Parlances are ever something particular about any linguistic communication, they build up some distinctive characteristics which differ one linguistic communication from another ” ( “ Parlances in our life ” , 2008 ) . Idioms, so, history for an of import portion of the general vocabulary of a linguistic communication. The singularity of a linguistic communication every bit good as the state to which that linguistic communication belongs is determined partially based on the features of the idiomatic looks. Parlances are an accurate mirror of a certain cultural specificity national character.
Parlances exist in all linguistic communications and depicts many facets in people ‘s day-to-day life through the usage of normal things as symbols to construct up meaningful conceptual metaphors. Among those symbols, cats are an animate being that appear in many linguistic communications with different significances. This paper is intended for the treatment of English and Vietnamese parlances related to cats. The similarities and differences of the two sets of parlances are cleared out in footings of measure, frequence of usage, cultural attitudes and significances.
Additionally, some utile deductions for English linguistic communication instruction and acquisition are eventually recommended.
English and Vietnamese parlances refering cats – A cross-linguistic Analysis and
No sum of clip can wipe out the memory of a good cat, and no sum of dissembling tape can of all time wholly take his pelt from your couch.A ~Leo Dworken
Cats have long been fond and cuddlesome animate beings that people keep as pets in their houses. As for cat lovers, a cat is non merely a pet but besides a close friend because it is known as a great comrade which is independent, sensitive and caring.
Despite the fact that cats are adored by a major of people all over the universe, conventional perceptual experience of cats, by and large, varies from civilization to civilization. Each civilization has its ain strongly-held belief about cats, either positive or negative. For case, ancient seamans viewed black cats as luckless since they were thought to convey bad conditions. Meanwhile, Nipponese crewmans would transport a tri-colored cat with them during their ocean trip as they believed that the cat was able to “ set the storm devils to flight ” ( “ Cat facts and what celebrated people say about cats, ” n.d. ) .
Like many other linguistic communications, English and Vietnamese have a figure of parlances refering cats. A big proportion of parlances in English every bit good as in Vietnamese include the image of cats. However, as it is out of the inquiry to research all the cat parlances in both linguistic communications, this paper attempts to carry on an analysis entirely on the most widely-used looks that are important for the comparing intents.
The present survey purposes to analyze common idiomatic looks related to cats with the purpose to analyze the similarities and differences of the image of cats in English parlances and Vietnamese parlances in footings of measure, cultural attitudes and significances based on the elaborate analysis, some pedagogical deductions are suggested in order for instructors to assist pupils larn and utilize the parlances right and expeditiously. With regard to those purposes, the undermentioned research inquiries are posed:
Which linguistic communication, English or Vietnamese, has more parlances related to cats?
How similar and how different are cats perceived in English parlances and Vietnamese parlances?
How can teachers aid pupils to larn and utilize cat parlances right and effeciently?
This paper comprises three chief parts. First, the research worker reviews the theoretical background of parlances in English and Vietnamese linguistic communications as a cardinal foundation for the incompatible analysis that follows. Cultural characteristics are besides emphasized in this subdivision as this is the major ground for different perceptual experiences of cats reflected in English and Vietnamese parlances. On the footing of this conceptual model, a incompatible analysis of the collected parlances from the two linguistic communications will be carried out with regard to the survey intents. The beginnings of parlances are originally from the Oxford Advanced Learners ‘ Dictionary, Oxford lexicon of English Idioms and some Vietnamese lexicons.
“ The colorful lingual spectrum of looks called ‘idioms ‘ straight reflects the considerable troubles linguists face in happening an appropriate definition and categorization of these lingual phenomena ” ( Langlotz, 2006, p. 2 ) . Hence, merely a short and simple definition is selected to advert in this paper.
“ An parlance is a group of words ( or a compound ) with a significance that is different from the single words, and frequently hard to understand from the single words ” ( Redman & A ; Zwier, 2010, p. 26 ) . The significances of English parlances are really particular. Peoples can non deduce the significance of an parlance by working out the significances of separate constitutional elements but instead by sing the parlance as a whole. In other words, an parlance can be understood merely by hold oning its nonliteral meaing. The actual significance means nil. That is the ground why many English scholars frequently get confused or stuck when it comes to thinking the significance of a certain parlance. What Holleman ( 2006 ) comments in the book entitled “ American English idiomatic looks in 52 hebdomads ” helps corroborate this fact. He says that “ the usage of parlances is a challenge for English linguistic communication scholars because, compared to standard vocabulary acquisition, understanding these looks is non clear by merely mentioning to a dictionary. ”
Unquestionably, “ parlances are really complex lingual constellations ” ( Langlotz, 2006, p. 1 ) . These looks differ in many facets such as “ their structural complexness, their lexical, morphosyntactic, syntactic and semantic administration every bit good as their dianoetic map ” ( Langlotz, 2006, p. 1 ) . Therefore, sorting English parlances into different types is a tough and judicious occupation for linguists and phraseologists. It is barely easy to come up with an exact categorization system but in fact, some thoughts on categorising parlances have been mentioned in literature.
A alone categorization system of English parlances are provided by Holleman ( 2006 ) in the book entitled “ American English idiomatic looks in 52 hebdomads ” so as to assist scholars get and utilize parlances right and suitably. The system includes 32 functional classs as listed below:
Achievement – the act or procedure of carry throughing or finishing something
Agree/ Approval – to accept or portion an apprehension of something
Authority – mentioning to the power to influence, obey or justice
Bad/ Negative – something unfavorable or unpleasant
Business Action – relating to commercial or work activity to bring forth net income
Communication – the procedure of directing and having information through speech production, behaviour or authorship
Completeness – the extent of integrity or holding enough of something
Consequence – the effects or consequence of an action or circumstance
Different – non the same
Disagree – to hold a different sentiment or reaction to something
Emotion – a natural feeling such as joy, unhappiness, felicity, love or hatred
End – the decision of something
Entertainment – something that delights or provides amusement
Error – something that differs from the correct or usual procedure
Failure – non wining in something
Health – the status of health for person ‘s organic structure or head
Importance – to be valuable or important
Location – relating to where something is positioned or situated
Money – something associating to currency or a step of wealth
Movement – affecting gesture or a alteration in something ‘s place
Ownership – refering the ownership of something
Personal Description – mentioning to traits, characteristics or properties of a individual
Plan/ Prepare – refering the procedure involved in carry throughing an activity
Quantity – relating to the sum of something
Relationship – mentioning to a connexion between people including love affair, friendly relationship or ill will
Satisfaction – affecting enjoyment and contentment in fortunes
Service – refering aid or being helpful
Similar – mentioning to the extent that something is likewise or related
Superior – person or something being better
Time – associating to a clip period
Understand – mentioning to cognizing and groking something
Work – associating to a occupation, employment or businesss
( as cited in Holleman, 2006 )
In general, English parlances are described as “ conventional multi-word units that are semantically opaque and structurally fixed ” ( Langlotz, 2006, p. 2 ) . With respect to this belongings of parlances in English linguistic communication, Langlotz ( 2006 ) discusses the internal administration of English idiomatic buildings:
a. semantic features
b. structural distinctive features and abnormalities and
c. restraints or limitations on their lexicogrammatical behavior which can non be explained by the general grammatical regulations of the given linguistic communication.
( as cited in Langlotz, 2006, p. 2 )
The internal administration of English parlances indicates that parlances are a really complex and typical entity peculiar merely to the English linguistic communication. That is, English parlances have their ain fixed restraints in footings of semantic and structural features. One can non divide a certain parlance into single parts and seek to deduce the conceptual significance from each portion. Furthermore, one can non utilize the normal regulations of English grammar to explicate what is conveyed in the parlance.
Besides refering this issue, Chafe says that parlances have four different characteristics that are deserving sing:
The significance of an parlance is non an merger of the significances of its parts.
Most if non all parlances exhibit certain transformational lacks.
Some parlances are syntactically ungrammatical.
Any grammatical parlance has a actual opposite number, but the text frequence of the parlance is normally much higher.
( as cited in Strassler, 1982, p. 35 )
Let us see the four characteristics one by one. First, speech production of semantic characteristics, as stated earlier, English parlances are “ semantically opaque ” ( Langlotz, 2006, p. 2 ) This means that the significance of an parlance should ne’er be taken literally. “ The hearer must ne’er confound the actual interlingual rendition of an parlance with the underlying significance of what is truly being expressed or symbolised. ” ( Burke, 2005, p. 3 ) “ If you try to calculate out the significance of an parlance literally, word by word, you will acquire befuddled ( “ Parlances in our life, ” n.d. ) . Peoples have to calculate out the concealed significance in the parlance by citing cognition of both linguistic communication and cultural distinctive feature every bit good as personal life experience. That is because parlances are closely related to the civilization of the state that they belong to.
