided to various robot actuators and their controllers
as pneumatic, hydraulic, or electrical power. 184.108.40.206. The robot’s drives are usually mechanical combinations powered by these types of energy, and the selection is usually based upon application requirements. For example, pneumatic power (low-pressure air) is used generally for low weight carrying robots. 220.127.116.11. Hydraulic power transmission (high-pressure oil) is usually used for medium to high force or weight applications, or where smoother motion control can be achieved than with pneumatics. 18.104.22.168. Consideration should be given to potential hazards of fires from leaks if petroleum-based oils are used. 22.214.171.124. Electrically powered robots are the most prevalent in industry. Either AC or DC electrical power is used to supply energy to electromechanical motor-driven actuating mechanisms and their respective control systems. 64
126.96.36.199. Motion control is much better, and in an emergency an electrically powered robot can be stopped or powered down more safely and faster than those with either pneumatic or hydraulic power. 6. Control System:
6.1. Either auxiliary computers or embedded microprocessors are used for practically all control of industrial robots today. These perform all of the required computational functions as well as interface with and control associated sensors, grippers, tooling, and other associated peripheral equipment. 6.2. The control system performs the necessary sequencing and memory functions for on-line sensing, branching, and integration of other equipment. 6.3. Programming of the controllers can be done on-line or at remote off-line control stations with electronic data transfer of programs by cassette, floppy disc, or telephone modem. 6.4. Self-diagnostic capability for troubleshooting and maintenance greatly reduces robot system downtime. 6.5. Some robot controllers have sufficient capacity, in terms of computational ability, memory capacity and input-output capability to serve also as system controllers and handle many other machines and processes. 65
7. Robot Programming:
7.1. A program consists of individual command steps which state either the position or function to be performed, along with other informational data such as speed, dwell or delay times, sample input device, activate output
device, execute, etc. 7.2. When establishing a robot program, it is necessary to establish a physical or geometrical relationship between the robot and other equipment or work to be serviced by the robot. 7.3. To establish these coordinate points precisely within the robot’s working envelope, it is necessary to control the robot manually and physically teach the coordinate points. 7.4. To do this as well as determine other functional programming information, three different teaching or programming techniques are used which are listed as follows: 7.4.1. Lead-Through Programming:
188.8.131.52. This method of programming uses a proprietary teach pendant (the robot’s control is placed in a “teach” mode), which allows trained personnel physically to lead the robot through the desired sequence of events by activating the appropriate pendant button or switch. 184.108.40.206. Position data and functional information are “taught” to the robot, and a new program is written. The teach pendant can be the sole source by which a program is established, or it may be used in conjunction with an additional programming console and/or the robot’s controller. 66
220.127.116.11. When using this technique of programming, the person performing the teach function can be within the robot’s working envelope, with operational safeguarding devices deactivated or inoperative. 18.104.22.168. The following figure shows an example of the process: 7.4.2. Walk-Through Programming:
22.214.171.124. A person doing the teaching has physical contact with the robot arm and actually gains control and walk the robot’s arm through the desired positions within the working envelope. 126.96.36.199. During this time, the robot’s controller is scanning and storing coordinate values on a fixed time basis. When the robot is later placed in the automatic mode of operation, these values and other functional information are replayed and the program run as it was taught. 67
188.8.131.52. With the walk-through method of programming, the person doing the teaching is in a potentially hazardous position because the operational safeguarding devices are deactivated or inoperative. 184.108.40.206. The following figure shows an example of this process: 7.4.3. Off-Line Programming:
220.127.116.11. The programming establishing the required sequence of functional and required positional steps is written on a remote computer console. 18.104.22.168. Since the console is distant from the robot and its controller, the written program has to be transferred to the robot’s controller and precise positional data established to achieve the actual coordinate information for the robot and other equipment. 68
22.214.171.124. The program can be transferred directly or by discs. After the program has been completely transferred to the robot’s controller, either the lead-through or walk-through technique can be used for obtaining actual positional coordinate information for the robot’s axes. 126.96.36.199. The following figure shows an example of this programming system: 7.5. When programming robots with any of the three techniques discussed above, it is generally required that the program be verified and slight modifications in positional information made. 7.6. This procedure is called program touch-up and is normally carried out in the teach mode of operation. The programmer manually leads or walks the robot through the programmed steps. There are potential hazards if safeguarding devices are deactivated or inoperative. 69
8. Hazards associated with Robots:
8.1. The operational characteristics of robots can be significantly different from other machines and equipment. Robots are capable of high-energy (fast or powerful) movements through a large volume of space even beyond the base dimensions of the robot. 8.2. The pattern and initiation of movement of the robot is predictable if the item being “worked” and the environment are held constant. Any change to the object being worked (i.e. a physical model change) or the environment can affect the programmed movements. 8.3. The following figure shows the work envelope of the robot. 70
8.4. Some maintenance and programming personnel may be required to be within the restricted envelope while power is available to actuators. The restricted envelope of the robot can overlap a portion of the restricted envelope of other robots or work zones of other industrial machines and related equipment. 8.5. Due to the above listed property of robots, a worker can be hit by one robot while working on another, trapped between them or peripheral equipment, or hit by flying objects released by the gripper. 8.6. A robot with two or more resident programs can find the current operating program erroneously calling another existing program with different operating parameters such as velocity, acceleration, or deceleration, or position within the robot’s restricted envelope.
The occurrence of this might not be predictable by maintenance or programming personnel working with the robot. 8.7. The different type of accidents occurring due to robots are listed as follows: 8.7.1. Impact or Collision Accidents: Unpredicted movements, component malfunctions, or unpredicted program changes related to the robot’s arm or peripheral equipment can result in contact accidents. 8.7.2. Crushing and Trapping Accidents: A worker’s limb or other body part can be trapped between a robot’s arm and other peripheral equipment, or the individual may be physically driven into and crushed by other peripheral equipment. 71
8.7.3. Mechanical Part Accidents: The breakdown of the robot’s drive components, tooling or end-effector, peripheral equipment, or its power source is a mechanical accident. The release of parts, failure of gripper mechanism, or the failure of end-effector power tools are a few types of mechanical failures. 8.7.4. Other Accidents: Other accidents can result from working with robots. Equipment that supplies robot power and control represents potential electrical and pressurized fluid hazards. Ruptured hydraulic lines could create dangerous high-pressure cutting streams or whipping hose hazards. Environmental accidents from arc flash, metal spatter, dust, electromagnetic, or radio-frequency interference can also occur. In addition, equipment and power cables on the floor present tripping hazards. 9. Sources of Hazards:
The various sources of hazard are listed as follows:
9.1. Human Error:
9.1.1. Inherent prior programming, interfacing activated peripheral equipment, or connecting live input-output sensors to the microprocessor or a peripheral can cause dangerous, unpredicted movement or action by the robot from human error. 9.1.2. The incorrect activation of the “teach
pendant” or control panel is a frequent human error. 72
9.1.3. The greatest problem, however, is over familiarity with the robot’s redundant motions so that an individual places himself in a hazardous position while programming the robot or performing maintenance on it. 9.2. Control Errors:
9.2.1. Intrinsic faults within the control system of the robot, errors in software, electromagnetic interference, and radio frequency interference are control errors. 9.2.2. In addition, these errors can occur due to faults in the hydraulic, pneumatic, or electrical sub-controls associated with the robot or robot system. 9.3. Unauthorized Access:
9.3.1. Entry into a robot’s safeguarded area is hazardous because the person involved may not be familiar with the safeguards in place or their activation status. 9.4. Mechanical Failure:
9.4.1. Operating programs may not account for cumulative mechanical part failure, and faulty or unexpected operation may occur. 9.5. Environmental Sources:
9.5.1. Electromagnetic or radio-frequency interference (transient signals) should be considered to exert an undesirable influence on robotic operation and increase the potential for injury to any person working in the area. Solutions to 73
environmental hazards should be documented prior to equipment start-up. 9.6. Power Systems:
9.6.1. Pneumatic, hydraulic or electrical power sources that have malfunctioning control or transmission elements in the robot power system can disrupt electrical signals to the control and/or power-supply lines. 9.6.2. Fire risks are increased by electrical overloads or by use of flammable hydraulic oil. Electrical shock and release of stored energy from accumulating devices also can be hazardous to personnel. 9.7. Improper Installation:
9.7.1. The design, requirements and layout of equipment, utilities and
facilities of a robot or robot system, if inadequately done, can lead to inherent hazards. 10. Control Devices:
The following characteristics are essential for a control device. 10.1. The main control panel is located outside the robot system work envelope in sight of the robot. 10.2. Readily accessible emergency stops (palm buttons, pull cords, etc.) are located in all zones where needed. These are clearly situated in easily located positions and the position identifications are a prominent part of personnel training. Emergency stops override all other controls. 74
10.3. The portable programming control device contains an emergency stop. 10.4. Automatic stop capabilities are provided for abnormal robot component speeds and robot traverses beyond the operating envelope. 10.5. All control devices are clearly marked and labeled as to device purpose. Actuating controls are designed to indicate the robot’s operating status. 10.6. Controls that initiate power or motion are constructed and guarded against accidental operation. 10.7. Each robot is equipped with a separate circuit breaker that can be locked only in the “off” position.
10.8. User-prompt displays are used to minimize human errors. 10.9. The control system for a robot with lengthy start-up time is designed to allow for the isolation of power to components having mechanical motion from the power required to energize the complete robot system. 10.10. Control systems are selected and designed so that they prevent a robot from automatically restarting upon restoration of power after electrical power failure. The systems also prevent hazardous conditions in case of hydraulic, pneumatic or vacuum loss or change. 10.11. A robot system is designed so that it could be moved manually on any of its axes without using the system drive power. 75
11. Safety Precautions:
11.1. The proper selection of an effective robotics safety system must be based on hazard analysis of the operation involving a particular robot. 11.2. The factors to be considered for such an analysis are listed as follows: 11.2.1. The task a robot is programmed to perform.
