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Alternatively, if you have already written your coursework in another document, copy and paste the content of your coursework from your document within this file. Introduction This essay will address the issue of money being the only employee motivator; stressing its importance despite other motivational factors. The essay is divided into three sections.
First, the focus will be on the theoretical perspective of money as a motivator, viewing F.W Taylor’s assumptions and other theoretical ideas.
Secondly, research evidence that supports or contradicts the theories is discussed and last, is the conclusion, arguing that money is the key motivator. Theoretical evidence There are several views as to what motivates people to work. Money is the prime motivator (F. W. Taylor 1911). He believed that workers are motivated by obtaining the highest possible wages. This assumption was supported by Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, because money can be used to satisfy several of our needs.
For instance, by purchasing things that satisfies our physiological needs.
Yet, Maslow’s theory does not take into account individual differences. Some employees may consider certain needs to be more important than others and therefore seek to satisfy them before satisfying any other needs. On top of that some people might seek to satisfy several needs at a time, rather than just one. F. W Taylor’s assumption was also supported by Arnold et al (1991) who proposed intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
Intrinsic is caused by self-generated factors such as responsibility, whereas extrinsic is caused by things that are done for or to people in order to motivate them, for instance pay. Opposed to intrinsic motivators the extrinsic motivators could have an immediate effect but might not be long-term. Take for example higher income employees that are not satisfied with their work. They may eventually seek more satisfying jobs. Whereas employees with relatively low incomes but high job satisfaction might stay motivated to do their jobs, despite the low levels of income.
In contrast, Herzberg argues that pay is not a motivator but a hygiene factor. Implying that pay is a short-term motivator, however if it is unfair it could de-motivate. The limitation is that the research was based on interviews, which could have been biased, because the participants might not have admitted the true role of money as a motivator. This could then have led to money being classified as a hygiene factor. Research Evidence Meudell, K & Rodham, K’s (1998), research found that the top motivators were money related and that motivators differed across employment duration, age and gender.
For example, those who had worked for less than six months considered money as the most motivating. This indicates that money is a primary motivator, at least in the early stages of employment. It also shows that the longer they were employed money became less important. Until after 2-3 years of employment when money reappeared as an important motivator. Age groups 18-24 and 45-54 considered money as the key motivator, whereas middle-aged workers believed that several factors affect their motivation.
However, Hawthorne studies (Elton Mayo 1927-1932) and McClelland (1961) found that the social aspects of work are what motivated the employees for example a sense of achievement. Nevertheless, these studies were conducted in western cultures; therefore the findings cannot be generalized to the other cultures. This is supported by a study conducted by Chiu, R et al (2001) which found that employees in China were solely money motivated. Conclusion This essay has used theoretical and research evidence to illustrate the importance of money on motivation.
This includes F. W Taylor’s (1911) statement, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Arnold et Al’s (1991) theory. The data has shown that money is a key motivator for many people, but not everyone. There are difficulties in generalizing motivational behaviour due to individual differences. However Meudell, K and Rodham’s research was able to show that money is important for motivation despite individual differences, and with support from Chiu R et al’s (2001) study which shows that cultures other than the western do regard money as an essential motivator.
With this evidence in mind it could be argued that money is the foremost motivator. Thus, people in the cleaning profession may not enjoy their job, but they may be there to earn a living. Perhaps because that is all they are qualified for, just as some students might settle for a low paid job while studying and once they’ve graduated they are likely to look for a better paying job. In other words their aim is to find the best paying job in their circumstances.
All in all people get jobs to earn a living, so if money is the reason to why people work in the first place then it could be a powerful motivator.
Books Armstrong, M. (2002) Employee Reward (Third edition). London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD). Finchman, R ; Rhodes, P. (2005) Principles of Organisational Behaviour (Fourth Edition). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press (OUP). Surridge, M (2003) AS/A – Level Business Studies (Second Edition). London, UK: Philip Alan Updates.
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