It is common cognition that parlances have set syntactic constructions. Since English parlances are perfectly fixed looks, it is impossible make any arbitrary alterations or transmutations to the original signifier of the parlances. The idiom “ kick the pail ” can be taken as an illustration. This parlance is similar in significance to the word “ dice ” but it is much more informal. Obviously, we can state “ Sam has kicked the pail ” or “ Sam may kick the pail ” . ( Strassler, 1982 ) The tense can be changed to be suited to the context. However, we can non do “ pail ” plural or indefinite or both, or modify “ pail ” with an adjectival, as in “ Sam kicked the pails, ” “ kicked pails, ” or “ kicked the wooden pail ” because this violates the literalization regulation specific to English parlances ( Strassler, 1982 ) . “ It is non there to be made plural or indefinite, but is introduced postsemantically by a literalization regulation which specifies that it must be remarkable and definite ” ( Strassler, 1982, p. 37 ) .
The sentence structure of parlances is non less vexing as many parlances conform to no regular syntactic regulations in English. That is why parlances are said to be syntactically ungrammatical. Some illustrations of ungrammatical parlances are a flip up, all Greek to me, just go, finger lickin ‘ good, trip the light antic, kingdom semen, etc. Apart from exceeding instances, other parlances are grammatical, though.
Any grammatical parlance has an equivalent word or a word or phrase that has similar significance. For case, “ a fruitcase ” ( a mad adult male ) , “ in 7th Eden ” ( highly happy ) , “ down in the mopess ” ( really sad ) , etc. However, the parlance is more often used in existent life in comparing with the tantamount individual word or phrase. Practically talking, people would prefer to state “ He is over the Moon about his new occupation ” instead than state “ He is really happy with his new occupation. ”
Vietnamese parlances are fixed looks in the signifier of individual words or sentences but wholly belong to the spectrum of words. Most of them are encoded, incorporating artistic stylisation and are lone portion of an vocalization. ( Nguyen, 2010, p. 659 )
Idioms is an priceless hoarded wealth of the Vietnamese. “ In parlances, we can happen the typical characteristics of people ‘s ideas, aesthetics, virtuousnesss, criterions of human behavior every bit good as the attitudes towards the good and the immorality, the baronial and the low ” ( Nguyen, Nguyen & A ; Phan, 2009, p. 3 ) . For illustration, “ ca?§m can na??y ma»±c ” expresses the thought of justness in life. “ Gio chia»?u nao theo chia»?u a??y ” refers to the the sort of people who frequently take advantage of others to profit themselves. “ Cong ra??n ca??n ga nha ” , “ r?°a»›c voi giay ma?? ta»• ” is an abuse shouting at the people who make friends with their enemy and bewray their ain chaps. ( Nguyen et al. , 2009, p.3 )
Harmonizing to the book “ Dictionary of Vietnamese parlances and Proverbss ” ( Nguyen, 2010 ) , there are 5 types of parlances which are mentioned below:
Parlances that contain well-selected words: “ la nga»?c canh vang ” , “ con nha noi ” , “ khoc ta»©c t?°a»Yi ” , “ bua»“n na?«u rua»™t ” , etc.
Comparison parlances: “ vui nh?° ha»™i ” , “ A‘a??t nh?° tom t?°??i ” , “ nhanh nh?° cha»›p ” , “ ra?» nh?° beo ” , etc.
Parlances with symmetrical constructions: “ A‘?°a»?c A?n ca?? , nga va»? khong ” , “ A?n cha??c, ma?·c ba»?n ” , etc.
Alliteration parlances: “ da??m da??m da»› da»› ” , “ A‘i A‘i la??i la??i ” , “ A‘i A‘em A‘i hom ” , etc.
Anadiplosis parlances: “ khuc kha khuc khich ” , etc.
( as cited in Nguyen, 2010 )
Vietnamese parlances have some typical characteristics in footings of organisation, semantics and rhetoric.