11.2.2. The start-up and the programming procedures.
11.2.3. Environmental conditions and location of the robot.
11.2.4. Requirements for corrective tasks to sustain normal operations, human errors, and possible robot malfunctions. 11.3. An effective safety system protects operators, engineers, programmers, maintenance personnel and others who could be exposed to hazards associated with a robot’s operation. 11.4. A combination of methods may be used to develop an effective safety system. Redundancy and backup systems are recommended, particularly if a robot can create serious hazardous conditions. 11.5. The general safety methods are listed as follows:
11.5.1. Interlocked Barrier Guard:(Ref:IS-9474)
188.8.131.52. This is a physical barrier around a robot work envelope incorporating gates equipped with interlocks. 184.108.40.206. These interlocks are designed so that all automatic operations of the robot and associated machinery will stop when any gate is opened. 76
220.127.116.11. Restarting the operation requires closing the gate and reactivating a control switch located outside of the barrier. 18.104.22.168. A typical practical barrier is an interlocked fence designed so that access through, over, under, or around the fence is not possible when the gate is closed. 11.5.2. Fixed Barrier Guards:(Ref:IS-9474)
22.214.171.124. A fixed barrier guard is a fence that requires tools for removal. 126.96.36.199. Like the interlocked barrier guard, it prevents access through, over, under, or around the fence. 188.8.131.52. It provides sufficient clearance for a worker between the guard and any robot reach, including parts held by an end-effector, to perform a specific task under controlled conditions. 11.5.3. Awareness Barrier Device:
184.108.40.206. This is a device such as a low railing or suspended chain that defines a safety perimeter and is intended to prevent inadvertent entry into the work envelope but can be climbed over, crawled under, or stepped around. 220.127.116.11. Such a device is acceptable only in situations where a hazard analysis indicates that the hazard is minimal and inter locked or fixed barrier guards are not feasible. 77
11.5.4. Presence Sensing Devices:(Ref:IS-9474)
18.104.22.168. The presence detectors that are most commonly used in robotics safety are pressure mats and light curtains. 22.214.171.124. Floor mats (pressure sensitive mats) and light curtains (similar to arrays of photocells) can be used to detect a person stepping into a hazardous area near a robot. 126.96.36.199. Proximity detectors operating on electrical capacitance, ultrasonic, radio frequency, laser, etc. 11.5.5. Emergency Robot Braking:
188.8.131.52. Dangerous robot movement is arrested by dynamic braking systems rather than simple power cut-off. 184.108.40.206. Such brakes will counteract the effects of robot arm inertia. Cutting off all power could create hazards such as a sudden dropping of a robot’s arm or flinging of a work-piece. 11.5.6. Audible and Visible Warning Systems:
220.127.116.11. Audible and visible warning systems are not acceptable safeguarding methods but may be used to enhance the effectiveness of positive safeguards. 18.104.22.168. The purposes of audible and visible signals need to be easily recognizable. 78
12.1. Maintenance should occur during the regular and periodic inspection program for a robot or robot system. 12.2. An inspection program should include the recommendations of the robot manufacturer and manufacturer of other associated robot system equipment such as conveyor mechanisms, parts feeders, tooling, gages, sensors, etc. 12.3. These recommended inspection and maintenance programs are essential for minimizing the hazards from component malfunction, breakage and unpredicted movements or actions by the robot or other system equipment. 12.4. To ensure proper maintenance, it is recommended that periodic maintenance and inspections be documented along with the identity of personnel performing these tasks. 79
To discuss the basic safety guide lines for electrical safety in industries.
2. Considerations For Earthing:
The basic earthing considerations for earthing are listed as follows: 2.1. The main earthing conductor will be run in between standard earth electrodes conforming to specifications and distributed uniformly around the working area. 2.2. All the non-current carrying metal parts of the equipment’s, switchboards, etc, will be solidly connected to this earth grid or equipotential bonding conductor by duplicate earth connections of adequate size.
2.3. For interconnecting switchboards protected by HRC fuses to this earth grid, the size of interconnection need not be more than 75 mm³ copper or its equivalent. 2.4. In Iaying out the earth electrodes and the earth conductors, all ports should be made to maintain a uniform potential gradient in and around the work area. 2.5. The transformer neutral should be solidly connected to this grid by duplicate earth connections, one going directly to earth electrodes and other going to the common earth bus. 2.6. The size of the neutral earthing conductor should in, no case be less than that of the size of the main earthing conductor. 2.7. The earth grid should be run at a minimum depth of 50 cm below ground. 81
2.8. When bare conductors are used as earth grid then they can also be assumed to dissipate the fault current to the mass of the earth and for calculating the effective value of the earth resistance of this grid, this grid can be treated as a strip electrode and the standard formula can be applied for calculating the earth resistance of the grid. 2.9. The continuity resistance of the earth return path through the earth grid should be maintained as low as possible and in no case greater than one ohm. 2.10. In the cases where there is possibility of the ground potential attaining very high values (of the order of 5 kV and above) in the event of an earth fault, the earth grid design should be based on the tolerable limits of the potential gradient in the substation area, and the step and touch potential due to fault conditions. 2.11. In the case of EHT substations, the earth conductors should be bare and they should be buried direct in ground. 3. The Earth Electrodes:
3.1. The earth electrodes are provided to dissipate the fault current in case of earthing faults and to maintain the earth resistance to a reasonable
value so as to avoid rise of potential of the earthing grid. 3.2. The earth electrodes up till now are designed to withstand appropriate thermal capacity, assuming the total fault current to be passing through the earth electrodes. This is true in the case of an earthing system which is not interconnected with neutral earthing. 82
3.3. The amount of current that may actually be dissipated through the earth electrodes depends to a large extent, on the earth resistivity of the soil. Depending upon the value of the earth resistivity, the total fault current from the supply system will return to neutral partially through the earth grid and partially through the earth return path. The standard earth resistivity values typically vary in the range between 10 and 1000 ohms. 3.4. For verification of the fault dissipating capacity of earth electrodes, only the portion of the fault current which is diverted to the earth electrode need be taken and under these conditions the maximum allowable current density as stipulated in this code should not be exceeded.
3.5. The number of earth electrodes required for a particular installation will be basically decided by the optimum value of the earth resistance which is required to make the protective system operation. 3.6. The optimum value of the earth resistance depends upon the potential rise and setting of the earth fault isolating devices or the series protective devices in case where there is no ground fault detecting device. 3.7. The optimum value of the earth resistance is closely related to the settings of the earth fault protective devices used in the system. 3.8. For a small installation, in the event of a direct earth fault the earth fault current produced should not be less than five times the highest rating of the maximum protective fuses. 83
4. Determination Of Earth Resistivity:
4.1. In the conventional method, the earth resistivity which is to be applied in the design is calculated by taking the arithmetic mean of a number of measured values in the area under consideration the figure so obtained gives a realistic value. 4.2. A more scientific approach is to measure the earth resistivity in different radial directions from a central point which may be taken as the proposed load center. With the values so obtained, a polar curve is drawn. The polar curve is converted to an equivalent circle. The
radius of the circle is taken to be the average value of the earth resistivity figure which is to be applied in design calculations. 5. Design of Earth Bus
5.1. The size of the main earth grid will be decided on the basis of line to ground fault current assumed to be symmetrical short-circuit current in the system. 5.2. This assumption is fairly reasonable in the case of a solidly earthed system where the ratio between X0/X1 is limited to less than 3 and the ohmic value of the earth return path to the supply neutral is reasonably low. 5.3. The minimum fault level existing at the supply point will be assumed to be 13.1 kA or the actual fault current, whichever is greater for premises at voltages above 1 kV. 84
5.4. Bare copper, PVC covered aluminium or Gl subjected to relevant restrictions based on the location and nature of installation may be used as earthing to conductors. The time duration of the fault current as recommended is 3 seconds, the size of the earthing conductors will be based upon current densities. A corrosion factor of 5 percent of unit drop in the value of corrosion index up to – 10 is recommended for steel/G1 earthing conductors while designing an earthing scheme, situations of corrosion index of below – 10 should not be allowed. 5.5. In the case of systems where standard protective arrangements have been provided for isolating the ground faults instantaneously, due consideration should be given to deciding the size of the earthing conductor by giving due allowance to lower duration of the ground fault currents. 6. Correlation Between Grounding and Earth Fault Protection
6.1. The phase fault protective devices normally used in systems operating at 415 V afford reasonable protection against arcing ground faults. 6.2. The ground fault current depends upon the impedance to zero sequence current flows and depends to a large extent on the grounding network and the earth resistivity. 6.3. The pick-up value of the ground fault relays or the value of the phase fault protective device should be coordinated for the required protection for the system. 85
6.4. In case the impedance of the earth return path for ground fault current cannot be regulated so as to produce adequate fault current for operating the phase fault protective devices like fuses, such circuits should be protected by separate ground fault protective devices. Hence, the necessity of separate ground fault protection depends on the grounding network and its effective impedance and earth grid design is closely related to the effectiveness of the phase fault protective device in clearing a ground fault in place where separate ground fault protective devices are not provided. 7. Grounding and Ground Fault Protection
7.1. Distribution circuits which are solidly grounded or grounded through low impedances require fast clearing of ground faults. This involves high sensitivity in detecting low ground fault currents as wall as the co-ordination between main and feeder circuit protective devices. Fault clearing must be extremely fast where arcing is present. 7.2. The requirement of effective ground clearance system is based on the following reasons: 7.2.1. The majority of electric faults involve ground. Ungrounded systems are also subject to ground faults and require careful attention to ground fault detection and ground fault protections. 7.2.2. The ground fault protective sensitivity can be relatively independent of continuous load current values and thereby have lower pick up settings than phase protective devices. 86
7.2.3. Ground fault currents are not transferred through system, in the case of power transformers which are connected delta-star, delta-delta. The ground fault protection for each system voltage level should be independent of the protection at other voltage levels. This permits much faster relaying than can be afforded by phase protective device which require co-ordinate using pick up values and time delays which extend from the load to the service generators, often resulting in considerable time delay at some parts in the system. 7.2.4. Arcing ground faults which are not promptly detected and cleared can be extremely destructive. A relatively small investment can provide very valuable protections.
7.3. Much of the present emphasis on ground fault protection centers around or circuits below 550 V. Protective devices have usually fuse switches of circuit breakers with integrally mounted phase tripping devices. 7.4. These protective elements are termed as overload or fault overcurrent devices because they carry the current in each phase and clear the circuit only when the current reaches a magnitude greater than full load current. 7.5. To accommodate inrush currents such as motor starting or transformer magnetizing inrush; phase over current devices are designed with inverse characteristics, which are rather slow at overcurrent values up to about 5 times rating. 87
To specify the various standards and safety measures associated with material hoisting equipment’s e.g. Overhead cranes. 2. Types of Hoisting Devices:
2.1. Automatic Crane:
A crane which when activated operates through a preset cycle or cycles. 2.2. Floor-operated crane:
A crane which is controlled by an operator on the floor or an independent platform 2.3. Overhead crane:
A crane with a movable bridge carrying a movable or fixed hoisting mechanism and traveling on an overhead fixed runway structure. 3. General Guidelines:
3.1. Minimum clearance of 3 inches overhead and 2 inches laterally shall be provided and maintained between crane and obstructions. 3.2. Where passageways or walkways are provided obstructions shall not be placed so that safety of personnel will be jeopardized by movements of the crane. 3.3. Clearance between parallel cranes. If the runways of two cranes are parallel, and there are no intervening walls or structure, there shall be adequate clearance provided and maintained between the two bridges. 89
3.4. Only designated personnel shall be permitted to operate a crane covered by this section. 3.5. The general arrangement the location of control and protective equipment shall be such that all operating handles are within convenient reach of the operator when facing the area to be served by the load hook, or while facing the direction of travel of the cab. The arrangement shall allow the operator a full view of the load hook in all positions. 3.6. A crane shall be provided with bumpers or other automatic means providing equivalent effect, unless the crane travels at a slow rate of speed and has a faster deceleration rate due to the use of sleeve bearings, or is not operated near the ends of bridge and trolley travel, or is restricted to a limited distance by the nature of the crane operation and there is no hazard of striking any object in this limited distance, or is used in similar operating conditions.
The bumpers shall be capable of stopping the crane at an average rate of deceleration not to exceed 0.3048 m/s² (3 ft/s/s) when traveling in either direction at 20 percent of the rated load speed. 3.7. The bumpers shall have sufficient energy absorbing capacity to stop the crane when traveling at a speed of at least 40 percent of rated load speed. 3.8. Bumpers shall be so designed and installed as to minimize parts falling from the crane in case of breakage. 3.9. If hoisting ropes run near enough to other parts to make fouling or chafing possible, guards shall be installed to prevent this condition. 90
3.10. Exposed moving parts such as gears, set screws, projecting keys, chains, chain sprockets, and reciprocating components which might constitute a hazard under normal operating conditions shall be guarded. 3.11. Each guard shall be capable of supporting the weight of a 200-pound (91kg) person, without permanent distortion, unless the guard is located where it is impossible for a person to step on it. 3.12. Each independent hoisting unit of a crane shall be equipped with at least one holding brake, applied directly to the motor shaft or some part of the gear train.
3.13. Each independent hoisting unit of a crane except for worm-geared hoists, the angle of whose worm is such as to prevent the load from accelerating in the lowering direction shall be equipped with control braking means, in addition to a holding brake, to prevent over-speeding. 3.14. Holding brakes on hoists shall have ample thermal capacity for the frequency of operation required by the service. 3.15. Holding brakes on hoists shall be applied automatically when power is removed. 3.16. Hooks shall meet the manufacturer’s recommendations and shall not be overloaded. 3.17. Except for floor-operated cranes a gong or other effective warning signal shall be provided for each crane equipped with a power traveling mechanism. 91
Inspection procedure for cranes in regular service is divided into two
general classifications based upon the intervals at which inspection should be performed. The intervals in turn are dependent upon the nature of the critical components of the crane and the degree of their exposure to wear, deterioration, or malfunction. They are classified as follows: 4.1. Frequent inspection 🙁 Daily to monthly intervals)
4.1.1. All functional operating mechanisms should be inspected for faulty or inadequate adjustment which might interfere with proper operation daily. 4.1.2. Leakage in lines, tanks, valves, drain-pumps and other parts of air or hydraulic systems should be checked daily. 4.1.3. Hooks should be inspected for deformation or cracks. Visual inspection should be done daily. A monthly inspection should be performed with a certification record which includes the date of inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection and the serial number or other identifier. 4.1.4. Hoist chains including end connections should be inspected for excessive wear, twist, distorted links interfering with proper function, or stretch beyond manufacturer’s recommendations. In such cases visual inspection should be done daily and a monthly inspection should be performed with a certification record which includes the date of inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection and an identifier of the chain which was inspected. 92
4.1.5. All functional operating mechanisms should be inspected for excessive wear of components. 4.2. Periodic Inspection:( 1 to 12-month intervals)
4.2.1. Complete inspections of the crane shall be performed in the given intervals. 4.2.2. They should be inspected for deformation, cracks, or corroded members. 4.2.3. They should be inspected for loose bolts or rivets.
4.2.4. They should be inspected for cracks or worn sheaves and drums. 4.2.5. Worn, cracked or distorted parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers, locking and clamping devices should also be inspected. 4.2.6. Excessive wear on brake system parts, linings, pawls, and ratchets should also be included in the inspection. 4.2.7. The inspection should include chain drive sprockets for excessive wear and excessive chain stretch. 5. Testing:
5.1. Prior to initial use all cranes shall be tested to insure for the following functions: 5.1.1. Hoisting and lowering.
5.1.2. Trolley travel.
5.1.3. Bridge travel.
5.1.4. Limit switches, locking and safety devices.
6.1. Before adjustments and repairs are started on a crane the following precautions shall be taken: 6.1.1. The crane to be repaired shall be run to a location where it will cause the least interference with other cranes and operations in the area. 6.1.2. All controllers shall be at the off position.
6.1.3. The main or emergency switch shall be open and locked in the open position. 6.1.4. Warning or “out of order” signs shall be placed on the crane, also on the floor beneath or on the hook where visible from the floor. 6.1.5. Where other cranes are in operation on the same runway, rail stops or other suitable means shall be provided to prevent interference of running cranes with the idle crane. 6.1.6. After adjustments and repairs have been made the crane shall not be operated until all guards have been reinstalled, safety devices reactivated and maintenance equipment removed. 94
To list the various biological safety precautions and risk assessment methods. 2. Biosafety Risk Assessment:
2.1. The standard biosafety risk assessment process starts with considering three primary factors: 2.1.1. The inherent work hazard posed by the biological material or agent. 2.1.2. The susceptible hosts (i.e., receptors) that may be affected by the material or agent. 2.1.3. The exposure pathways between the threat hazard and the susceptible host. 2.2. In addition, the following five-step approach for laboratory supervisors and work leads to assess biological risk and to select controls for laboratory work: 2.2.1. Identify material or agent hazards, and perform an initial risk assessment. 2.2.2. Identify laboratory procedure hazards.
2.2.3. Make a final determination of the appropriate biosafety containment level, and select additional controls indicated by the risk assessment. 2.2.4. Evaluate a worker’s proficiency in safe work practices, and ensure the integrity of safety equipment. 2.2.5. Review the risk assessment with the biosafety professional, subject matter expert. 96
3. Material or Agent Hazards and Requirements:
3.1. The material or agent hazard(s) and associated requirements must be considered at the start of the risk assessment. Terms used to describe biological materials must also be defined and understood before a risk assessment takes place. 3.2. The term biological materials is used to describe a broad range of organisms, cells, viruses, and other materials of biological origin that pose differing levels of risks to plants, animals, or humans. 3.3. The term biological agent or agent is used to describe a specific biological organism or material that is often directly responsible for producing an effect (e.g., disease). Examples of biological agents include a microorganism (e.g., bacterium, fungus, or parasite), virus, prion, or biological toxin.
3.4. In addition, the risk assessment should consider the state or treatment of the biological material that may change or eliminate the hazardous characteristics of the material, and this information should be included in the Biosafety Work Authorization when the information significantly describes the safety aspects of the work. For example, bio-hazardous characteristics of a biological material may not be present if the material is in a nonviable, fixed, inactive, or decontaminated state. These terms are listed below along with simplified definitions and examples: 3.4.1. Nonviable means the material or agent is not capable of living or developing under favourable conditions. These materials may not pose risks as long as there is no potential for the presence of pathogens. 97
3.4.2. Fixed means the material has been treated so that it has been stabilized and preserved in place. For example, properly fixing cells with paraformaldehyde or glutaraldehyde typically kills the cells and most potential pathogens. 3.4.3. Inactive means the material is not capable of acting or reacting normally. For example, infectious proteins (i.e., prions) may be inactivated by chemical destruction. 3.4.4. Decontaminated means the material has been treated (e.g. sterilized or disinfected) so that biological contaminants or components have been reduced or inactivated to an acceptable level to reduce or eliminate the possibility of transmission of pathogens to undesired hosts. For example, fresh human bones may be decontaminated internally by radiation. 4. Risk Group Classification:
4.1. The principal hazardous characteristics of the agents that are present, or may be present in the biological material, must be considered while completing the initial risk assessment. This consideration includes an assessment of the agent’s capability to infect and cause disease in a susceptible human or other host, the severity of disease, and the availability of preventive measures and effective treatments. To facilitate this assessment process, the World Health Organization (WHO) and NIH (National Institute of Health-U.S.) established an agent risk group (RG) classification for laboratories. These groups are classified as given in the following table: 98
RISK GROUP(RG) LEVEL
Risk group Definition
Agents that are not associated with disease in healthy adult humans 2
Agents that are associated with human disease that is rarely serious, and for which preventive or therapeutic interventions are often available 3
Agents that are associated with serious or lethal human disease for which preventive or therapeutic interventions may be available (high individual risk but low community risk) 4
Agents that are likely to cause serious or lethal human disease for which preventive or therapeutic interventions are not usually available (high individual risk and high community risk) 4.2. Each biological material or agent used for research must be categorized by RG in the Biosafety Work Authorization, and the RG must be based on the agent’s or material’s potential for causing disease in humans. This categorization should be based on the following principles: 4.2.1. Agents must be assigned the RG
designated by NIH, unless a risk assessment in the Biosafety Work Authorization indicates an alternate RG is warranted for the specific agent to be used. 4.2.2. Agents not classified as RG2, 3, or 4 by NIH are not automatically or implicitly classified as RG1. A risk assessment must be conducted for unclassified agents based on their known properties and relationship to agents listed in NIH RGs. 99
4.2.3. Some information sources for biological agents only state the recommended biosafety level (BL) to be used for the agent. An agent’s recommended BL is typically the same as its RG. If an agent has not been assigned an RG by NIH, the risk assessment process must be used to determine its BL. 5. Pathogenic Agents and Toxins:
5.1. The risk assessment includes identification and assessment of the pathogenic agents or toxins that are involved with the work, or may be present in the biological material. A pathogen is an infectious microbe or other agent that causes disease in a healthy host organism such as a human, animal, or plant. A toxin is a poisonous substance produced by a living organism.
5.2. Depending on potential hosts and impacts (e.g., humans or livestock), pathogens and toxins may be regulated by a variety of agencies. The following table below identify categories of pathogens and toxins used in biosafety standards and by regulatory agencies to identify agents, toxins, and associated requirements. 100
Agent or Toxin
Agent or Toxin
General Example or Source
Human Etiologic Agents (NIH Guidelines)
Risk Group 2, 3, or 4 agents such as the bacterial, fungal, parasitic, viral, and rickettsial agents. Human Pathogens (BMBL)
Bacterial, fungal, parasitic, rickettsial, viral, and arbovirus agents that are included in BMBL agent summary statements and require BL2 or greater
containment. Biological Etiologic Agents (DOE WSHP)
Human pathogens such as those listed in Appendix B of the NIH Guidelines Bloodborne Pathogens (OSHA)
Pathogens such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV). Select Agents (CDC)
Pathogens categorized by CDC as select agents because of their severe threat to humans (e.g., biological weapons) Plant and Animal Pathogens
Materials, organisms, or agents regulated by USDA-APHIS that may harm domestic or native animals or plants, or natural resources. Toxins
Bacterial, fungal, algal, and animal toxins.
Select Agents and Toxins
Human, animal, and plant pathogens and toxins categorized by CDC and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) as select agents and toxins because of their potential severe threat to humans (e.g., biological weapons) Prions
Misfolded proteins and materials potentially containing other misfolded proteins that cause diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) 101
6. Equipment Hazard Examples:
The following table gives the various examples of equipment hazards: Equipment Type
The diameter of aerosols generated from certain types of equipment will vary from 0.1 to 100 microns. • Bacterial cells and spores are 0.3 to 10 microns in diameter. • Viruses are 0.02 to 0.3 micron in diameter.
• Biological particles generated from liquid or powder form particles that are 0.5 micron diameter. • blender: 2 micron diameter particles
• sonicator: 4.8 micron diameter particles
• dropping bacterial flask: 3.5 micron diameter particles
• dropping lyophilized culture: 10 micron diameter particles • pipette blow
out: 4.9 micron diameter particles
• vortex culture: 4.8 micron diameter particles
• centrifuge: 4 micron diameter particles
Cryogenic temperatures of –80°C are used to remove moisture from materials and contain low-temperature refrigerants. If protective equipment is not used, exposure to low temperature may cause cryogenic burns and frostbite. • freezers
• lyophilizers (freeze dryers)
• use of dry ice in shipping and receiving
The use of heat to decontaminate or sterilize materials is widely used in the biological research laboratory. Physical injury from burns may occur from sudden accidental releases of heat sources or from the handling of hot items. • dry heat temperatures used for sterilization range from 80°C to 200°C • wet heat is utilized by autoclaves to sterilize materials and can range between 80°C to 500°C • saturated steam operates at 121°C
Compressed gas cylinders and pressurized equipment are commonly used in the laboratory. Injury may occur from rupture high-pressure lines. autoclaves operate at high pressures of 1,000 kilo Pascal (145 psig) Oxygen deficiencies
Low-temperature freezers may include a backup system involving the use of a cryogenic liquid. Backup systems may consist of 50–200 liters of liquid nitrogen or liquid carbon dioxide under pressure. Liquid helium is also used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) laboratories. Oxygen deficiency environment may result from:
• the displacement of oxygen by expanding gases (i.e., 700 parts of air to 1 part liquid nitrogen), • the linear displacement of oxygen from carbon dioxide (gas) generated from the use of dry ice, and • Compressed gas cylinders or tanks.
Sudden release of such rotational energies can cause serious physical injury from unbalanced equipment or flying shrapnel. Tabletop and floor-mounted low, high, and ultracentrifuges rotate at speeds ranging from less than 5,000 to more than 100,000 rpm with rotor masses up to several kilograms. Sharps
Any device having corners, edges, or projections capable of cutting or piercing the skin. LBNL’s definition of sharps includes regulated sharps (medical waste), unregulated bio-hazardous sharps, and unregulated uncontaminated sharps that pose a safety hazard to custodians and other personnel. • needles with or without syringes
• needles with vacutainers
• needles with attached tubing
• blades (razors, scalpels, X-ACTO knives)
• broken glass
• glassware with sharp edges or points
• pasteur pipettes and glass slides
Ultraviolet (UV) C radiation
UVC radiation is used for inactivating microorganisms. Its usefulness, however, is limited by a variety of factors (e.g., low penetrating power). The eyes and skin can be damaged by exposure to direct or strongly reflected UV radiation. UV lights must be evaluated to determine if the benefits outweigh the potential hazards. UV radiation is sometimes used in conjunction with: • unoccupied tissue culture rooms
• biological safety cabinets
• UV light boxes
7. Route of Exposure:
7.1. In order for biological agents to cause disease, they shall first enter or invade the body in sufficient numbers. Routes of entry include oral, respiratory, parenteral, mucous membrane and animal contacts (bites,
scratches). 7.2. Once inside the body, biohazards must meet other requirements to cause disease; they shall colonize and establish in body cells, tissues and/or organs, overcome the body’s natural defence mechanisms and mutate or adapt to body changes. 7.3. Factors such as age, immunological state, occupation, physical and geographic environment and predisposing conditions contribute to an individual’s susceptibility to the disease process. 7.4. It is difficult to determine a minimum infectious dose when discussing biohazards. The same dose of a pathogen may produce no disease symptoms in one individual but may cause serious or even fatal disease in another. 7.5. The following table further shows the various routes of exposure and there protective measures Route of Exposure
Protection Mucous Membranes
Eyes, nose or mouth via splash/splatter
Wear full face shield or safety glasses and surgical mask. Work in a biological safety cabinet or behind a protective shield following good microbiological practices Ingestion: Mouth pipetting, eating or drinking in the laboratory
Use mechanical pipette and good microbiological practices. Inhalation: Breathing respirable aerosols due to centrifuge leaks, spills, or aerosol generating procedures such as pipetting or vortexing Work within BSC, use sealed rotors or canisters in the centrifuge, use respirators if needed and follow good microbiological practices. 104
Puncture with a contaminated sharp object such as needle stick, animal bite or scratch, through wound, cut or abrasion, or via previously broken skin from a previous injury or eczema. Substitute plastic for glass, use caution with sharps. Use proper sharps disposal techniques and containers, animal restraints, cut resistant gloves, double gloves, sleeve covers, water proof bandages and good work practices. Indirect Exposure: Touching mucous membranes with hands that have been in contact with contaminated surfaces such as benches, phones, computers, etc. or hands that were not washed after working Decontaminate work surfaces, wash hands when finished working or
gloves have been compromised, do not touch face with gloves or non-gloved hands, and do not apply cosmetics in the laboratory. 8. Plant Biosafety Levels:
Plant biological safety levels specify physical and biological containment conditions and practices suitable for conducting greenhouse experiments. They are of two types which are listed as follows: 8.1. Plant Biosafety Level-1(PBSL-1):
8.1.1. Standard Practices:
22.214.171.124. Access to the work place shall be limited or restricted, at the discretion of the Director, when experiments are in progress. Prior to entering the work place, personnel shall be required to read and follow instructions on PBSL-1 work place practices and procedures. All procedures shall be performed in accordance with accepted work place practices that are appropriate to the experimental organism. 126.96.36.199. A record shall be kept of experiments currently in progress in the work place. 105
188.8.131.52. Experimental organisms shall be rendered biologically inactive by appropriate methods before disposal outside the work place. 184.108.40.206. A program shall be implemented to control undesired species (e.g., weed, rodent, or arthropod pests and pathogens), by methods appropriate to the organisms and in accordance with applicable state and Federal laws. 220.127.116.11. Experiments involving other organisms that require containment level lower than PBSL-1 may be conducted in the greenhouse concurrently with experiments that require PBSL-1 containment, provided that all work is conducted in accordance with PBSL-1 work place practices. 8.2. Plant Biosafety Level-2(PBSL-2):
8.2.1. Standard Practices:
18.104.22.168. Access to the work space shall be limited or restricted, at the discretion of the Director, to individuals directly involved with the experiments when they are in progress. Personnel shall be required to read and follow instructions on PBSL-2 practices and procedures. All procedures shall be conducted in accordance with accepted work space practices that are
appropriate to the experimental organisms. 22.214.171.124. A record shall be kept of experimental material that are brought into or removed from the work space. A record shall be kept of experiments currently in progress in the work space. The Principal Investigator shall report any accident involving the inadvertent release or spill of material to the Director and the Biological Safety Officer. 106
Documentation of any such accident shall be prepared and maintained. 126.96.36.199. Experimental organisms shall be rendered biologically inactive by appropriate methods before disposal outside of the facility. Decontamination of run-off water is not necessarily required. If part of the facility is composed of gravel or similar material, appropriate treatments should be made periodically to eliminate, or render inactive, any organisms potentially entrapped by the gravel. 188.8.131.52. A program shall be implemented to control undesired species (e.g., weed, rodent, or arthropod pests and pathogens) by methods appropriate to the organisms and in accordance with applicable state and Federal laws. 184.108.40.206. A sign shall be posted indicating that a restricted experiment is in progress. The sign shall indicate the following: (i) the name of the responsible individual, (ii) the material in use, and (iii) any special requirements for using the area. If organisms are used that have a recognized potential for causing serious detrimental impacts on managed or natural ecosystems, their presence shall be indicated on a sign posted on the greenhouse access doors. If there is a risk to human health, a sign shall be posted incorporating the universal biosafety symbol. 220.127.116.11. Materials containing experimental microorganisms, which are brought into or removed from the greenhouse facility in a viable or intact state, shall be transferred in a closed non-breakable container. 107
9. Biosafety Levels(BSL):
9.1. Biosafety level-1:
The following practices should be instituted in Biosafety level-1: 9.1.1. The supervisor must enforce the institutional policies that control access to the work area. 9.1.2. Persons must wash their hands after working with potentially hazardous materials and before leaving the work place. 9.1.3.
Eating, drinking, smoking, handling contact lenses, applying cosmetics, and storing food for human consumption must not be permitted in work areas. Food must be stored outside the work area in cabinets or refrigerators designated and used for this purpose. 9.1.4. Mouth pipetting is prohibited; mechanical pipetting devices must be used. 9.1.5. Policies for the safe handling of sharps, such as needles, scalpels, pipettes, and broken glassware must be developed and implemented. Whenever practical, supervisors should adopt improved engineering and work practice controls that reduce risk of sharps injuries. 9.1.6. The following precautions should be taken while handling sharp objects: 18.104.22.168. Careful management of needles and other sharps are of primary importance. Needles must not be bent, sheared, broken, recapped, removed from disposable syringes, or otherwise manipulated by hand before disposal. 22.214.171.124. Used disposable needles and syringes must be carefully placed in conveniently located puncture-resistant containers used for sharps disposal. 108
126.96.36.199. Non disposable sharps must be placed in a hard walled container for transport to a processing area for decontamination, preferably by autoclaving. 188.8.131.52. Broken glassware must not be handled directly. Instead, it must be removed using a brush and dustpan, tongs, or forceps. Plastic ware should be substituted for glassware whenever possible. 9.1.7. Perform all procedures to minimize the creation of splashes and/or aerosols. 9.1.8. Decontaminate work surfaces after completion of work and after any spill or splash of potentially infectious material with appropriate disinfectant. 9.1.9. Decontaminate all cultures, stocks, and other potentially infectious materials before disposal using an effective method. 9.1.10. A sign incorporating the universal biohazard symbol must be posted at the entrance to the laboratory when infectious agents are present. The sign must include the names and phone numbers of the PI supervisor. 9.1.11. An effective integrated pest management program is required. 9.1.12. The supervisor must ensure that personnel receive appropriate training regarding their duties, the necessary precautions to prevent exposures, and exposure evaluation procedures. Personnel must receive annual updates or additional training when procedural or policy changes occur. Personal health status may impact an individual’s susceptibility to infection, ability to receive
immunizations or prophylactic interventions. Therefore, all laboratory personnel and particularly women of child-bearing age should be provided with information regarding immune competence and conditions that may predispose them to infection. Individuals having these 109
conditions should be encouraged to self-identify to the institution’s healthcare provider for appropriate counselling and guidance. 9.2. Biosafety Level-2:
All practices followed in Biosafety Level-1 work places should be instituted in a Biosafety Level-2 work place. Additionally, the following practices taken from Biosafety are listed as follows: 9.2.1. All persons entering the laboratory must be advised of the potential hazards and meet specific entry/exit requirements. 9.2.2. All the personnel must be provided with medical surveillance and offered appropriate immunizations for agents handled or potentially present in the laboratory. 9.2.3. Each institution must establish policies and procedures describing the collection and storage of serum samples from at-risk personnel. 9.2.4. A work-specific biosafety manual must be prepared and adopted as policy. The biosafety manual must be available and accessible. 9.2.5. The supervisor must ensure that personnel demonstrate proficiency in standard and special microbiological practices before working with agents. 9.2.6. Potentially infectious materials must be placed in a durable, leak proof container during collection, handling, processing, storage, or transport within a facility. 9.2.7. Laboratory equipment should be routinely decontaminated, as well as, after spills, splashes, or other potential contamination. 9.2.8. Incidents that may result in exposure to infectious materials must be immediately evaluated and treated according to procedures described in the work-biosafety safety manual. 110
All such incidents must be reported to the supervisor. Medical evaluation, surveillance, and treatment should be provided and appropriate records maintained. 9.3. Biosafety Level-3:
9.3.1. Biosafety Level 3 (BSL2+, Biosafety Level 2 enhanced) is the designation utilized for those biohazard experiments that require practices that are more stringent than standard BSL2 procedures. Generally, BSL3
practices are mandated in a space designed for BSL2 work. It is preferred that the BSL2 laboratory be self-contained with all equipment required for the experiment located within the laboratory. A biohazard door sign listing emergency contacts and entry requirements is posted on the door while BSL2+ work is in progress and access is restricted to those involved in the experiment. When work is completed and equipment has been decontaminated, the sign is removed and the laboratory is returned to standard BSL2 use. All manipulations of BSL2+ material are conducted in a class II biological safety cabinet and secondary containment is utilized for centrifugation and other potential aerosol generating procedures. 9.4. Biosafety Level-4:
9.4.1. Biosafety Level 4 (BSL4) involves utilization of all BSL1 and BSL2 practices and procedures in addition to many more stringent requirements. BSL4 facilities require a great deal of additional laboratory equipment and facility planning. A laboratory considering work with an agent that requires BSL4 containment should contact the Department of Biological Safety to discuss the feasibility of the research. 111
9.5. The following table explains the different biosafety levels in brief: Biosafety Level
typically in use
Safety Equipment(Primary Barriers)
Not known to cause disease in healthy adults.
Standard Microbiological Practices.
