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First and foremost, I want to thank , who has been my advisor and mentor throughout my studies, and served as the chair of my dissertation committee. Without sir’s patient criticism, continual support, effective teaching, and constant challenge and encouragement to give my very best efforts to my undertakings, I would not have learned what I needed to nor been prepared to complete this dissertation and future work.
Much of what I have learned about the craft of research has come from Sir, and I am forever grateful for the opportunity to have studied under his guidance.
I also want to give thanks to my who has contributed immensely to my professional and personal development over the past two years. I would not have made it through this research without the support, encouragement, teaching, and friendship of fellow students in the program. CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the dissertation titled “EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN HYDRABAD INDUSTRY LTD” submitted by embodies the bonafied work done by her under supervision of I also declare that this dissertation is a result of her effort and no part of this research has been published earlier or been submitted as a project by her for any degree or diploma for any institute or university.
Today HIL is a multi product, multi locational organization with a formidable network of branches, depots, stockiest and personnel spread all over India. HIL being backed by the organizational and technical expertise of the Birlas, also has a Board of directors comprising experienced personnel from Business, Finance and Industry.
The Board is chaired by Mr. C. K. Birla. HIL’s product range include Fibre Cement roofing sheets in the name of CHARMINAR and MALABAR, Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Blocks and Panels called AEROCON, Calcium Silicate insulation product called HYSIL, Jointing material for Gaskets and Plant and machinery for these products.
The Hyderabad industries LIMITED, Thrissur is situated 10 km away from the Thrissur town. The exact place where the company is situated is Athani, which is an industrial area. This company was incorporated in the year 1985 and commenced production in 1986 in the name as MALABAR BUILDING PRODUCTS, which was a joint venture by HIL and KSIDC (Kerala State Industries Development Corporation. Later in the year 2005 April the company was merged with the HIL completely from the KSIDC. And in the same year the company changed its name to HYDRABAD INDUSTRIES LIMITED. About 200 employees are working in HIL, Thrissur as a whole. In that 110 employees are working in plant, 72 are office staffs and 18 are bargaining staffs.
The plant is working for 24 hours and there are three shifts per day. The whole plant is completely automated. The HIL Thrissur plant is producing only the AC roofing sheets in the name of CHARMINAR. Charminar AC Roofing Sheets have been the No. 1 roofing sheets of choice for more than 50 years now, providing roofing to millions of low cost houses and to industries, commercial businesses and for several public utilities. Charminar sheets are widely known for their superior quality and durability. The raw materials used in the production process are Fibre, fly ash, rag pulp and cement. Among these raw materials Fibre is importing from Brazil and Canada and cement is mainly bought from ACC cements.
The Company mainly sells their products through dealers who are selected by the company. The finished products are mainly sold in the south India, especially in Tamil Nadu. The company has a visionary management and motivated team of dynamic workers sharing common vision and working in the union. The company is moving ahead with to innovate and provide excellent production. HIL is providing to have an operational efficiency compactable with global standards. As a socially organization, it has contributed significantly towards eco-friendliness and various social causes. The company has involved in conducting a lot of community welfare programme. In this year the company conducted a welfare programme named ‘SOUHRUTHAM 2008’.
Mission and Vision of Hyderabad Industries Limited To maintain leadership in Fibre cement products industry and develop complementary products and services to strengthen the core business of building products. • Fulfilment of market needs with cost effective solutions for enduring and enhanced customer satisfaction. • Striving for excellence in all the area of company’s operation. • Innovative solutions to create world class products and services fostering collective wisdom and commitment of employees to create corporate and group culture and values which they are proud to be part of. • Maintain equitable balance between development and environmental needs of the society. Quality Policy
Provide products and services that adequately and consistently meet specified and identified needs of customers by ? Continues upgrade of product value and by ? Building customer responsive environment ? In making and deliverance of the products and services Research & Development. Research and Development Centre of Hyderabad Industries Limited is fully equipped with latest state-of-art technology, equipment and test facilities including Pilot Plants situated in ultra modern spacious building covering an area of about 11000 sft of main Building and about 16000 sft area of Pilot Plant. HIL, R & D centre is recognized by Department of Science and Technology Government of India.