First, allow us take a expression at the organisation of Vietnamese parlances. “ An parlance normally consists of three or more than three elements ( most frequently 4 elements ) which contain a symmetrical construction, initial rhyme or rimes. Their constitutional elements combine with each other in many different ways, which sometimes makes it difficult to explicate. ” For illustration, “ nong nh?° la»a ” , “ khoc nh?° m?°a ” , “ xa??u nh?° mom ” are comparision parlances ; “ Thai to ma?·t la»›n ” , “ mia»‡ng hum gan sa»©a ” , “ cung ha»“i cung thuya»?n ” are parlances that utilize initial rhyme. Some other popular parlances are originally mundane vocalizations which are used so frequently and for so long a clip that they become idiomatic looks, such as “ cha»Y ca»§i va»? ra»«ng ” , “ theo voi hit ba mia ” , “ n?°a»›c cha??y cha»- trA©ng ” , “ A‘i gua»‘c trong ba»?ng ” , etc. ( Nguyen et al. , 2009, p. 3 )
In footings of semantics, “ parlances are distinguished by their nonliteral significance and metaphorical significance. That is why understanding parlances is non an easy undertaking, even when we know all about every single component ” ( Nguyen et al. , 2009, p. 4 ) . Specifically, the content of parlances is a affair of culture-language-people. Hence, it is hard to construe these looks in item.
In footings of manner, we can utilize parlances to construct up an essay, a address or a conversation which is succint and rich in images. Parlances are a really utile beginning non merely for spoken linguistic communication manner but besides for the manner of political commentary. ( Nguyen et al. , 2009, p. 4 ) For illustration, when speaking about a braggart and academic individual, Vietnamese has such parlances as “ ma»™t ta??c A‘a??n tra»?i ” , “ ban tra»?i khong vA?n ta»± ” , “ m?°a»?i voi khong A‘?°a»?c ( ma»™t ) bat n?°a»›c xao ” aˆ¦ Thus, larning and understanding how to utilize parlances suitably is a must for pupils and has become a natural demand of people in the society.
There are 1000s of parlances in English. Therefore, it appears to be impossible to come up with an exact estimation. The research worker has conducted research on 6 lexicons, including 3 lexicons of English and 3 lexicons of Vietnamese. The figure of English parlances are displayed in the undermentioned tabular array:
Cambridge Idioms Dictionary ( 2006 )
over 7000 current parlances
Oxford Idioms Dictionary for Learners of English ( 2006 )
10, 000 frequently-used parlances
Oxford Learner ‘s Dictionary of English Idioms ( 2010 )
over 6, 000 parlances
The figure of parlances in English and in Vietnamese is more or less equal. However, a dramatic fact is that English has manner more parlances related to cats than Vietnamese has. The research worker is non capable of doing a computation of the parlances affecting cats in English because there are so many of them, possibly about 100 hundred parlances. However, as for Vietnamese parlances, I find an on-line article that mentions the figure of Vietnamese parlances refering cats in comparision with that of other symbols in the Vietnamese carnal appellations. The undermentioned tabular array is taken from the article as an grounds for the decision mentioned above:
Hinh t?°a»?ng con va?t
( Animal appellation )
Ta»•ng sa»‘ thanh nga»? tha»‘ng ke ( Estimated figure of parlance )
Chua»™t ( Mouse )
Trau ( Ox )
Da?§n ( Tiger )
Meo ( Cat )
Ra»“ng ( Dragon )
Ra??n ( Snake )
Nga»±a ( Horse )
De ( Goat )
Kha»‰ ( Monkey )
Ga ( Rooster )
Cho ( Dog )
Heo ( Pig )
Ta»•ng ( Total )
( as cited in Tra?§n, n.d. )
From the tabular array, we can see that there are merely 42 Vietnamese parlances in which the image of cats appear. This figure is really little as opposed to the figure of English parlances refering cats. Consequently, it is obvious that English parlances affecting cats weigh manner more than Vietnamese 1s. However, based on this measure comparing, we can non hastily infer that cats are more highly-valued in the western society than in Viet Nam. To make a more sensible decision, allow us travel into inside informations on the significances of cats reflected by the parlances of the two linguistic communications.
