English Versus Japanese Female Mill Workers

Throughout the innovation of the factory, the most crucial characteristic was effectiveness; producing as much as possible, as quick as possible. Since of the need for staff members in the factories, owners started using women, 2 examples remaining in England and Japan. Men in control, low wages, duties for families, ages of employees, long working hours, and the dreadful working conditions, prevailed in both societies. Despite being on opposite sides of the hemisphere, both groups of ladies were segregated in unreasonable experiences.

Prior to addressing a research study concern, one should question different aspects of the topic. The original file based concern was: How were the experiences of Female Mill Employees in England and Japan comparable? In order to begin thinking about the subject, unconsciously, one asks themselves much deeper concerns. Who ruled over these females? What kept these females from defending their rights? How did the women vary in age? Asking these concerns helped me to truly comprehend the topic of the file based question, and in more depth.

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The main sources I looked at were analytical sources from both England and Japan. In addition, some sources I found were original documents of young females in the time duration. Asking myself these concerns and discovering accurate sources assisted me to develop my paper in a significant method.

Significance can be determined on both the originality and the similarities of the groups of ladies in England and Japan. The main factories in England were in Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Somerset, and Derbyshire. Around the 1800s, typically, 79.

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7% of the English mill workers were females. 57% of these females were over the age of 20. In Japan, 92% of the mill employees were ladies. Yet only 34% of the ladies were over 20, meaning that younger ladies were used instead of getting an education. No matter the ages, all the factories chose to utilize females, but why, and how did their experiences relate?

In both England and Japan, women were always controlled by men, especially in the mill working factories. Men were the owners, the big decision makers, and were privileged among the many employees, the majority being women. Whether the product created was silk, lace, wool, or cotton, the men were in charge of the women. Typically, the men were highly respected employees, who could be appointed manager. Because the men had considerably subjective power of the women, the women were defenseless and vulnerable. Many women in the factories were violently raped and harassed while working in the factories. With the fear of losing their job, the women were left with no possibilities of getting help. Some rapes even resulted in pregnancy, yet the women were always blamed.

Men usually paid women off in order to remove the problem from his life. Several women chose to commit suicide because of constant fear of sexual harassment. In England and Japan, the female mill workers were constantly treated unfairly and unequally when among men, who relentlessly had more power. Throughout the lives of the women working in the factories, in both England and Japan, the men constantly had power over the women. Not only did the men have control, but they also were paid substantially more than the women. Even when working the same job, and hours, women were paid significantly less than men. In England, the average daily wage for a male loom operator was 40 pence, or 40 pennies. The average daily wage for a female loom operator was 26 pence, or 26 pennies. In Japan, the average daily wage for a male cotton mill worker was 17 sen, roughly 0.0021 American Dollars. The average daily wage for a female cotton mill worker was 9 sen, roughly 0.0011 American Dollars. The difference was vital, as women were paid almost half what men were paid. Although skilled women were paid more than unskilled women, all women received less money than men.

In all factories in both England and Japan, men not only had more power, but were also paid considerably higher than women. The female mill workers in England and Japan also shared the responsibility for their families. Usually, the women started working in the factories in order to support the family with money for food, water, and shelter. In England, one pound of oatmeal cost 1 pence, or 1 penny, and made about 12 servings, or enough to feed an entire family. In Japan, one quart of rice cost 1 sen, roughly 0.0001 American Dollars. In order to feed the family three times a day, every person old enough to work had to contribute to the family. Because it took so much effort to afford so little food, many women had to leave their families to provide for them. In addition, in Japan, 29% of women were forced to leave their jobs for family reasons.

In both England and Japan, many female mill workers united in responsibility for their families. While terrible working conditions and long working hours were big similarities between the experiences of female English and Japanese mill workers, another similarity were the ages of women working. Most women began working in the factories around the age of 7. Until the 1833 Factory Act in England that prohibited children under the age of 10 to work over 8 hours per day, most women were treated the same, no matter the age.