HIL have been conferred with the DSIR National Award for R & D efforts in industry for the year 2000 in the area of new materials for “AEROCON INSTA PANEL” Dedicated team of scientists and engineers are constantly working for product up gradation, optimum utilization of raw materials, development of substitute materials, new products and new product applications, saving substantial amount of foreign exchange for the country. The R & D Division has contributed in the following specific areas: • Identification and development of environment friendly building products with emerging market needs. • Emphasis on process optimization, cost reduction and development of value added products. • Effective utilization of energy, water and waste material. • Absorption of imported technical know-how. • Development of new products i. e. Aerocon Insta – Panels, Access Flooring system, pressed sheets, fire protection boards, Light weight AAC Blocks, non-asbestos jointing material for automobile industry etc. Quality Policy Provide products and services that adequately and consistently meet specified and identified needs of customers by ? Continues upgrade of product value and by ? Building customer responsive environment ? In making and deliverance of the products and services Philosophy HYDERABAD INDUSTRIES LIMITED is committed to good Corporate Governance. The Company has been following good principles of business over the years by following all the laws and regulations of the land with an emphasis on accountability, trusteeship, and integrity.
It is our responsibility to ensure that the organization is managed in a manner that protects and furthers the interests of our stakeholders. INDUSTRIAL PROFILE Asbestos is a group of minerals with long, thin fibrous crystals. The word “asbestos” is derived from a Greek adjective meaning inextinguishable. The Greeks termed asbestos the “miracle mineral” because of its soft and pliant properties, as well as its ability to withstand heat. Asbestos became increasingly popular among manufacturers and builders in the late 19th century due to its resistance to heat, electricity and chemical damage, its sound absorption and tensile strength. When asbestos is used for its resistance to fire or heat, the fibers are often mixed with cement or woven into fabric or mats.
Asbestos was used in some products for its heat resistance, and in the past was used on electric oven and hotplate wiring for its electrical insulation at elevated temperature, and in buildings for its flame-retardant and insulating properties, tensile strength, flexibility, and resistance to chemicals. The main product ASBESTOS CEMENT SHEET is primarily a cement based product were about 10-15% asbestos fiber is needed to reinforce the cement is weather proof, even through it absorbs moisture, the water will not pass through the product. Asbestos cement is used for corrugated sheets, slates, flat sheet for animal pens, cladding molded fitting, water system rain water gutters, down pipes, under ground pipes and sewer pipes, skills, chalkboards. Most of the asbestos consumed globally is chrysolite. Russia, Kazakhstan is major producers of asbestos.
The studies across the globe had not found any increased risk of carrier to the workers even at the levels of fiber/cubic centimeter, whereas the Indian chrysolite cement industry works well bellow 0. 5 fiber/cubic centimeter. Historic usage Asbestos was named by the ancient Greeks who also recognized certain hazards of the material. The Greek geographer Strabo and the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder noted that the material damaged lungs of slaves who wove it into cloth. Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman Emperor, is said to have had a tablecloth made of asbestos. Wealthy Persians, who bought asbestos imported over the Hindu Kush, amazed guests by cleaning the cloth by simply exposing it to fire.
According to Biruni in his book of Gems, any cloths made of asbestos were called shastakeh. Some of the Persians believed the fiber was fur from an animal named samandar that lived in fire and died when exposed to water. Some archeologists believe that ancients made shrouds of asbestos, wherein they burned the bodies of their kings, in order to preserve only their ashes, and prevent their being mixed with those of wood or other combustible materials commonly used in funeral pyres. Others assert that the ancients used asbestos to make perpetual wicks for sepulchral or other lamps. In more recent centuries, asbestos was indeed used for this purpose.
Although asbestos causes skin to itch upon contact, ancient literature indicates that it was prescribed for diseases of the skin, and particularly for the itch. It is possible that they used the term asbestos for alumen plumosum, because the two terms have often been confused throughout history. Asbestos became more widespread during the industrial revolution; in the 1860s it was used as insulation in the U. S. and Canada. Development of the first commercial asbestos mine began in 1879 in the Appalachian foothills of Quebec. By the mid 20th century uses included fire retardant coatings, concrete, bricks, pipes and fireplace cement, heat, fire, and acid resistant gaskets, pipe insulation, ceiling insulation, fireproof drywall, flooring, roofing, lawn furniture, and drywall joint compound.
Approximately 100,000 people in the United States have died, or will die, from asbestos exposure related to ship building. In the Hampton Roads area, a shipbuilding center, mesothelioma occurrence is seven times the national rate. Thousands of metric tons of asbestos were used in World War II ships to wrap the pipes, line the boilers, and cover engine and turbine parts. There were approximately 4. 3 million shipyard workers in the United States during WWII; for every thousand workers about fourteen died of mesothelioma and an unknown number died from asbestosis. Asbestos fibers were once used in automobile brake pads and shoes. Since the mid-1990s, a majority of brake pads, new or replacement, have been anufactured instead with linings made of ceramic, carbon, metallic and Aramid fiber (Twaron or Kevlar—the same material used in bullet-proof vests). Kent, the first filtered cigarette on the market, used crocidolite asbestos in its “Micronite” filter from 1952 to 1956. The first documented death related to asbestos was in 1906. In the early 1900s researchers began to notice a large number of early deaths and lung problems in asbestos mining towns. The first diagnosis of asbestosis was made in England in 1924. By the 1930s, England regulated ventilation and made asbestosis an excusable work related disease, about ten years sooner than the U. S. The term Mesothelioma was not used in medical literature until 1931, and was not associated with asbestos until sometime in the 1940s.
The United States government and asbestos industry have been criticized for not acting quickly enough to inform the public of dangers, and to reduce public exposure. In the late 1970s court documents proved that asbestos industry officials knew of asbestos dangers and tried to conceal them. In Japan, particularly after World War II, asbestos was used in the manufacture of ammonium sulphate for purposes of rice production, sprayed upon the ceilings, iron skeletons, and walls of railroad cars and buildings (during the 1960s), and used for energy efficiency reasons as well. Production of asbestos in Japan peaked in 1974 and went through ups and downs until about 1990, when production began to drop severely.
Commercially available roofing materials The weather proofing material is the topmost or outermost layer, exposed to the weather. Many different kinds of materials have been used as weather proofing material: • Thatch is roofing made of plant stalks in overlapping layers. • Wheat Straw, widely used in England, France and other parts of Europe. • Sea grass, used in coastal areas where there are estuaries such as Scotland. Has a longer life than straw. Claimed to have a life in excess of 60 years. • Shingles, called shakes in North America. Shingles is the generic term for a roofing material that is in many overlapping sections, regardless of the nature of the material.
The word is also used specifically to denote shingles made of wood. • Red cedar. Life expectancy, up to 30 years. However, young growth red cedar has a short life expectancy. High cost. Should be allowed to breathe. • Hardwood. Very durable roofing found in Colonial Australian architecture, its use now limited to restorations. • Slate. High cost with a life expectancy of up to 200 years. Slate cleaves into thin sheets, making it much lighter than concrete tiles, though heavier than sheet steel and other light roof coverings. • Stone slab. Heavy stone slabs (not to be confused with slate) 1″-2″ thick were formerly used as roofing tiles in some regions in England.
Stone slabs require a very heavyweight roof structure, but their weight makes them storm proof. An obsolete roofing material. • Ceramic tile. High cost, life of more then 100 years. • Imbrex and tegula, style dating back to ancient Greece and Rome. • Metal shakes or shingles. Long life. High cost, suitable for roofs of 3/12 pitch or greater. Because of the flexibility of metal, they can be manufactured to lock together, giving durability and reducing assembly time. • Mechanically seamed metal. Long life. High cost, suitable for roofs of low pitch such as 0. 5/12 to 3/12 pitch. • Concrete, usually reinforced with fibres of some sort. Concrete tiles require a stronger roof structure than slate, as some owners have found to their cost. Asphalt shingle, made of bitumen embedded in an organic or fiberglass mat, usually covered with colored, man-made ceramic grit. Cheaper than slate or tiles. Various life span expectancies. • Asbestos shingles. Very long lifespan, fireproof and low cost but now rarely used because of health concerns. • Membrane. Membrane roofing is in large sheets, generally fused in some way at the joints to form a continuous surface. • Thermosetting plastic (e. g. EPDM rubber). Synthetic rubber sheets adhered together with contact adhesive or tape. Primary application is big box store with large open areas and little vertical protrusions. • Thermoplastic (e. g. PVC, TPO, CSPE).
Plastic sheets welded together with hot air creating one continuous sheet membrane. Can be rewelded with the exception of CSPE. Lends itself well to both big box and small roof application because of its hot air weld ability. • Modified bitumen – heat welded, asphalt adhered or installed with adhesive. Asphalt is mixed with polymers such as APP or SBS, then applied to fiberglass and/or polyester mat, seams sealed by locally melting the asphalt with heat, hot mopping of asphalt, or adhesive. Lends itself well to all applications. • Built-Up Roof – Multiple plies of asphalt saturated organic felt or coated fiberglass felts. Plies of felt are adhered with hot asphalt, coal tar pitch or adhesive. Sprayed-in-Place Polyurethane Foam (SPUF) – Foam sprayed in-place on the roof, and then coated with a wide variety of coatings, or in some instances, covered with gravel. • Fabric • Polyester. • PTFE (synthetic Fluor polymer) embedded in fibre glass. • Metal roofing. Generally a relatively inexpensive building material, unless copper is used. • Galvanized steel frequently manufactured with wavy corrugations to resist lateral flexing and fitted with exposed fasteners. Widely used for low cost and durability. Sheds are normally roofed with this material. Known as Gal iron, it was the most extensively used roofing material of 20th century Australia, now replaced in popularity by steel roofing coated with an alloy of zinc and aluminum, claimed to have up to four times the life of galvanized steel. Standing-seam metal with concealed fasteners. • Mechanically seamed metal with concealed fasteners contains sealant in seams for use on very low sloped roofs. • Flat-seam metal with soldered seams. • Glass Clear windows have been used since the invention of glass to cover small openings in a building. They provided humans with the ability to both let light into rooms while at the same time keeping inclement weather outside. Glass is generally made from mixtures of sand and silicates, and is very brittle. Modern glass “curtain walls” can be used to cover the entire facade of a building. Glass can also be used to span over a wide roof structure in a “space frame”. Ceramics, these are such things as tiles, fixtures, etc. Ceramics are mostly used as fixtures or coverings in buildings. Ceramic floors, walls, counter-tops, even ceilings. Many countries use ceramic roofing tiles to cover many buildings. Ceramics used to be just a specialized form of clay-pottery firing in kilns, but it has evolved into more technical areas. • Foam More recently synthetic polystyrene or polyurethane foam has been used on a limited scale. It is light weight, easily shaped and an excellent insulator. It is usually used as part of a structural insulated panel where the foam is sandwiched between wood or cement. Department Profile The organization has mainly 5 departments.