In general, parlances are conversational metaphor that people use with high frequence in mundane communicating. Parlances are said to be portion of the civilization, non portion of the linguistic communication. The parlances merely originate from what go on in life and are generalized into fixed looks by people of a peculiar civilization. Each civilization has its ain imposts, norms and beliefs. That is the ground why parlances vary across civilizations. Vietnamese and English are non among the exclusions. They are the linguistic communications of two wholly different civilizations, that is, one of oriental civilization, and the other of western civilization. Each of these linguistic communication have a assortment of parlances related to cats, yet the intensions hidden in those parlances are non precisely the same, though they display some noticeable similarities.
After a thorough reasearch, I figure out 2 major decisions which are presented and discussed here:
In Vietnamese parlances, cats are:
omoderate: A?n nha»? nha?» nh?° meo
owise: meo con ba??t chua»™t ca»‘ng
opatient: rinh nh?° meo rinh chua»™t
In English, cats are:
osuperior, dominant: unrecorded under the cat ‘s pes, fat cat, cool cat, sitting in the cat bird place
ooutstanding: cat ‘s mew, cat ‘s pyjama, cat ‘s hair’s-breadth
owise, smart: busier than a one-eyed cat watching two mouse holes, honest as the cat when the meat ‘s out of range
oskillful: catwalk, walk like a cat on eggs
ohighly-valued: high as the hair on a cat ‘s dorsum
As we can see from the above list, some of the parlances in both linguistic communications have postive intensions of cats but the figure is non considerable or important adequate. Indeed, cats have many good features, yet merely few of them are remembered and reflected in parlances. In both civilizations, cats are seen as smart and wise. They are non merely adept at catching mice but besides capable of organizing fond regards to their proprietors. Vietnamese people have the parlance “ meo con ba??t chua»™t ca»‘ng ” ( kitten gimmicks large rat ) which refers to a weak but intelligent individual who is able to utilize his wisdom to get the better of a more powerful opposition. However, in English, cats are besides thought to be smart. Even an one-eyed cat can pass hours watching a two mouse hole to catch both. However, one time holding recognized that there is no manner it can take the quarry, the cat will turn away to vouch his life. The behaviour “ A?n nha»? nha?» nh?° meo ” ( eat every bit gently as a cat ) is perceived as well behaved in the instance of a miss or adult female, yet it is a sarcastic expression in the instance of a adult male. In oriental civilization, misss should be feminine and polite but adult male must demo their maleness by eating like a Equus caballus. Detecting the cat watching the mouse, the Vietnamese figure out another positive personality of the cat, that is, forbearance. There is no opportunity the cat will give up on the mouse until it eventually catches or, unluckily, misses that mouse. On the other manus, cats are extremely valued as superior and dominant. Even “ cat ‘s mew ” or “ cat ‘s hair’s-breadth ” is adequate to demo the power of a cat. “ Siting in the cat bird place ” means being in an advantageous place. “ High as the hair on a cat ‘s dorsum ” implies something really dearly-won and possibly, valuable.
By and large, really few positive personalities of cats are mentioned in parlances. While in English parlances, to some extent, cats are put on the pedestal out of their intelligence and high quality, they are socially inferior in Vietnamese community with no existent value but gradualness, wisdom and forbearance – therein still bear some negative significances.
The 12 carnal appellations of the Vietnamese include Rat, Ox, Tiger, Cat, Dragon, Snake, Horse, Goat, Monkey, Rooster, Dog and Pig. Cat comes 4th in this order. A cat is considered an animate being which is keep as a friendly pet in most Vietnamese households. In mundane communicating, ordinary people use assorted parlances affecting the image of cats. A bulk of those parlances contain implied negative significances which aim to knock or mock at bad behavior and low features of human existences:
ouseless: cho gio meo mu , cho kho meo la??c
oweak: meo cao khong xa?» vach voi
ostingy: gia??u nh?° meo gia??u ca»©t
oof inferior position: cho tha A‘i, meo tha la??i, co A?n nha??t ma»›i th?°??ng ta»›i meo, hum ma??t heo h??n meo ma??t tha»‹t
odestitute: meo mu moc ca»‘ng, meo ma?? ga A‘a»“ng, meo A‘ang cho A‘ia??m
omiserable ( black ) : cha»i cho ma??ng meo, A‘a meo queo cho , khong co cho ba??t meo A?n ca»©t
ostealthy: im a»‰m nh?° meo A?n va»?ng, gia??u nh?° meo gia??u ca»©t, meo hoang la??i ga?·p cho hoang, anh A‘i A?n tra»™m ga?·p nang ba»©t khoai.
oclumsy and jumpy: leo nheo nh?° meo va?t A‘a»‘ng r??m, loi thoi nh?° meo sa»• chua»™t, meo va?t A‘a»?n r??m
ounlucky: meo A‘a??n nha thi kho , cho A‘a??n nha thi giau
owicked: meo gia hoa cao
ocowardly: meo gia la??i thua gan chua»™t nha??t
ospoiled, lazy: meo lanh cha??ng a»Y ma?? ; a?? lanh cha??ng a»Y hang c??m
osnobbish: meo khen meo dai A‘uoi
ohasty, thoughtless: nh?° meo tha??y ma»?
A cat is an animate being that is closely connected with the lives of Vietnamese ordinary people. Cats help catch troublesome mice in the house and are pampered by their proprietors. Through what is portrayed in the parlances refering cats, we can see a vivid and colorful image of Vietnamese people in their mundane life. These parlances have long become a particular trait in their cognitive civilization.
In English, cats are associated with the following bad features:
obad-tempered: a bag of cats
ooverly cautious: a cat in baseball mitts gimmicks no mice
odestitute: back street cat
ocorrupt: cat around, cat burglar, catcalls, ethical motives of an alley cat and consciences of a serpent, hotter than a six peckered back street cat
oclumsy: every bit nervous as a cat in a room full of swaying chairs, like a cat on hot bricks, Like a cat on a hot Sn roof
owicked: cat ‘s paw
omean: cattie comments
osnobbish: conceited as a Barber ‘s cat, looking like a cat that swallowed a canary, cat ‘s pyjama
ocowardly: scaredy-cat, fraidy cat
oweak and fragile: weak as a kitty
ochanceless: cat-in-hell opportunity
opugnacious: battle like Kilkenny cats, battle like cats and Canis familiariss
One of the most important difference between Vietnamese and English people is the manner they perceive the universe, particularly the carnal universe. Vietnamese has an oriental civilization that has been formed and preserved over 1000s of old ages. Social and historical conditions exert an highly great influence on the imposts and beliefs of Vietnamese people. On the other manus, England is a western state in which people prefer a free and independent life without so many cultural restraints. This should ensue in wholly different attitudes towards cats in the two civilizations. Surprisingly, as listed above, the perceptual experiences of English and Vietnamese people have so much in common. Both civilizations see cats as weak, suffering, gawky, hard-bitten and clannish. The cat ‘s physical failing is described in the Vietnamese parlance “ meo cao khong xa?» vach voi ” ( a cat ‘s abrasions do non draw down a wall ) which corresponds to the English parlance “ weak as a kitty ” . What is more, cats have a gawky nature. Vietnamse cats love to mess around with things like straw and turn out to be really nervous when a mouse flight from their custodies. Likewise, in English, the cat ‘s jitteriness is revealed when it is in problem: “ like a cat on hot bricks ” or “ every bit nervous as a cat in a room full of swaying chairs ” . Another bad feature that cats are given recognition to is their clannish behavior, non to advert their pugnaciousness. If Vietnamese people use the parlance “ meo khen meo dai A‘uoi ” to mock at a braggart individual, English people besides have the look “ conceited as a Barber ‘s cat ” or “ looking like a cat that swallowed a canary ” . It means that they show a smug behavior out of their success or accomplishment.
Besides these common features, there are many differences. Cats in Vietnamese parlances are useless, ungenerous, furtive, cowardly, wicked, lazy and thoughtless. If Vietnamese people are asked to give cats a bad name, that would be laziness. In fact, cats are really lazy. They sleep by the fire all twenty-four hours long. Their worst wont is eating on the sly. That is why in Vietnamese there are some parlances that reflect that bad wont such as “ ma»? A‘a»? mia»‡ng meo ” or “ cho treo meo A‘a?y ” . However, those personalities do non be in English parlances refering cats. As a consequence of my probe, English people relate cats with such features as crabbed, excessively cautious, impoverished, corrupt and average. What I find most interesting here is that although cats are frequently loved and pampered by their proprietors, they appear pitifully suffering in parlances. In Vietnamese parlances, cats are far more suffering than in English. They are held in disdain ( “ cho tha A‘i, meo tha la??i ” , “ co A?n nha??t ma»›i th?°??ng ta»›i meo ” , ” hum ma??t heo h??n meo ma??t tha»‹t ” ) and treated really severely ( “ A‘a meo queo cho ” , “ cha»i cho ma??ng meo ” ) . Destitute cats are likened to “ alley cats ” with “ cat-in-hell opportunity ” – no opportunity of success. This is the lone parlance in English that employs the image of cats as the symbol of sadness. In most other instances, cats are placed at a superior place.