Yet up until that point in England, whether a woman was 9, or was 21, she received the same pay, and the same hours of work. Although helping the women under the age of 10, the Factory Act put more pressure on the older women. In addition, the Factory Act encouraged education for young women by allowing them to spend more time in school rather than in the factories. While in England, the Factory Act was created, in Japan, nothing stopped the younger women from working more than 8 hours a day. The age when women started working is a huge reason why the experiences between the English female mill workers and the Japanese female mill workers were similar.

One of the largest and final similarities between the female mill workers in England and that of in Japan is the number of hours worked, and the horrifying conditions the women worked in. Most women worked an average of 12 to 14 hours a day. Also, women only had around 90 minutes of break spread across the day. In addition to the long hours each woman worked, in both England and Japan, horrendous working conditions played a huge role in the illness rate for women in factories. 24% of the women lost their jobs because of illness. Several illnesses caused women to leave, but the main one was tuberculosis from the awful factory conditions and the long hours of work women were forced to commit to. In both England and Japan, female mill workers had similar experiences in the hours worked, and the dreadful working conditions.

Efficiency, meaning to produce as much as possible, as fast as possible, standardized all factories. In order for efficiency to work, employees were necessary, which began women labor, two cases being in England and Japan. All powerful men, small incomes, responsibilities for others, ages of women employees, dreadfully long hours, and terrifying work environments, were similar among both societies. Although on separate parts of the world, both groups of women were treated unlawfully in their factory work experiences.

Annotated Bibliography

Brady, Charles and Phil Roden, eds. The DBQ Project. Evanston, Illinois –The DBQ Project, 2010.  This source pointed out clear differences and similarities through the map given. It helped me understand that although on opposite sides of the world, and in very different time periods, the experiences between the female mill workers in England, and that of in Japan were similar with the connections in history. Lithograph of Samuel Slater designed power-loom weaving mill, circa, 1840, in Norman Longmate, The Hungry Mills, London: Temple Smith, 1978. This source helped me to understand the life of an English female mill worker. In the picture, the woman is kneeling down as the man, most likely the leader, hovers over her, showing how much power the men had over the women. In addition, the woman in the drawing is wearing big heavy clothing, which could have been highly dangerous for the jobs they were doing.

This source was essential in helping me see the opposite roles of men and women. Photo, circa 1910, in Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan, New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. I used this source to compare the lives between the English female mill workers, and the Japanese female mill workers. In this picture, the women look staged, as if they were supposed to be perfect. In addition, the women are wearing dangerous clothing, similar to the one the woman wearing as an English female mill worker. This source helped me find similarities between the two different experiences. Adapted from D.C. Coleman, Courtaulds: An Economic History, Oxford Press, 1969. This source was very useful to find the percent of females versus males in different English towns. 79.6% of the silk factory workers were women. 42.3% of these women were under 16 years old. E. Patricia Tsurumi, Factory Girls: Women in the Thread Mills of Meiji Japan, © 1990 Princeton University Press.

I used this source to express the percent of men working, versus the percent of females working in Japan. I found that 92% of the workers were women. In addition, I found that 66% of the women were under 20. Because younger women were working, to help provide and support for their families, I could infer that those women were not getting the education they needed. It showed me how much money a person needed to feed their family. Also, I found that 24% of the reasons for loss of jobs were because of illness, showing how unhealthy and horrendous the working environment was. Lastly, the source showed me the sexual assault issues in each of the factories. The women were very vulnerable and unable to fend for themselves. Douglas A. Galbi, “Through Eyes in the Storm,” Social History, Vol. 21, No. 2, May, 1966.

This source helped me to see the time that the women spent working. It also helped me understand the conditions the girls worked in, and the decreasing ages where women started working. It also showed me the amount of money a person needed to purchase food to serve their family. Noshomusho Shokoyoku and Shokko Jijo, Condition of the Factory Workers, Tokyo: Meicho Kankokai, 1967, in Mikoso Hane, Peasant, Rebels and Outcasts, New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.

