Employee Selection Essay
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Evaluations are used by companies to help assess how accurate training programs could be. As evaluations are ongoing to determine the effectiveness of the training programs, there legal and ethical concerns that could occur in the completion of the different training programs. Tests Used to Select and Train Employees Selection of the proper employee is essential in an organization’s survival because without reliable employees people would not be able to run any business.
One main method of selecting employees in today’s society is through the use of an interview.
This gives the employer a chance to meet the individual in person and for him or her to view the type of person the individual is and look for KSAOs, which is knowledge, skills, ability, and other characteristics needed in order to be qualified for the job (Spector, 2012). Another part of the selection process might be to administer a test to determine how well the individual might be at completing his or her job.
These tests are called ability tests. One ability test is called a cognitive-ability test, which can be done in a setting with many people and tests their ability to solve and is relatively inexpensive (Spector, 2012). These tests can even be done without the use of language and can be administered through the use of a maze or other type of test of ability. Another type of ability test is called the psychomotor ability test. The psychomotor ability test accesses the ability to manipulate objects and use tools (Spector, 2012).
This test is excellent in showing hand/eye coordination skills in a job, which relies on production or moving at a rapid pace accurately. For example, in a job where the individual may have to place a label on each bottle that came down a conveyer belt this would be an excellent way to tell if the potential employee would be able to work at a rapid pace. One way this test may be performed is through putting several bolts with nuts in a dish and timing the individual as he or she is putting a nut on each bolt and remove the bolts from each other.
Scoring for this test is based on how quick the task can be completed accurately. Training Program Success Methods Training program evaluations are imperative research tools utilized by companies to determine the programs’ effectiveness. Evaluations should be thorough and continuous because of the valuable information they provide, such as adjusting the effectiveness, eliminating the ineffectiveness, and justifying the organization or company’s training programs.
Evaluations of training programs are costly in monies and time for companies; therefore, the collecting and analyzing of data results from trainees’ responses to post surveys and questionnaires. However, a more efficient evaluation includes setting the criteria, choosing the designs, choosing the measures, collecting the data, and analyzing the data (Spector, 2012). Setting the criteria of the evaluation is essential for choosing the design of the evaluation. A researcher must know what the training intention is. There are two valuable levels of criteria.
Training-level criteria concerns the tasks that individuals are to do at the cusp of training (Spector, 2012). Performance-level criteria entail the amount of transfer of the training or the individual’s performance (Spector, 2012). Classification of criteria can be divided further into four areas. Reactions criteria is reference to the trainee’s liking to the training, learning criteria is reference to knowledge gained, behavior criteria is reference to the trainee’s change in behavior on-the-job, and results criteria is in reference to the achievement of the training (Spector, 2012).
Choosing the design of training programs evaluations is the framework of the collection of the data and what exactly data is collected for (Spector, 2012). In making the design cost effective, the company’s intentions should include a repetition of materials and enforce that training is crucial to the company’s operations (Mikesell, Wilson, & Lawther, 1975). Low cost designs, such as the pretest-posttest and control group, are majority favorites (Spector, 2012). The pretest-posttest design is valuable because it provides knowledge before and after training (Spector, 2012).
The control group design is slightly more difficult because it involves separating a random group of people, dividing them into trained and untrained groups, assessing the measures of interest, and comparing the two subgroups (Spector, 2012). The criterion under evaluation determines the measurements. Questionnaires, surveys, written examinations, simulation examinations, or assessing performance on-the-job are ways to obtain the measures (Spector, 2012). The input provided offers information on the training effectiveness and any necessary adjustments that must be made (Mikesell, Wilson, & Lawther, 1975).
The collection of data is simple logic; however, it consists of complications. Things can go wrong, people can be uncooperative and dishonest (on surveys) (Spector, 2012). Thus, a carefully thought out evaluation should include possible modifications (Spector, 2012). Inferential statistics are used for analyzing the data. Each design provides different information. For example, a pretest-posttest design expresses the amount of knowledge gained (Spector, 2012). Analyzing the data can be conclusive if all four prior steps are carried out thoroughly. Ethical and Legal concerns
Cognitive and psychomotor ability testing for either employment selection or training can present many ethical issues that pore over into the legal area. Some of the issues are related to the training material and its relevance to the success of job or company with this is the development of the technique and implementation of the training (Spector, 2012). An example would be to require the person who greets people at Wal-Mart to pass an aptitude test in order to maintain their job or creating training in English when there are several employees with Spanish as their first language.
Other ethical issues surround the characteristics or certification of the trainer, which include the ability to interpret and observe training in order to present valid results. The trainer must have a background in the training material and an operating understanding of the organization (Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2013). The aforementioned issue area important, however, cognitive and psychomotor ability testing has the majority of their issues in the discrimination and privacy categories.
Employees or possible employees possess different cognitive and psychomotor abilities therefore training or testing should maintain various methods and extend training to reach the intended goal, regardless of gender, race, color, disability, religion or age. Cognitive and psychomotor abilities testing can be affected by discriminatory practices therefore special attention must be paid to ensure all people are properly trained for their job in a way that they can understand and excel.
In consideration of privacy, the employee should be informed of the reason and criteria of the test or training prior to the partaking in the exercise. According to the SIOP, personal information and assessments should also remain private and correlate to established ethical and legal policies (Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2013). Conclusion The selection of potential employees is important for organizations. As stated, there are different methods but the main method when selecting employees is interviewing him or her because it gives the employer an opportunity to view what type of individual he or she is.
Other methods, such as different ability tests are used to provide how well the individual could complete his or her job with the materials or object that are used. As the individual passes these tests, he or she will go through training programs. Training programs are important to employers because it helps keep new and old employees up-to-date with his or her jobs. Developing an effective training program increases the chances of the individual succeeding his or her job. In order to have an effective training program, following the steps for an efficient evaluation will determine the effectiveness of the program.
There are legal and ethical issues that could arise from training programs. Employers must be vigilant when having new and old employees go through training programs. References Mikesell, J. , Wilson, J. , & Lawther, W. (1975). Training program and evaluation model. Public Personnel Management, 4(6), 405. Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. (2013). Managing the Ethical and Legal Implications of Coaching. Retrieved from http://www. siop. org/workplace/coaching/ethical_and_legal_i. aspx Spector, P. E. (2012). Industrial and organizational psychology: Research and practice (6th ed. ). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley