Essay, Pages 7 (1533 words)
This cancer mainly has the supported information of how it happens, where it happens in the body, how can it be treated, and who to turn to when one needs help. Endometrial cancer is found in the endometrium, which is the lining of the uterus. The endometrium is found in a woman’s pelvic area and is where a fetus grows until birth. Endometrial cancer occurs when cells of the endometrium begin to grow and multiply without the control mechanisms that normally limit their growth.
As the cells grow, they form a tumor. (“Endometrial Cancer – PubMed Health. , 2012) The exact cause of endometrial cancer is unknown, but there are many risk factors that lead to what causes it to grow rapidly, killing off thousands of women each year. Endometrial cancer is usually found in women in between the ages of 50 and 60. Women, who are obese, fifty pounds over their ideal weight, are ten times greater at risk than women that are not obese.
Body fat produces estrogen and the higher level of estrogen are believed to increase the risk of cancer. This is believed because women with excess fat have higher levels of estrogen.
Women that have not been pregnant are at three times higher risk. Women who have their periods before the age of twelve are at an increased risk because early puberty increases the number of years that the endometrium is exposed to higher levels of estrogens. (“Endometrial Cancer – PubMed Health. “, 2012). A woman who goes through menopause after the age of fifty-two, which is called late menopause, actually increases the number of years that the endometrium is exposed to estrogen.
To all cancers there are symptoms that may be long term or short term.
In endometrial cancer, the most common symptoms are abnormal bleeding from the vagina. (Cervical Cancer, 2013). Abnormal bleeding happens during menopause, which makes it harder to determine if something is wrong. During menopause, the menstrual period should become shorter, and the frequency should become farther apart. If there were to be any uncommon bleeding, it should be reported to a physician. Pelvic pain, swelling or lumps in the pelvic area, and weight loss are symptoms that are less common and would indicate advanced cancer.
The staging system that is used for endometrial cancer was developed by the international Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Staging is used to classify the cancer based on how extent the disease is. In endometrial cancer, staging is mostly based on how far the main tumor has spread. There are four stages as follows: Stage I: The tumor is limited to the upper part of the uterus and has not spread to the surrounding lymph nodes or other organs. Stage IA: Tumor limited to the endometrium or less than one half of the myometrium.
Stage IB: Invasion equal to or more than one half the myometrium (middle layer of the uterine wall) Stage II: Invasion of the cervical stroma but does not extend beyond the uterus (strong supportive connective tissues of the cervix) Stage IIIA: Invasion of the serosa (outermost layer of the myometrium) and/or the adnexa (the ovaries or fallopian tubes) Stage IIIB: Invasion of the vagina and/or parametrical involvement Stage IIIC1: Cancer has spread to the pelvic lymph nodes but not to distant organs Stage IIIC2: Cancer has spread to the par aortic lymph nodes with or without positive pelvic lymph nodes but not too distant organs Stage IV: The cancer has spread to the inside of the bladder or the rectum and/or to the inguinal lymph nodes and/or to the bones or distant organs outside the pelvis, such as the lungs. Stage IVA: Tumor invasion of the bladder, the bowel mucosa, or both Stage IVB: Metastasis to distant organs, including intra-abdominal metastasis, and/or inguinal lymph nodes (“Endometrial Cancer – PubMed Health. “, 2012). There are treatments for endometrial cancer, but it depends on the stage of the cancer. There is an initial surgery that has to be done, which involves removing the entire uterus and cervix, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. After this surgery is done staging is determined.
After the staging is determined, only then will there be a treatment by a physician. Surgery is the main form of treatment for endometrial cancer, but there are other options. There is radiation therapy, but this is used for stages two, three, and four. It is given to kill any cancer cells remaining in the body. Chemotherapy is another option and drugs are used to kill cancer cells. The advantage of this option is that the chemicals can attack cancer cells anywhere in the body. The disadvantage of this option is that the side effects include nausea, hair loss, fatigue, anemia, infections, and damage to organs like the kidneys. This therapy is mainly used for advanced endometrial cancer. (“Endometrial Cancer – PubMed Health. , 2012). The last option would be hormone therapy, which uses hormones to fight cancer cells. This is only used in advanced and metastatic endometrial cancer. If endometrial cancer is determined, there should be foods in the individual’s diet to avoid. Many women with this condition can improve their symptoms by just controlling their diet. When this diet is created, the main goal is to eliminate foods that increase stimulated estrogen, prostaglandins. There are ten foods to avoid following an endometriosis diet. The first food to avoid is sugar. Sugar can produce an acidic environment within the body, which produces more pain of endometriosis.
Wheat should be avoided because it contains phytic acid, which aggravates symptoms. Soy products contain phytic acid and irritate the digestive system and reduce mineral absorption. Caffeine increase estrogen levels and estrogen triggers endometriosis flare ups. When you consume more than two cups of coffee a day, estrogen levels are caused to rise. Alcohol should be avoided because vitamin B from the liver is being destroyed. The liver is needed to clear out the excess estrogen to control the cancer. Dairy products, mostly milk and cheese, should be avoided because they aggravate the symptoms also. Red meat contains growth hormones that include estrogen, so this should also be avoided.
Saturated fats and oils are high in fatty acids that stimulate production of hormone levels. Foods like butter, margarine, lard, organ meats, and fried foods are high in saturated fats and oils. Another group of food that should be avoided is refined carbohydrates. This includes white bread, pasta, flour, pastry, cakes, etc. These should be avoided because most of their natural nutrients are removed, which leads to increase endometriosis symptoms. The last groups of food that should be avoided are additives and preservatives. This includes processed, frozen, and pre-packaged foods. (Nutrition Facts, 2012) There are not many alternatives for this type of cancer.
This is said because there is strictly surgery that has to be done before anything else can happen. This surgery then leads to the treatment for the individual that has the cancer. (“Endometrial Cancer – PubMed Health. “, 2012) In every cancer, you have a statically breakdown of how many people have survived or died from a certain type of cancer. My statically breakdown is involved mostly with women, because no man can get the cancer. Endometrial cancer is usually diagnosed at an early stage. “The one year survival rate is about 92%. The five year survival rate for this cancer that has not spread is 95%. If the cancer has spread to distant organs, the five year survival rate drops to 23%.
Survival rates for African American women are 10% lower than that of white females for every stage” (ncbi. nlm. nih. gov). In conclusion, most women who have endometrial cancer are cured. There are many women who die from the emotional part of obtaining the cancer. Many women would feel anxious and depressed. There are many support and counseling groups that are concerned with the individual’s feelings. Friends and family members should be very supportive and the individual that has obtained the cancer should not be hesitant to bring the topic up to close friends or family. It is amazing how many people are helped through their cancer by just talking out the worries or concerns they may have.
My opinion about endometrial cancer is that it should not be taken as a joke. This is something serious that affects 200,000 women each year from their day to day life. I never knew this cancer existed until I conducted research for an original cancer. This cancer is something that will affect many people in the future if prevention actions are not taken.
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