I used this source to help me understand the work time the women had. Each woman worked an average of 12 to 14 hours a day. I inferred that women wanted extra hours because they needed money for the responsibility they held for their families in food and water. James L. McClain, Japan: A Modern History, New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2002.

This source helped me to see the rate women versus men were paid. Skilled women were paid more than unskilled women, but both were still paid less than men, even when working the same job. The roles of women were low in power compared to the men. Mikoso Hane, Peasants, Rebels and Outcasts: The underside of Modern Japan, New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.

From this source, I found that all the money earned by the women, for the most part, went to the families of the women. Nothing was kept for herself, which showed the responsibility the women had for their families. First Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners for England and Wales, 1835, in Neil McKendrick editor, Historical Perspectives: Studies in English Thought and Society, London: Europa Publishers, 1974. This source helped me understand how much money women were paid to work. They were paid significantly less than men, which helped me prove my point of the roles of women versus men. Parliamentary Papers, 1833, Factory Inquiry Commission, 1st Report, in Victorian Women, Stanford University Press, 1981.

From this source, I understood the Factory Act, which showed me that children under 10 couldn’t work over 8 hours, which put more pressure on the older children.

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[ 1 ]. Brady, Charles and Phil Roden, eds. The DBQ Project. Evanston, Illinois –The DBQ Project, 2010. [ 2 ]. Adapted from D.C. Coleman, Courtaulds: An Economic History, Oxford Press, 1969. [ 3 ]. Ibid

[ 4 ]. Ibid
[ 5 ]. E. Patricia Tsurumi, Factory Girls: Women in the Thread Mills of Meiji Japan, © 1990 Princeton University Press. [ 6 ]. Ibid
[ 7 ]. Lithograph of Samuel Slater designed power-loom weaving mill, circa, 1840, in Norman Longmate, The Hungry Mills, London: Temple Smith, 1978. [ 8 ]. E. Patricia Tsurumi, Factory Girls: Women in the Thread Mills of Meiji Japan, © 1990 Princeton University Press. [ 9 ]. Ibid

[ 10 ]. Ibid
[ 11 ]. E. Patricia Tsurumi, Factory Girls: Women in the Thread Mills of Meiji Japan, © 1990 Princeton University Press. [ 12 ]. Mikoso Hane, Peasants, Rebels and Outcasts: The underside of Modern Japan, New York: Pantheon Books, 1982. [ 13 ]. First Annual Report of the Poor Law
Commissioners for England and Wales, 1835, in Neil McKendrick editor, Historical Perspectives: Studies in English Thought and Society, London: Europa Publishers, 1974. [ 14 ]. James L. McClain, Japan: A Modern History, New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2002. [ 15 ]. Mikoso Hane, Peasants, Rebels and Outcasts: The underside of Modern Japan, New York: Pantheon Books, 1982. [ 16 ]. Douglas A. Galbi, “Through Eyes in the Storm,” Social History, Vol. 21, No. 2, May, 1966. [ 17 ]. E. Patricia Tsurumi, Factory Girls: Women in the Thread Mills of Meiji Japan, © 1990 Princeton University Press. [ 18 ]. E. Patricia Tsurumi, Factory Girls: Women in the Thread Mills of Meiji Japan, © 1990 Princeton University Press. [ 19 ]. Parliamentary Papers, 1833, Factory Inquiry Commission, 1st Report, in Victorian Women, Stanford University Press, 1981. [ 20 ]. Ibid

[ 21 ]. Parliamentary Papers, 1833, Factory Inquiry Commission, 1st Report, in Victorian Women, Stanford University Press, 1981. [ 22 ]. Ibid
[ 23 ]. Ibid
[ 24 ]. Mikoso Hane, Peasants, Rebels and Outcasts: The underside of Modern Japan, New York: Pantheon Books, 1982. [ 25 ]. Brady, Charles and Phil Roden, eds. The DBQ Project. Evanston, Illinois –The DBQ Project, 2010.

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English Versus Japanese Female Mill Workers. (2017, Jan 05). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/english-versus-japanese-female-mill-workers-essay

English Versus Japanese Female Mill Workers

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