They are 1. HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT 2. FINANCE DEPARTMENT 3. PURCHASE DEPARTMENT 4. MARKETING DEPARTMENT. 5. PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT Organization chart of Human Resource Department [pic] The managing human resource in the organization is an important task. Human resource department is doing the management of human resource in the organization. Hyderabad Industries Limited follows a system in HR department that each authority coming under the General Manager (works) has to report directly to General Manager (Works) in the hierarchy. This will helps to speed up the communication flow in the organization. ORGANISATION CHART OF FINANCE DEPARTMENT
Sound financial decisions have been one of the critical practices in the success of Hyderabad Industries Limited, Thrissur proper planning and long vision of the financial managers help the company to undergo to smooth sail. All monetary transactions of the company are handled and brought to account by the finance department. ORGANISATION CHART OF PURCAHSE DEPARTMENT The purchase manager is the only person who is the having the prime authority to make orders for the purchase of raw materials. After referring the stock report of raw materials and finished goods, the purchase manager purchase the raw- materials in order to ensure the continuous flow of production.
ORGANISATION CHART OF PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT The production manager and his team are responsible for realizing the visions of the company within constraints of technical possibility. This involves coordinating the operations of various production activities and maintains a good flow of work without any blockage. ORGANISATION CHART OF MARKETING DEPARTMEN Product Profile Charminar Aerocon panels. Charminar Aerocon Panel is a unique factory developed product that fulfills the following Green Building concept. • Raw material contains up to 40% Fly Ash (recycled power plant waste). • Excellent Thermal and Sound Insulation. • A good fire rating up to 2 hrs. -Depending upon thickness. Factory cured panel -Dry construction at site. • Completely re-locatable. • Proven suitable for seismic and cyclone prone zones Other Benefits: • Fast track construction -Tongue and groove joining system allows faster construction. • Light weight -allows easy handling and erection. • Excellent water & termite resistance. • Can be given any surface finish Applications: Charminar Roofing Sheets are an ideal building material for roofing and side-cladding in: • Industrial/ Power Plant Cladding • Control Room • Prefabricated site offices • Prefabricated Houses, Canteens and Rest Rooms • Partitions • Police Stations • School Buildings Telephone Exchanges • ATM Cubicles Charminar AC roofing Sheets. Charminar AC Roofing Sheets have been the No. 1 roofing sheets of choice for more than 50 years now. Providing roofing to millions of low cost houses and to industries, commercial businesses and for several public utilities. Charminar sheets are widely known for their superior quality and durability. Special Features • Strong & durable • Weather-proof • Less noise during rains • Non-corrosive Charminar Concreted Roofing Sheets are made from Fibre, Portland cement and Binder. Fibre in these sheets acts as reinforcement like steel in RCC. These are owing to their quality, strength & durability.
These are manufactured to exceed the requirements of strength specified in the relevant Indian standards. Standards • IS: 459-1992 Specification for Corrugated and Semi-Corrugated Asbestos Cement Sheets. • IS: 3007 – 1999 Code of practice for laying of Asbestos Cement Sheets, Part-I, Corrugated Sheets. • IS: 1626 (Part3) 1994 – Roofing fittings. Applications Charminar Roofing Sheets are an ideal building material for roofing and side-cladding in: • Industrial buildings of all types • Food Storage Go downs • Warehouses & Cold Storages • Poultry farms, dairy farms and other agricultural sheds • Garages, Verandahs and Outhouses • Houses • School buildings Public Utility Sheds • Cooling Towers • Cinema Halls • Stadiums • Railway & Bus Stations | | |CHAPTER-2 | | | |INTRODUCTION | |TO | |EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION | INTRODUCTION
The project work entitled a study on employee motivation with special reference to Hyderabad Industries Ltd; Thrissur is mainly conducted to identify the factors which will motivate the employees and the organizational functions in Hyderabad Industries Ltd, Thrissur. Management’s basic job is the effective utilization of human resources for achievements of organizational objectives. The personnel management is concerned with organizing human resources in such a way to get maximum output to the enterprise and to develop the talent of people at work to the fullest satisfaction. Motivation implies that one person, in organization context a manager, includes another, say an employee, to engage in action by ensuring that a channel to satisfy those needs and aspirations becomes available to the person.
In addition to this, the strong needs in a direction that is satisfying to the latent needs in employees and harness them in a manner that would be functional for the organization. Employee motivation is one of the major issues faced by every organization. It is the major task of every manager to motivate his subordinates or to create the ‘will to work’ among the subordinates. It should also be remembered that a worker may be immensely capable of doing some work; nothing can be achieved if he is not willing to work. A manager has to make appropriate use of motivation to enthuse the employees to follow them. Hence this studies also focusing on the employee motivation among the employees of Hyderabad Industries Ltd.
The data needed for the study has been collected from the employees through questionnaires and through direct interviews. Analysis and interpretation has been done by using the statistical tools and data’s are presented through tables and charts. RESEARCH PROBLEM The research problem here in this study is associated with the motivation of employees of Hyderabad Industries Limited, Thrissur. There are a variety of factors that can influence a person’s level of motivation; some of these factors include 1. The level of pay and benefits, 2. The perceived fairness of promotion system within a company, 3. Quality of the working conditions, 4. Leadership and social relationships, 5.
Employee recognition 6. Job security 7. Career development opportunities etc. Motivated employees are a great asset to any organisation. It is because the motivation and Job satisfaction is clearly linked. Hence this study is focusing on the employee motivation in the organisation. The research problem is formulated as follows: literature Review Rensis Likerthas called motivation as the core of management. Motivation is the core of management. Motivation is an effective instrument in the hands of the management in inspiring the work force . It is the major task of every manager to motivate his subordinate or to create the will to work among the subordinates .
It should also be remembered that the worker may be immensely capable of doing some work, nothing can be achieved if he is not willing to work . creation of a will to work is motivation in simple but true sense of term. Motivation is an important function which very manager performs for actuating the people to work for accomplishment of objectives of the organization . Issuance of well conceived instructions and orders does not mean that they will be followed . A manager has to make appropriate use of motivation to enthuse the employees to follow them. Effective motivation succeeds not only in having an order accepted but also in gaining a determination to see that it is executed efficiently and effectively.
In order to motivate workers to work for the organizational goals, the managers must determine the motives or needs of the workers and provide an environment in which appropriate incentives are available for their satisfaction . If the management is successful in doing so; it will also be successful in increasing the willingness of the workers to work. This will increase efficiency and effectiveness of the organization . There will be better utilization of resources and workers abilities and capacities. The concept of motivation The word motivation has been derived from motive which means any idea, need or emotion that prompts a man in to action. Whatever may be the behavior of man, there is some stimulus behind it . Stimulus is dependent upon the motive of the person concerned. Motive can be known by studying his needs and desires.
There is no universal theory that can explain the factors influencing motives which control mans behavior at any particular point of time. In general, the different motives operate at different times among different people and influence their behaviors. The process of motivation studies the motives of individuals which cause different type of behavior. 2. 2 Definition of Motivation. According to Edwin B Flippo, “Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do their work through the possibility of gain or reward. 2. 3 Significance of Motivation Motivation involves getting the members of the group to pull weight effectively, to give their loyalty to the group, to carry out properly the purpose of the organization.
The following results may be expected if the employees are properly motivated. 1. The workforce will be better satisfied if the management provides them with opportunities to fulfill their physiological and psychological needs. The workers will cooperate voluntarily with the management and will contribute their maximum towards the goals of the enterprise. 2. Workers will tend to be as efficient as possible by improving upon their skills and knowledge so that they are able to contribute to the progress of the organization. This will also result in increased productivity. 3. The rates of labor’s turnover and absenteeism among the workers will be low. 4.
