It is known that information about the outer world is encoded either consciously or subconsciously. Therefore, two types of information encoding exist: automatic and effortful processing. The main difference is that automatic processing suggests that people absorb information about the world without any efforts, whereas effortful processing is absorbing information due to rehearsal or repetition.
For example, people automatically absorb information about time, space and frequency. In its turn, consciously people process names, phone numbers and other information they are unfamiliar with. Nevertheless, more information is encoded automatically and information that is repeated or rehearsed is kept in mind for less time compared with information absorbed without conscious effort. Brain capacity allows people to remember things without paying proper attention to them.
However, it is rather difficult to get rid of information obtained both automatically or effortful. There is one more interesting thing: it is claimed that even effortful information can become with time subconscious. For example, when children learn how to read, they have to repeat words and letter, but with the years of practice reading and writing becomes automatic process. Therefore, automatic and effortful processing are interrelated in a certain way.
It is proved that effortful processing ensures more durable memories compared with automatic one. Due to attention and effort people can absorb more interesting facts and necessary information: through rehearsal information is encoded for storage, though, for example, information absorbed just before sleep is hardly remembered. So, effortful processing provides more benefits than automatic one because it allows to process information more carefully and thoughtfully.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 14 February 2017
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