o Cho gio meo mu , cho kho meo lA?c and “ ethical motives of an alley cat and consciences of a serpent ” . oleo nheo nh?° meo va?t A‘a»‘ng r??m, loi thoi nh?° meo sa»• chua»™t, meo va?t A‘a»?n r??m
and every bit nervous as a cat in a room full of swaying chairs, like a cat on hot bricks, Like a cat on a hot Sn roof
omeo khen meo dai uoi and conceited as a Barber ‘s cat
As we can see above, the positive attitudes towards cats are outnumbered by the
negative 1s. In other words, out of the prevailed loving feelings that homo have for Canis familiariss,
merely bad images and characters of cats are remembered and reflected in parlances.
Although cats and Canis familiariss live under the same roof, they seldom acquire along good with each other. The Canis familiaris will desire to trail the cat once it sees the cat someplace nearby. The cat is smaller and weaker, so it is the 1 who has to run off from the Canis familiaris. In Vietnamese, people say “ nh?° cho va»›i meo ” or “ meo ma»™t xo , cho ma»™t n??i ” , which is used to speak about people such as brother and sister or hubby and married woman who have so many struggles that they ever fight or dispute any clip of confrontation. English people besides say the same about those people. The tantamount parlance is “ fight like cats and Canis familiariss ” , or “ to populate a cat and dog life ” . Some other English parlances that besides portray this relation are “ dog my cats ” ( an look of amazement ) , “ rain cats and Canis familiariss ” ( rain to a great extent ) , “ maintain no more cats than will catch mice ” ( do n’t environ yourself with people who will be dependent on you ) .
We all know that human existences have been maintaining cats as an intimate comrade for so long. Therefore, the intimacy between the human and the cats is apprehensible. At first, it occurs that the negative intensions of cats in parlances are incomprehensible. However, if we look at this fact from the angle of civilization, we will happen a satisfactory reply. It is common sense that “ good celebrity slumbers, bad celebrity creeps ” which means “ tia??ng lanh A‘a»“n ga?§n, tia??ng da»? A‘a»“n xa ” in Vietnamese.
Though Canis familiariss and cats are in changeless struggle really frequently, both represent people of the same societal position, that is, at the underside of the society. Dogs and cats have ne’er of all time lived in peace, but at least they portion something in common. They are impoverished, contempted and they have to make evil things to do ends meet. Hence, people may presume that cats are every bit bad as Canis familiariss because they are seen to be together sometimes. In the psychological science of both English and Vietnamese people, Canis familiariss are associated with batch of bad behaviors ( “ nha»?c nh?° cho ” , “ ngu nh?° cho ” , “ cho ca??n ao rach ” , “ work like a Canis familiaris ” , “ a Canis familiaris ‘s life ” , etc. ) . Besides, the Vietnamese has a really meaningful parlance: “ ng?°u ta?§m ng?°u, ma ta?§m ma ” . Harmonizing to this perceptual experience, if the Canis familiaris has already got a bad name, so anyone who plays with the Canis familiaris will be non any better. Consequently, on and on, clip after clip, non many good thoughts could be granted to this animate being. This explains why there are really few positive features associated with cats in parlances.
As discussed earlier, cats and Canis familiariss seem to hold an inherited hate. likewise, cats are besides in a death-feud with mice. The lone difference between the two relationships is the ground that leads to the hatred. Dogs pursuit cats, but cats are after mice. If dogs hatred cats out of different societal manners and misinterpretation, a cat goes jumping up to a mouse out of its nature as a marauder.
The cat is interested in anything that moves – butterflies, birds, grasshoppers, feathery toys waved on the terminal of a stick, and particularly mice. Some common Vietnamese parlances that depict this relationship are “ nh?° meo va»?n chua»™t ” , “ chua»™t ga?·m chan meo ” , “ chua»™t ca??n day bua»™c meo ” , “ meo con ba??t chua»™t ca»‘ng ” , “ meo gia la??i thua gan chua»™t nha??t ” . As for English, we have such parlances as “ a cat in baseball mitts gimmicks no mice ” ( success will non go on to a individual who is excessively cautious ) , “ busier than a one-eyed cat watching two mouse holes ” ( really busy, about frenetic ) , “ playing cat and mouse ” ( playing in a mocking manner ) , “ when the cat ‘s off, the mice will play ” ( without regular monitoring, people will misconduct ) .
To reason, both English and Vietnamese have parlances with negative intensions of cats. This outnumbers the postive parlances. Although the two linguistic communications portray cats with many similar and different personalities, there is a astonishing fact that the societal position of cats in Vietnam and England is non the same. If in English, cats stand at a place of strength, in Vietnamese, cats represent people of a really low position who are granted no power or existent value.
In such a small-scale survey, the reseacher aims to propose some utile pedagogical deductions based on the incompatible analysis. More specifically, the research worker is traveling to discourse how to learn English parlances refering cats to Vietnamese pupils with the most effeciency.
First thing foremost, English instructors should be cognizant of the similar and different intensions in the parlances related to cats. Then, they will cognize which parlances to learn and how to learn those looks to pupils. Since there are about one hundred English parlances that involve the image of cats, the instructors should pull pupils ‘ attending to the most utile 1s merely. The “ most utile ” parlances are those that pupils are able to understand, retrieve and have assorted chances to utilize once more in existent life. For illustration, the instructor should learn such parlances as “ rain like cats and Canis familiariss ” or “ fight like cats and Canis familiariss ” because these parlances have their equivalents in Vietnamese, therefore, easy for pupils to conceive of and think the significances. Subsequently on, the pupils will go on utilizing the parlances in assorted contexts suitably.
Second, the parlances are merely a individual facet of the vocabulary cognition. The pupils should non be required to larn excessively much about idiomatic looks. They merely need a sufficient sum of this cognition in order to widen their vocabulary and heighten their productive accomplishments. Never should the instructors require the pupils to be expert at this country. Therefore, it is advisable for the instructor to learn parlances as an integrated accomplishment. In other words, the instructor should pass merely a little part which is approximately 10 to fifteen proceedingss showing one or two utile parlances to the pupils.
What matters following is how to learn those parlances in the most effectual manner. As mentioned earlier in the paper, English parlances are fixed looks whose constructions sometimes do non conform to the normal grammatical regulations. It is non an easy undertaking for scholars to utilize parlances suitably in communicating. Therefore, there is a demand to analyze some semantic characteristics of English and Vietnamese idiomatic verb phrases with the hope of assisting scholars use this portion of parlances more efficaciously and confidently. Hence, the instructor should non pass excessively much clip and effert on the elaborate account of the constructions. Alternatively, the instructor should concentrate more on construing the significance of the parlances to guarantee that the pupils get the messages hidden in the parlances. The instructor can besides promote the pupils to work out the nonliteral significance from its actual significance. By this manner, the pupils ‘ imaginativeness and creativeness can be boosted. Furthermore, it is a must that the instructor should give more information about the beginning of each parlance and comparison or contrast English parlances with the first linguistic communication equivalents, if possible. The comparing and contrast technique helps to do the lesson more interesting and actuating as it gives the pupils a opportunity to associate the new cognition with what they have known from their ain civilization. Besides, some illustrations should be given to supply the pupils with meaningful contexts.
Another deduction is for learning interlingual rendition. If the pupils have acquired profound apprehension of the English parlances, they can be kept off from word-by-word interlingual rendition. For illustration, one time a pupil has known the parlance “ rain cats and Canis familiariss ” clearly, he will cognize that this should be translated as “ m?°a nh?° trut n?°a»›c ” alternatively of “ m?°a nh?° cho va»›i meo ” – a wholly actual interlingual rendition.
In decision, instruction and larning a linguistic communication are learning and larning a civilization. By learning parlances, English instructors can assist their pupil open the door to the alone civilization of the 2nd linguistic communication they are larning. Parlances are much more intersting than academic vocabulary in text edition. Teaching parlances can actuate pupils in larning the linguistic communication. Students can retrieve the constructions and vocabularies carried in the parlances with easiness. The bottom line is that the instructor should cognize how to choose and learn utile parlances in the right manner so that the pupils are able to utilize parlances decently both in schoolrooms and in real-life communicating.