None required. PPE: laboratory coats; gloves; face protection as needed. Open bench top, sink required
Pose moderate hazard to personnel and the environment. Hazards are autoinoculation, ingestion, mucous membrane exposure. BSL-1 practice plus: Limited access; Biohazard warning signs; “Sharps” precautions; Biosafety
manual defining any needed waste decontamination or medical surveillance policies. Class I or II BSCs or other physical containment devices used for all manipulations of agents that cause splashes or aerosols of infectious materials; PPE: laboratory coats; gloves; face protection as needed. BSL-1 plus an autoclave is available.
Indigenous or exotic agents with potential for aerosol transmission; disease may have serious or lethal consequences. BSL-2 practice plus: Controlled access; Decontamination of all waste; Decontamination of lab clothing before laundering; Baseline serum or vaccination as needed. Class I or II BSCs or other physical containment devices used for all manipulations of agents; PPE: protective lab clothing; gloves; respiratory protection as needed. BSL-2 plus physical separation from access corridors, self-closing, double- door access, exhausted air not recirculated, negative airflow into laboratory. 112
Dangerous or exotic agents which pose high risk of life-threatening disease, aerosol-transmitted lab infections; or related agents with unknown risk of transmission. BSL-3 practices plus: Clothing change before entering; Shower on exit. All material decontaminated on exit from facility.
All procedures conducted in Class III BSCs or Class I or II BSCs in combination with full-body, air-supplied, positive pressure personnel suit. BSL-3 plus separate building or isolated zone, dedicated supply/exhaust, vacuum, and decon systems, other requirements outlined in BMBL. 10. Safety Equipment:
10.1. As aerosols are important sources of infection, care should be taken to reduce the extent of their formation and dispersion. Hazardous aerosols can be generated by many operations, e.g. blending, mixing, grinding, shaking, stirring, and centrifuging of infectious materials. 10.2. Even when safe equipment is used, it is best to carry out these operations in an approved biological safety cabinet whenever possible. The use of safety equipment is
no assurance of protection unless the user is trained and uses proper techniques. 10.3. Equipment should be tested regularly to ensure its continued safe performance. Table below provides a list of safety equipment designed to eliminate or reduce certain hazards and briefly outlines the safety features. Equipment
Biological Safety Cabin
Aerosol and spatter Minimum inward airflow (face velocity) at work access opening. Adequate filtration of exhaust air. Does not provide product protection 113
Aerosol and spatter Minimum inward airflow (face velocity) at work access opening. Adequate filtration of exhaust air. Provides product protection Class-III
Aerosol and spatter Maximum containment. Provides product protection if laminar flow air is included. Pipetting aids
Hazards from pipetting by mouth, e.g. ingestion of pathogens, inhalation of aerosols produced by mouth suction on the pipette, blowing out of liquid or dripping from pipet, contamination of suction end of pipette Ease of use Controls contamination of suction end of pipette, protecting pipetting aid, user, and vacuum line Can be sterilized Controls leakage from pipette tip Loop micro-incinerators, disposable loops
Spatter from transfer loops Shielded in open-ended glass or ceramic tube. Heated by gas or electricity. Disposable, no heating necessary Leakproof vessels for collection and transport of infectious materials Aerosols, spillage, and leakage Leak-proof construction with lid of cover Durable Autoclavable Sharps disposal containers
Transport containers between laboratories, buildings
Release of microorganisms Robust Watertight primary and secondary containers to contain spills Absorbent materials to contain spills Autoclaves, manual or automatic
Infectious material (made safe for disposal or reuse) Approved design Effective heat sterilization Screw-capped bottles
Aerosols and spillage Effective containment
Vacuum line protection
Contamination of laboratory vacuum system with aerosols and overflow fluids Cartridge-type filter prevents passage of aerosols (particle size 0.45 μm) Overflow flask contains appropriate disinfectant. Rubber bulb may be used to close off vacuum automatically when storage flask is full. Entire unit is autoclavable. 114
11. Bio-hazardous Waste Disposal:
11.1. Separation and labelling of infectious waste (which may include red bagging, universal biohazard symbol, etc.) shall be done at the point of generation. 11.2. During collection, storage and transportation, all waste shall be managed such that the integrity of the packaging is preserved and that rapid microbial growth is inhibited. 11.3. Plastic bags should be tear-resistant, leak-resistant, and sturdy enough to withstand handling. 11.4. A waste triage flowchart to assist lab personnel in determining the appropriate disposal method for lab waste should be used. 11.5. Whenever possible, infectious waste should be treated to make it non-infectious. 11.6. The bio-hazardous waste is further classified in the following subcategories: 11.6.1. Infectious waste:
184.108.40.206. Infectious waste should be properly treated to render it non-infectious. Autoclaving and chemical treatment are the most common methods. 220.127.116.11. Treated waste is considered as solid waste and may be safely landfilled, i.e. placed in the regular trash. This waste does not require a red bag. 18.104.22.168. This material shall be placed in autoclave bags or other clearly identifiable containers and properly labelled with autoclave tape or other means that show that the waste is no longer hazardous. 11.6.2. Autoclaving of Bio-hazardous Waste:
22.214.171.124. Orange or clear autoclave bags containing bio-hazardous waste should be decontaminated in an autoclave designated for this purpose. 126.96.36.199. Autoclave bags should not be overfilled and should be placed in a secondary container prior to autoclaving. 115
11.6.3. Medical Waste/ Pathological Waste:
188.8.131.52. This type of waste mainly contains large amount of (more than 500 ml) unfixed human tissues, blood and organs. 184.108.40.206. This type of waste is generally incinerated.
220.127.116.11. This waste requires the use of red bags foe disposal. 18.104.22.168. If an organisation is producing such waste then the government should be informed to insure proper disposal and transport of the waste. 11.6.4. Microbiological Waste:
22.214.171.124. These wastes contain the culture and stock of infectious agents. 126.96.36.199. These should be collected in appropriate containers, autoclaved, and discarded with regular trash (solids) or into the sanitary sewer via sink (liquids). 116
To enlist the various safety standards regarding AGV’s.
2. Modes Of Navigation:
The various modes of navigation that are used by AGV’s are listed as follows: 2.1. Wired System:
2.1.1. The wired sensor is placed on the bottom of the robot and is placed facing the ground. 2.1.2. A slot is cut in the ground and a wire is placed approximately 1 inch below the ground. 2.1.3. The sensor detects the radio frequency being transmitted from the wire and follows it. 2.2. Guide Tape System:
2.2.1. AGVs use tape for the guide path. The tapes can be one of two styles i.e. magnetic or colored. 2.2.2. The AGV is fitted with the appropriate guide sensor to follow the path of the tape. 2.2.3. One major advantage of tape over wired guidance is that it can be easily removed and relocated if
the course needs to change. 2.2.4. Colored tape is initially less expensive, but lacks the advantage of being embedded in high traffic areas where the tape may get dirty or damaged. 118
2.3. Laser Target Navigation System:
2.3.1. The navigation is done by mounting tape on walls, poles or machines. The AGV carries a laser transmitter and receiver on a rotating turret. The laser is sent off then received again and the angle and distance are automatically calculated and stored into the AGV’s memory. 2.3.2. The AGV has reflector map stored in memory and can correct its position based on errors between the expected and received measurements. 2.3.3. It can then navigate to a destination target using the constantly updating position. 2.3.4. It is further of two types which are listed as follows: 188.8.131.52. Modulated Lasers:
184.108.40.206.1. The use of modulated laser light gives greater range and accuracy over other systems. 220.127.116.11.2. By emitting a continuous fan of modulated laser light a system can obtain an uninterrupted reflection as soon as the scanner achieves line of sight with a reflector. 18.104.22.168.3. The reflection ceases at the trailing edge of the reflector which ensures an accurate and consistent measurement from every reflector on every scan. 119
22.214.171.124. Pulsed Lasers:
126.96.36.199.1. A typical pulsed laser scanner emits pulsed laser light at a rate of 14,400 Hz which gives a maximum possible resolution of ~ 3.5 mrad (0.2°) at 8 scanner revolutions per second. 188.8.131.52.2. To achieve a workable navigation, the readings must be interpolated based on the intensity of the reflected laser light, to identify the center of the reflector. 2.4. Gyroscopic/Inertial Navigation System:
2.4.1. With inertial guidance, a computer control system directs and assigns tasks to the vehicles. 2.4.2. Transponders are embedded in the floor of the work place. The AGV uses these transponders to verify that the vehicle is on course. 2.4.3. A gyroscope is able to detect the slightest change in the direction of the vehicle and corrects it in order to keep the AGV on its
path. The margin of error for the inertial method is ±1 inch. 2.4.4. Inertial can operate in nearly any environment including tight aisles or extreme temperatures. 2.5. Natural Features Navigation System:
2.5.1. Navigation without retrofitting of the workspace is called Natural Features Navigation. 120
2.5.2. This method uses one or more range-finding sensors, such as a laser range-finder, as well as gyroscopes or inertial measurement units with Monte-Carlo/Markov localization techniques to understand where it is as it dynamically plans the shortest permitted path to its goal. 2.5.3. The advantage of such systems is that they are highly flexible for on-demand delivery to any location. 2.5.4. They can handle failure without bringing down the entire manufacturing operation, since AGVs can plan paths around the failed device. They also are quick to install, with less down-time for the factory. 2.6. Steering Control Systems:
2.6.1. To help an AGV navigate it can use two different steer control systems. The differential speed control is the most common method used. 2.6.2. In the differential control method there are two sets of wheels being driven. Each set is connected to a common drive train. These drive trains are driven at different speeds in order to turn or the same speed to allow the AGV to go forwards and/or backwards. 2.6.3. The differential control method of steering is good in the sense that it is easy to maneuver in small spaces. More often, this is seen on an AGV that is used to transport and turn in tight spaces or when the AGV is working near machines. 121
2.6.4. The other type of steering used is steered wheel control AGV. This type of steering is similar to a cars steering. It is more precise in following the wire program than the differential speed controlled method. 2.6.5. This type of AGV has smoother turning but cannot make sharp turns in tight spots. Steered wheel control AGV can be used in all applications, unlike the differential controlled. Steered wheel control is used for towing and can also at times have an operator controlling it. 2.7. Vision-Guidance System:
2.7.1. Vision-Guided AGVs can be installed with no modifications to the environment or infrastructure. 2.7.2. They operate by using cameras to record features along the route, allowing the AGV to replay the route by using the recorded features to navigate. 2.7.3. The primary navigation sensors are specially designed stereo cameras. The vision-guided AGV uses 360-degree images and build a 3D map, which allows the vision-guided AGVs to follow a trained route without human assistance or the addition of special features, landmarks or positioning systems. 2.8. Geo-guidance System:
2.8.1. A geo-guided AGV recognizes its environment to establish its location. 2.8.2. Using fixed references it can position itself in real time and using instructions from the supervisor, determine its route. 122
3. Stopping Distance:
3.1. The determination of the vehicle’s stopping distance (whether used as a load carrying vehicle or a tow vehicle) depends on many factors, such as other vehicle and pedestrian traffic, clearances, condition of the floor and stability of load. 3.2. The prime consideration is that the emergency braking system shall cause the vehicle to stop prior to impact between the vehicle structure and the obstruction. 3.3. Caution should be exercised with changed environments. Changes in weather, surface conditions, or applications may affect the vehicle stopping distance, speeds, loads, brake settings and operation should be adjusted accordingly. 4. Safety Sensors:
The various sensors installed in the AGV for safe operation are listed as follows: 4.1. Proximity Laser Scanner(PLS):
4.1.1. A PLS creates a sensing field with a pulsed light that is reflected off of a rotating mirror so that it is transmitted in a 180 degree pattern. 4.1.2. When an object enters the sensing field, the light is reflected back to the PLS. 4.1.3. The distance to the object is computed using the time interval between the transmitted pulse and the reflected pulse and the angle of the rotating mirror. 123
4.1.4. The sensing field is divided into three areas which are safety zone, warning zone, and surveyed zone. The surveyed area is the maximum radius
surveyed by the PLS. 4.1.5. When the PLS determines that an object is on the safety zone, hazardous motion is stopped. When an object is detected in the warning zone, it initiates a warning or an avoidance maneuver. 4.2. Laser Scanner Interface (LSI):
4.2.1. A LSI is integrated with a PLS to form an enhanced safety device. 4.2.2. LSI is essentially a computer that interprets information and acts on it. 4.2.3. The LSI can interpret data from up to four PLSs.
4.2.4. When the PLS and LSI are combined in this way the PLS acts as the “eyes” and the LSI acts as the “brain”. 4.2.5. The LSI can also tell the PLS to change its view depending on the location within the plant. 4.3. Laser Bumpers:
4.3.1. Laser Bumper technology uses PLS/LSI technology to provide a non-contact means for object detection. 4.3.2. AGVs equipped with the Laser Bumper do not have to hit an object or person to stop. 4.3.3. This advanced system permits increased speed and productivity because the size and shape of the stopping/slow-down/warning zones can be adjusted in real time depending on speed and the load. 124
4.3.4. The protective area can be automatically extended on the sides of the vehicle when turning corners. Vehicle speeds can be increased in straight, unobstructed paths for improved productivity. Response times are as low as 60 ms depending on the system. 4.4. Bumpers:
4.4.1. Mechanical bumpers have a low cost and are accepted widely to prevent contact. 4.4.2. A contact-sensitive mechanical bumper has only two states i.e. on or off. Once the contact has been made, additional time is required to stop the vehicle, the stopping time depends on the speed of the vehicle. 4.4.3. This means lower vehicle speeds resulting in lost productivity. 4.4.4. Mechanical bumpers are sensitive to vibration, wear and need regular maintenance. 4.4.5. Depending on the size and shape of the bumper, many mechanical bumpers are not totally effective when a turning AGV contacts an object in the turning path. 4.4.6. A worker may get hit by the AGV before it
stops, which may cause injury to the worker. 5. Other Safety Precautions:
5.1. Before the motion starts a warning device shall be activated, which should either be audible, visual, or a combination of both so as to indicate the imminent movement of the vehicle under automatic control. 125
5.2. The warning lights, such as strobe or flashing lights, shall be readily visible. 5.3. An indication shall be provided to alert the respected person in case of the following reasons: 5.3.1. Loss of path reference or deviation from the intended guide-path. 5.3.2. Loss of speed control.
5.3.3. Other control system malfunctions that require intervention by a qualified operator. 5.4. An indication should be provided for all vehicles capable of automatic operation to identify low battery condition when automatic routing to battery charging is not provided. 6. Maintenance
6.1. Maintenance and inspection of all vehicle systems shall conform to the manufacturer’s recommendations. 6.2. Diagnosis and Repair:
6.2.1. Only authorized personnel shall be permitted to maintain, repair, adjust and inspect vehicle systems. 6.2.2. Modifications and/or additions to hardware or software which affect rated capacity, safe operation, or any emergency control or device shall not be performed without the manufacturer’s verifiable approval. Where such authorization is granted, capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals shall be changed accordingly. 126
6.2.3. Care shall be taken to ensure that all replacement parts are interchangeable with the original parts and of a quality and performance at least equal to that provided in the original equipment. 127
To specify the various safety standards for radiation.
2. Radiation Safety requirements:
2.1. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE REGULATORY BODY:
The regulatory body shall establish or adopt regulations and guides for protection and safety and shall establish a system to ensure their implementation. 2.1.1. The regulatory body shall establish requirements for the application of the principles of radiation protection for all exposure situations and shall establish or adopt regulations and guides for protection and safety. 2.1.2. The regulatory body shall establish a regulatory system for protection and safety that includes the following: 184.108.40.206. Notification and authorization.
220.127.116.11. Review and assessment of facilities and activities. 18.104.22.168. Inspection of facilities and activities.
22.214.171.124. Enforcement of regulatory requirements.
126.96.36.199. The regulatory functions relevant to emergency exposure situations and existing exposure situations. 188.8.131.52. Provision of information to, and consultation with, parties affected by its decisions and, as appropriate, the public and other interested parties. 2.1.3. The regulatory body shall adopt a graded approach to the implementation of the system of protection and safety, such that the application of regulatory requirements is commensurate with the radiation risks associated with the exposure situation. 129
2.1.4. The regulatory body shall ensure the application of the requirements for education, training, qualification and competence in protection and safety of all persons engaged in activities relevant to protection and safety. 2.1.5. The regulatory body shall ensure that mechanisms are in place for the timely distribution of information to relevant parties. The mechanisms established shall be used to provide relevant information to other relevant organizations at the national and international level. 2.1.6. The regulatory body, in conjunction with other competent authorities, shall adopt specific acceptance criteria and performance criteria. 2.1.7. The regulatory body shall make provision for establishing, maintaining and retrieving adequate records relating to facilities and activities. These records shall include: 184.108.40.206. Registers of sealed sources and radiation generators. 220.127.116.11. Records of doses from occupational exposure.
18.104.22.168. Records relating to the safety of facilities and activities. 22.214.171.124. Records that might be necessary for the shutdown and decommissioning or closure of facilities. 126.96.36.199. Records of events, including non-routine releases of radioactive material to the environment. 188.8.131.52. Inventories of radioactive waste and of spent fuel. 2.1.8. The regulatory body shall establish mechanisms for communication and discussion that involve professional and constructive interactions with relevant parties for all protection and safety related issues. 130
2.1.9. The regulatory body, in consultation with the health authority, shall ensure that provisions are in place for ensuring protection and safety in the handling of deceased persons or human remains that are known to contain sealed or unsealed radioactive sources, either as a result of radiological procedures for medical treatment of patients or as a consequence of an emergency. 2.1.10. The regulatory body shall establish, implement, assess and strive to continually improve a management system that is aligned with the goals of the regulatory body and that contributes to the achievement of those goals. 2.2. RESPONSIBILITIES FOR PROTECTION AND SAFETY:
The person or organization responsible for facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks shall have the prime responsibility for protection and safety. Other parties shall have specified responsibilities for protection and safety. 2.2.1. The person or organization responsible for any facility or activity that gives rise to radiation risks shall have the prime responsibility for protection and safety, which cannot be delegated. 2.2.2. The principal parties responsible for protection and safety are: 184.108.40.206. Registrants or licensees, or the person or organization responsible for facilities and activities for which notification only is required. 220.127.116.11. Employers, in relation to occupational exposure.
18.104.22.168. Radiological medical practitioners, in relation to medical exposure. 22.214.171.124. Those persons or organizations designated to deal with emergency exposure situations or existing exposure situations. 2.2.3. Other parties shall have specified responsibilities in relation to protection and safety.
These other parties include: 126.96.36.199. Suppliers of sources, providers of equipment and software, and providers of consumer products. 188.8.131.52. Radiation protection officers.
184.108.40.206. Referring medical practitioners.
220.127.116.11. Medical physicists.
18.104.22.168. Medical radiation technologists.
22.214.171.124. Qualified experts or any other party to whom a principal party has assigned specific responsibilities. 126.96.36.199. Workers other than workers listed in (188.8.131.52-184.108.40.206). 220.127.116.11. Ethics committees.
2.2.4. The relevant principal parties shall establish and implement a protection and safety program that is appropriate for the exposure situation. The protection and safety program shall: 18.104.22.168. Adopt objectives for protection and safety in accordance with the requirements of these Standards; 22.214.171.124. Apply measures for protection and safety that are commensurate with the radiation risks associated with the exposure situation and that are adequate to ensure compliance with the requirements of these Standards. 132
2.2.5. The relevant principal parties shall ensure that, in the implementation of the protection and safety program: 126.96.36.199. The measures and resources necessary for achieving the objectives for protection and safety have been determined and are duly provided. 188.8.131.52. The program is periodically reviewed to assess its effectiveness and its continued fitness for purpose. 184.108.40.206. Any failures or shortcomings in protection and safety are identified and corrected, and steps are taken to prevent their recurrence. 220.127.116.11. Arrangements are made to consult with relevant interested parties. 18.104.22.168. Appropriate records are maintained.
2.2.6. The relevant principal parties and other parties having specified responsibilities in relation to protection and safety shall ensure that all personnel engaged in activities relevant to protection and safety have appropriate education, training and qualification so that they understand their responsibilities and can perform their duties competently, with
appropriate judgment and in accordance with procedures. 2.2.7. The relevant principal parties shall permit access by authorized representatives of the regulatory body to carry out inspections of their facilities and activities and of their protection and safety records, and shall cooperate in the conduct of inspections. 133
2.2.8. The relevant principal parties shall ensure that qualified experts are identified and consulted as necessary on the proper observance of these Standards. 2.3. Protection and safety elements of the management system 2.3.1. The principal parties shall demonstrate commitment to protection and safety at the highest levels within the organizations for which they are responsible. 2.3.2. The principal parties shall ensure that the management system is designed and implemented to enhance protection and safety by: 22.214.171.124. Applying the requirements for protection and safety coherently with other requirements, including requirements for operational performance, and coherently with guidelines for security. 126.96.36.199. Describing the planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that the requirements for protection and safety are fulfilled. 188.8.131.52. Ensuring that protection and safety is not compromised by other requirements. 184.108.40.206. Providing for the regular assessment of performance for protection and safety and the application of lessons learned from experience. 220.127.116.11. Promoting safety culture.
2.3.3. The principal parties shall ensure that protection and safety elements of the management system are commensurate with the complexity of and the radiation risks associated with the activity. 134
2.3.4. The principal parties shall be able to demonstrate the effective fulfillment of the requirements for the protection and safety in the management system. 3. Safety culture:
3.1. The principal parties shall promote and maintain a safety culture by: 3.1.1. Promoting individual and collective commitment to protection and safety at all levels of the organization; 3.1.2. Ensuring a common understanding of the key aspects of safety culture within the organization; 3.1.3. Providing the means by which the organization supports individuals
and teams in carrying out their tasks safely and successfully, with account taken of the interactions between individuals, technology and the organization; 3.1.4. Encouraging the participation of workers and their representatives and other relevant persons in the development and implementation of policies, rules and procedures dealing with protection and safety; 3.1.5. Ensuring accountability of the organization and of individuals at all levels for protection and safety; 3.1.6. Encouraging open communication with regard to protection and safety within the organization and with relevant parties, as appropriate; 3.1.7. Encouraging a questioning and learning attitude and discouraging complacency with regard to protection and safety; 135
3.1.8. Providing means by which the organization continually seeks to develop and strengthen its safety culture. 4. Human Factor:
4.1. The principal parties and other parties having specified responsibilities in relation to protection and safety, as appropriate, shall take into account human factors and shall support good performance and good practices to prevent human and organizational failures, by ensuring among other things that: 4.1.1. Sound ergonomic principles are followed in the design of equipment and the development of operating procedures, so as to facilitate the safe operation and use of equipment, to minimize the possibility that operator errors will lead to accidents, and to reduce the possibility that indications of normal conditions and abnormal conditions will be misinterpreted; 4.1.2. Appropriate equipment, safety systems and procedural requirements are provided and other necessary provisions are made: 18.104.22.168. To reduce, as far as practicable, the possibility that human error or inadvertent action could give rise to accidents or other incidents leading to the exposure of any person; 22.214.171.124. To provide means for detecting human errors and for correcting them or compensating for them. 136
126.96.36.199. To facilitate protective actions and corrective actions in the event of failures of safety systems or failures of protective measures. 5. Government Responsibility:
The government shall establish and maintain a legal and regulatory framework for protection and safety and shall establish an effectively independent
regulatory body with specified responsibilities and functions. They involve the following points: 5.1. The government shall establish and maintain an appropriate and effective legal and regulatory framework for protection and safety in all exposure situations. This framework shall include both the assignment and the discharge of governmental responsibilities, and the regulatory control of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks. The framework shall also allow for the fulfillment of international obligations. 5.2. The government shall ensure that adequate arrangements are in place for the protection of people and the environment, both now and in the future, against harmful effects of ionizing radiation, without limiting the operation of facilities or the conduct of activities that give rise to radiation risks. This shall include arrangements for the protection of people of present and future generations. 5.3. The government shall ensure that, among other things they: 137
5.3.1. Provides the statutory basis for requirements for protection and safety for all exposure situations. 5.3.2. Specifies that the prime responsibility for protection and safety rests with the person or organization responsible for facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks. 5.3.3. Specifies the scope of its applicability.
5.3.4. Establishes and provides for maintaining an independent regulatory body with clearly specified functions and responsibilities for the regulation of protection and safety. 5.3.5. Provides for coordination between authorities with responsibilities relevant to protection and safety for all exposure situations. 5.4. The government shall ensure that the regulatory body is effectively independent in making decisions relating to protection and safety of persons and organizations using or promoting the use of radiation and radioactive material, so that it is free from any undue influence by interested parties and from any conflicts of interest, and that it has functional separation from entities having responsibilities or interests that could unduly influence its decision making. 5.5. The government shall ensure that the regulatory body has the legal authority, competence and resources necessary to fulfill its statutory functions and responsibilities. 138
5.6. The government shall ensure that a graded approach is taken to the regulatory control of radiation exposure, so that the application of regulatory requirements is commensurate with the radiation risks associated with the exposure situation. 5.7. The government shall establish mechanisms to ensure that: 5.7.1. The activities of the regulatory body are coordinated with those of other governmental authorities and with national and international organizations that have related responsibilities. 5.7.2. Interested parties are involved as appropriate in regulatory decision making processes or regulatory decision aiding processes. 5.8. The government shall ensure that arrangements are in place at the national level for making decisions relating to protection and safety that fall outside the authority of the regulatory body. 5.9. The government shall ensure that requirements are established for: 5.9.1. Education, training, qualification and competence in protection and safety of all persons engaged in activities relevant to protection and safety. 5.9.2. The recognition of qualified experts.
5.9.3. The competence of organizations that have responsibilities relating to protection and safety. 139
5.10. The government shall ensure that arrangements are in place for the provision of the education and training services required for building and maintaining the competence of persons and organizations that have responsibilities relating to protection and safety. 5.11. The government shall ensure that arrangements are in place for the provision of technical services relating to protection and safety, such as services for personal dosimetry, environmental monitoring and the calibration of monitoring and measuring equipment. 5.12. The government shall ensure that arrangements are in place for the safe decommissioning of facilities, the safe management of radioactive waste and the safe management of spent fuel. 5.13. The government shall ensure that arrangements are in place for regaining control over radioactive sources that have been abandoned, lost, misplaced, stolen or otherwise transferred without proper authorization. 140
To describe the various safety guidelines and standards to be applied while using conventional machines and tools. 2. General Safety in Workplace:
All items should have minimum standards for usual conditions. The safety precautions and good practices for different areas are listed as follows: 2.1. Work Habits:
2.1.1. It is mandatory for the worker to know and follow all safety regulations pertaining to his job. 2.1.2. The worker should let the supervisor know if he feels he does not have adequate safety protection in any work activity. 2.1.3. Before starting any task, the worker must make sure he knows exactly what is to be done and how to do it safely. 2.1.4. The worker must make sure that all tools and equipment are in proper working order. The worker should not fix anything himself unless he is authorized to do so. The operator should report unsafe equipment to his supervisor immediately. 2.2. Work Areas:
2.2.1. Work areas must be kept clean and in order at all times. 2.2.2. Materials and supplies must be stored carefully. This will eliminate the chances of the material falling on someone or resulting in a tripping hazard. 142
2.2.3. All chemicals and solvents must be kept in safety containers and properly labeled. 2.2.4. Flammable and highly combustible materials must be in metal safety containers with metal lids. 2.2.5. All rags must be kept in metal containers with metal lids. 2.2.6. Trash receptacles will be emptied on a daily basis.
2.2.7. Excess water on the floor or other spills should be removed as soon as possible. 2.3. Workers Safety:
The good practices for employees and workers are listed as follows: 2.3.1. All workers and employs should undergo suitable training. 2.3.2. They should participate in continuing education, which is conducted on a departmental level. 2.3.3. All employees will receive annual training in the following areas: 188.8.131.52. Safe Operating Procedures.
184.108.40.206. Ergonomic Hazards.
220.127.116.11. Claims Management Procedures.
2.3.4. They should know and follow all safety regulations pertaining to their job. 2.3.5. They should wear their appropriate personal protective equipment in accordance with the job operation that they are performing. 2.3.6. They should notify their supervisor if they feel they do not have adequate safety protection in any work activity. 143
2.3.7. They should report all accidents, injuries, unsafe acts, and unsafe conditions in the workplace immediately to their supervisor. 2.3.8. Report faulty electrical equipment. Faulty electrical equipment will be removed from service until the equipment has been repaired or replaced. 2.3.9. They should follow proper lifting techniques and body mechanics. They should never attempt to lift or push an object that is too heavy. Where ever possible seek assistance and use mechanical aides when needed. 2.3.10. They should wear their safety belt when driving any company-owned vehicle. 2.3.11. Practice general safe housekeeping in your individual work areas and maintain a neat and orderly work area safe from accidents and injury, being in compliance with building and fire codes. 3. Safety Precautions for Cutting Torch:
The following safety precautions should be taken while cutting torch operation: 3.1. The employees will be properly and thoroughly trained before attempting to do any work with or on any Cutting Torch. 3.2. Before igniting the flame of a torch:
3.2.1. Open the oxygen valve on the torch.
3.2.2. Wait until all air has been discharged from the oxygen hose and torch. 3.2.3. Close the valve.
3.2.4. Open the fuel gas valve on the torch handle.
3.2.5. Wait until all air has been discharged from the fuel gas hose and torch. 3.2.6. Then light the fuel gas and open the oxygen valve on the torch handle. Adjust the oxygen to produce the required flame for the job. 3.3. Light torches with friction lighters or other suitable lighters and not
matches. Point the tip away from people. 3.4. Never put down a torch until the gases have been completely shut off. 3.5. Never open or turn the pressure adjusting screws on the regulators all the way out. Always adjust flames at torch valves, not with regulator adjusting screws. 3.6. Always use fuel gases at safe pressures. Many gauges permit higher, unsafe pressures. If you find a gauge that permits unsafe pressures, take it out of service immediately. 3.7. Oxygen is not a fuel and will not burn, but contact with it can cause combustible materials such as oil and grease to burn rapidly at room temperature. Therefore, keep oxygen away from grease or oil on surfaces such as gloves, clothes, cylinders, valves, couplings, regulators, and hoses. Do not use oxygen instead of compressed air in pneumatic tools, in oil preheating burners, to start internal combustion, to blow out pipelines, to dust clothing or work, or to create pressure for ventilation. 3.8. Oxygen and fuel gas hoses must be different in color (green for oxygen and red for fuel gas) or otherwise identified. 145
3.9. Inspect hoses and connections every day for leaks. Look for holes, cracks, and loose cylinder fittings or track connectors. To check for leaks: close the oxygen and fuel gas torch valves, then turn the regulator pressure adjusting screws clockwise to give normal working pressure on oxygen valves and about 10 PSIG on fuel gas valves. Use non-fat soapy water or approved leak test solution to test for leaks. At the same time, check regulators for creeping. 3.10. If a torch backfires frequently, inspect it and clean the tip. If it continues to backfire or you find other problems, remove it from service immediately. Take it to a qualified technician for repair. 3.11. Do not use steel wire or similar materials to clean tip orifices. 3.12. Wear Personal Protective Equipment as required to include tinted eye protection, gloves, etc. 4. Safety Precautions Oxy-Acetylene Cutting:
The safety precautions for Oxy-Acetylene Cutting are listed as follows: 4.1. Eye protection is mandatory for all employees using the torch. 4.2. Do not use the torch in explosive atmospheres or around combustible materials. 4.3. Do not cut into an empty drum that previously contained flammable gases or liquid unless it has been cleaned. 4.4. Before starting a torch project, the employee shall inspect the equipment. The hoses, valves, couplings, and tip
connections shall be checked for damage and leaks. 146
4.5. During transportation, storage or when in use, a compressed gas cylinder must always be secured in an upright position. This is especially important for acetylene bottles because the acetone in them can corrode the valve assembly if laid on its side. 4.6. Full or empty gas cylinders not in use shall have their valves shut and the valve protection cap screwed on. 4.7. Never use high pressure compressed oxygen in a cylinder for ventilation, comfort cooling, blowing dust from clothing, or cleaning your work area. Pure oxygen greatly enhances the combustibility of any fuel and accelerates the burning process. Also, take extra caution with oxygen bottles to see that the valve assembly on top is not damaged by equipment or a fall. The very high pressure of the escaping oxygen in the cylinder will propel it like a torpedo and destroy most anything in its path. 4.8. When lifting cylinders with a rig, never wrap a choker or sling directly on the cylinder. Always secure them in a cart, cradle, sling board, etc., for hoisting. Also, do not use the valve protection cap for hoisting. 4.9. Oxygen cylinders must have their valve opened all the way for use. Acetylene valves, however, must be opened not more than 1½ turns so they can be quickly turned off in an emergency. Valves that utilize a T wrench must have the T wrench in place when in use. 4.10. Torches will be lit by strikers or friction lighters, not with matches, cigarettes, or from hot work. 4.11. The basic rules for oxy-acetylene welding are listed as follows: 147
4.11.1. Blow out cylinder valve before you connect the regulator. 4.11.2. Release the adjusting screw on the regulator before opening the cylinder valve. 4.11.3. Stand to one side of regulator before you open the cylinder valve. 4.11.4. Open cylinder valve slowly.
4.11.5. Do not use or compress acetylene in a free state at pressures more than 15 psig. 4.11.6. Purge your acetylene and oxygen passages individually before lighting the torch. 4.11.7. Light the acetylene before opening the oxygen on the torch. 4.11.8. Never use oil or grease on regulators, tips, etc., in contact with oxygen. 4.11.9. Do not use oxygen as a substitute for air.
4.11.10. Keep your work area clear of anything that will burn. 5. Safety Precautions for Welding:
The following are the safety precautions followed for welding purposes: 5.1. Protective Clothing
5.1.1. Personal protective equipment is mandatory for all employees while welding. This applies to the welder and any helpers. 5.1.2. During arc welding, a welding helmet and the proper dark lens shade must be worn. Other equipment that will be worn includes flameproof leather gloves, leggings and aprons. 148
5.1.3. Bare skin should not be exposed, especially on the arms, shall be avoided because it will “sunburn”. 5.1.4. Polyester clothing such as nylon jackets will not be worn when welding. Cotton is safer but the fabric will deteriorate quickly. Wool is recommended. 5.2. Electrical Safety:
5.2.1. The welding machine must be securely grounded.
5.2.2. The electrode holder shall be specifically designed for its use and have capacity capable of carrying the maximum-rated current required by the electrodes in use. The work leads must be of sufficient size also. 5.2.3. The work leads will be checked for damaged insulation and secure attachment to the welding machine. 5.2.4. The ground lead must be securely attached and close to the work to prevent unwanted arcing. 5.2.5. Electrode holders left unattended shall not have a rod in them. Rod scraps shall be disposed of properly. 5.2.6. No splices are allowed in the work-lead within 10′ of the electrode holder. (This does not apply to an approved cable connector.) 5.2.7. Never dip an electrode holder in water to cool it.
5.2.8. The power supply to a welding machine shall be turned off if it is not used for any “appreciable length of time”, or when it is to be moved. 149
5.3. Ultraviolet Radiation:
5.3.1. The arc welding process produces harmful ultraviolet rays. If unprotected, it will burn exposed skin and cause “flash burn” to the eyes. 5.3.2. Personal protective equipment is required for the welder and helper. When possible, a welding booth or curtain shall be used to protect other
workers from the ultraviolet rays. 5.4. Fire and Explosions Safety:
5.4.1. Arc and welding produces intense heat. Temperatures up to 12,000 degrees Fahrenheit are possible and special precautions need to be taken to prevent deadly fires and explosions. 5.4.2. One should never weld in an explosive atmosphere. If you suspect the presence of a gas, contact management to have it checked out before proceeding with any work. Certain dusts such as grain and flour are also flammable. 5.4.3. Never weld near stored ignitable materials or combustible debris. Never weld on a drum or barrel unless it has been thoroughly cleaned of any previously contained material, or is filled with water. 5.4.4. Never weld on a compressed gas cylinder.
5.4.5. When welding at a higher elevation, take precautions for falling sparks that are produced. 5.4.6. Always have adequate fire extinguishing equipment immediately available where you are welding. If necessary, have additional personnel stand fire watch while work is being performed. 150
5.5. Safety from Toxic Gases and Fumes:
5.5.1. The welding process produces various exhaust gases and fumes, depending on the materials you are working with. Simple precautions must be taken to avoid inhalation of toxic gases and fumes. 5.5.2. Keep your head out of the fume path. Your welding helmet will also help protect your breathing zone. 5.5.3. Provide ventilation, especially in welding booths, away from the welder. 5.5.4. Some materials are known to be toxic or carcinogens. Respirators are required when working with them. They include; galvanized metals, cadmium plated, lead, mercury, chrome and nickel. 5.5.5. Supplied air respirators may be required when welding in confined spaces. 6. Drill Press Safety Precautions:
6.1. Work Area:
6.1.1. Keep unauthorized persons away.
6.1.2. Do not let visitors contact tool or extension cord. All visitors shall be kept away from work area. 6.1.3. Do not use power tools in damp or wet locations.
6.1.4. Keep work area well lit.
6.1.5. Do not expose power tools to rain.
6.1.6. Do not use the tool in the presence of flammable fluids or gases. 151
6.2. Personal safety:
6.2.1. Now your power tool – Read and understand the owner’s manual and labels affixed to the tool. Learn its application and limitations as well as the specific potential hazards peculiar to this tool. 6.2.2. Don’t overreach – Keep proper footing and balance at all times. 6.2.3. Watch what you are doing at all times.
6.2.4. Dress properly -do not wear loose clothing or jewelry, they can be caught in moving parts. Rubber gloves and non-skid footwear are recommended when working outdoors. Wear protective hair covering to contain long hair. 6.2.5. Disconnect tools from power source when not in use, before servicing, when changing wheels etc. 6.2.6. Keep guards in place, in working order and in proper adjustment and alignment. 6.2.7. Remove adjusting keys and wrenches when not in use, before servicing and when changing wheels. 6.2.8. Ensure the switch is in the “off” position before plugging in tool. 6.2.9. Never stand on tool or its stand.
6.2.10. Check for damaged parts before operating the tool.
6.2.11. Only trained repairmen should attempt all repairs, electrical or mechanical. 6.2.12. Don’t leave tool until it comes to a complete stop.
6.2.13. Do not operate electric tools in gaseous or explosive atmosphere. 6.2.14. Keep handles dry, clean and free from oil and grease. 152
6.2.15. Before connecting the tool to a power source (receptacle, outlet), be sure voltage supplied is the same as that specified on the nameplate of the tool 6.2.16. Use the drill press in a well-lit area and on a level face, clean and smooth enough to reduce the risk of trips and falls. 6.2.17. Never place your fingers in a position where they could contact the drill bit or other cutting tool parts. 6.2.18. Always support work piece so it won’t shift or bind on the tool. 6.2.19. Always position backup material underneath the work piece. 6.2.20. Whenever possible, position the work piece to contact the left side of the column. 6.2.21. Never do any work “free hand”.
6.2.22. Never move the head or table support while the tool is running. 6.2.23. Before starting the operation, jog the motor switch to make sure the drill bit or other cutting tools do not wobble or cause vibration. 6.2.24. If a work piece overhangs the table such that it will fall or tip if not held, clamp it to the table or provide auxiliary support. 6.2.25. Use fixtures for unusual operations to adequately hold, guide and position the work piece 6.2.26. Use the spindle speed recommended for the specific operation and work piece material. 153
6.2.27. Never climb on the drill press table, it could break or pull the entire drill press down on you. 6.2.28. Turn the motor switch off and unplug from the power source when not in operation. 7. Hand And Power Tools Safety:
7.1. General Safety Precautions:
7.1.1. All tools, regardless of ownership, shall be of an approved type and maintained in good condition. (Tools are subject to inspection at any time. A supervisor has the authority and responsibility to condemn unsafe tools, regardless of ownership). 7.1.2. Unsafe tools shall be tagged with an unsafe tag to prevent their use. 7.1.3. Employees shall always use the proper tool for the job to be performed. Makeshift and substitute tools shall not be used. 7.1.4. Hammers with metal handles, screwdrivers with metal continuing through the handle and metallic measuring tapes shall not be used on or near energized electrical circuit or equipment. 7.1.5. Tools shall not be thrown from place to place or from person to person, tools that must be raised or lowered from one elevation to another shall be placed in tool buckets or firmly attached to hand lines. 7.1.6. Tools shall never be placed unsecured on elevated places. 154
7.1.7. Impact tools such as chisels, punches, and drift pins that become mushroomed or cracked shall be dressed, repaired, or replaced before further use. 7.1.8. Chisels, drills, punches, ground rods, and pipes shall be held with suitable holders or tongs (not with the hands) while being struck by another employee. 7.1.9. Shims shall not be used to make a wrench fit.
7.1.10. Wrenches with sprung or damaged jaws shall not be used. 7.1.11. Pipe shall not be used to extend a wrench handle for added leverage unless the wrench was designed for such use. 7.1.12. Tools shall be used only for the purposes for which they have been approved. 7.1.13. Tools with sharp edges shall be stored and handled so that they will not cause injury or damage. They shall not be carried in pockets unless suitable protectors are in use to protect the edge. 7.1.14. Wooden handles that are loose, cracked or splintered shall be replaced. The handle shall not be taped or lashed with wire. 7.1.15. Tools shall not be left lying around where they may cause a person to trip or stumble. 7.1.16. When working on or above open grating, a canvas or other suitable covering shall be used to cover the grating to prevent tools or parts from dropping to a lower level where others are present or the danger area shall be barricaded or guarded. 155
7.1.17. The insulation on hand tools shall not be depended upon to protect users from high voltage shock (except approved live line tools). 8. Miter Saws and Chop Saws Safety:
8.1. Saws have a downward cutting motion, stay alert to keeping hands and fingers away from the blade’s path. 8.2. Be sure all guards are in place and working. If a guard seems slow to return to its normal position, adjust or repair it immediately. 8.3. Use only recommended size and RPM rated blades.
8.4. When installing or changing a blade, be sure the blade and related washers and fasteners are correctly positioned and secured. 9. Portable Circular Saw Safety:
9.1. Always wear safety goggles or safety glasses with side shields or a full face shield when needed. Use a dust mask in dusty work conditions and wear hearing protection during extended periods of operation. 9.2. Don’t wear loose clothing, jewelry or dangling objects that may catch in rotating parts or accessories. Tie back long hair that could become entangled in moving parts. 9.3. Don’t use a circular saw that is too heavy for the user to easily control. 156
9.4. Be sure the switch actuates properly. It should turn the tool on and return to the off position easily and quickly after you release it. 9.5. Use
sharp blades. Dull blades cause binding, stalling and possible kickback. They also waste power and reduce motor and switch life. 9.6. Use the correct blade for the application. Always check if the blade has the proper size and shape arbor hole and is the speed marked on the blade at least as high as the no-load RPM on the saw’s nameplate. 9.7. Be sure blade guards are working properly and return to their normal positions quickly. If a guard seems slow to return or hangs up, repair or adjust it immediately. 9.8. Never tamer with the guard, for example, tying it back or removing it to expose the blade. 9.9. Before starting a circular saw, be sure the power cord and extension cord are out of the blade’s path and are long enough to freely complete the cut. 9.10. A sudden jerk or pulling on the cord can cause you to lose control of the saw, resulting in a serious accident. 9.11. For maximum control, hold the saw firmly with both hands after securing the work piece. 9.12. Clamp work pieces. Check frequently to be sure clamps remain secure. 9.13. Avoid cutting small pieces that can’t be properly secured and material on which the saw shoe can’t properly rest. 9.14. When you start the saw, allow the blade to reach full speed before contacting the work piece. 157
9.15. When making a partial cut or if power is interrupted, release the trigger immediately and don’t remove the saw until the blade has come to a complete stop. 10. Portable Drill Safety:
10.1. Be sure your drill’s capacity limitations and accessory recommendations are appropriate for the work you plan to do. 10.2. Check carefully for loose power cord connections and frays or damage to the cord. 10.3. Replace damaged power cords and extension cords immediately. 10.4. Be sure the chuck is tightly secured to the spindle. This is especially important on reversible type drills. 10.5. Tighten the bit securely as prescribed by the owner/operator’s manual. 10.6. The chuck key must be removed from the chuck before starting the drill. A flying key can be an injury-inflicting missile. 10.7. The following precautions should be taken while using Auxiliary handles: 10.7.1. Check if they are part of the tool and be sure they are securely installed. 10.7.2. Always use the auxiliary drill handle when provided. It gives you more control, especially if stalled conditions occur. 10.7.3. Grasp the drill firmly by insulated surfaces.
10.7.4. Hold the drill securely when bracing against stationary objects for maximum control. 10.8. If drilling in a clockwise — forward — direction, brace the drill to prevent a counterclockwise reaction. 158
10.9. Don’t force a drill. Apply enough pressure to keep the drill bit cutting smoothly. 10.10. If the drill slows down, relieve the pressure.
10.11. Forcing the drill can cause the motor to overheat, damage the bit and reduce operator control. 159
1. ASME B20.1-2000,EN 618,ANSI/CEMA 102-2000: Conveyer Safety. 2. IS-9474: Specification for Principles Of Mechanical Guarding Of Machinery. 3. IS-3693, IS-2750,OSHA-3124: Means of Access.
4. ANSI/RIA R15.06: Robotic safety.
5. IS-3043: Electrical Safety.
6. OSHA 1910.179, IS-3177, ICS-53.020.20: Hoisting device safety standards. 7. WHO,NIH: Biological Safety Standards.
8. ANSI/ITSDF B56.5-2005: Automated Guided Vehicle Safety Standards. 9. AIEA: Radiation Safety Standards.
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11. Wikipedia Encyclopedia.