There will be good human relations in the organization as friction among the workers themselves and between the workers and the management will decrease. 5. The number of complaints and grievances will come down. Accident will also be low. 6. There will be increase in the quantity and quality of products. Wastage and scrap will be less. Better quality of products will also increase the public image of the business. 2. 4 Motivation Process. 1. Identification of need 2. Tension 3. Course of action 4. Result –Positive/Negative 5. Feed back 2. 5 Theories of Motivation. Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne study results (Terpstra, 1979).
Six major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are Mcclelland’s Achievement Need Theory, Behavior Modification theory; Abraham H Mallows need hierarchy or Deficient theory of motivation. J. S. Adam’s Equity Theory, Vrooms Expectation Theory, Two factor Theory. McClelland’s Achievement Need Theory. According to McClelland’s there are three types of needs; Need for Achievement (n Ach); This need is the strongest and lasting motivating factor. Particularly in case of persons who satisfy the other needs. They are constantly pre occupied with a desire for improvement and lack for situation in which successful outcomes are directly correlated with their efforts.
They set more difficult but achievable goals for themselves because success with easily achievable goals hardly provides a sense of achievement. Need for Power (n Pow) It is the desire to control the behavior of the other people and to manipulate the surroundings. Power motivations positive applications results in domestic leadership style, while it negative application tends autocratic style. Need for affiliation (n Aff) It is the related to social needs and creates friendship. This results in formation of informal groups or social circle. Behavioral Modification Theory; According to this theory people behavior is the outcome of favorable and unfavorable past circumstances. This theory is based on learning theory. Skinner conducted his researches among rats and school children.
He found that stimulus for desirable behavior could be strengthened by rewarding it at the earliest. In the industrial situation, this relevance of this theory may be found in the installation of financial and non financial incentives. More immediate is the reward and stimulation or it motivates it. Withdrawal of reward incase of low standard work may also produce the desired result. However, researches show that it is generally more effective to reward desired behavior than to punish undesired behavior. Abraham H Maslow Need Hierarchy or Deficient theory of Motivation. The intellectual basis for most of motivation thinking has been provided by behavioral scientists, A.
H Maslow and Frederick Heizberg, whose published works are the “Bible of Motivation”. Although Maslow himself did not apply his theory to industrial situation, it has wide impact for beyond academic circles. Douglous Mac Gregor has used Maslow’s theory to interpret specific problems in personnel administration and industrial relations. The crux of Maslow’s theory is that human needs are arranged in hierarchy composed of five categories. The lowest level needs are physiological and the highest levels are the self actualization needs. Maslow starts with the formation that man is a wanting animal with a hierarchy of needs of which some are lower ins scale and some are in a higher scale or system of values.
As the lower needs are satisfied, higher needs emerge. Higher needs cannot be satisfied unless lower needs are fulfilled. A satisfied need is not a motivator. This resembles the standard economic theory of diminishing returns. The hierarchy of needs at work in the individual is today a routine tool of personnel trade and when these needs are active, they act as powerful conditioners of behavior- as Motivators. Hierarchy of needs; the main needs of men are five. They are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, ego needs and self actualization needs, as shown in order of their importance. Fig (2. 1) The above five basic needs are regarded as striving needs which make a person do things.
The first model indicates the ranking of different needs. The second is more helpful in indicating how the satisfaction of the higher needs is based on the satisfaction of lower needs. It also shows how the number of person who has experienced the fulfillment of the higher needs gradually tapers off. Physiological or Body Needs: – The individual move up the ladder responding first to the physiological needs for nourishment, clothing and shelter. These physical needs must be equated with pay rate, pay practices and to an extent with physical condition of the job. Safety: – The next in order of needs is safety needs, the need to be free from danger, either from other people or from environment.
The individual want to assured, once his bodily needs are satisfied, that they are secure and will continue to be satisfied for foreseeable feature. The safety needs may take the form of job security, security against disease, misfortune, old age etc as also against industrial injury. Such needs are generally met by safety laws, measure of social security, protective labor laws and collective agreements. Social needs: – Going up the scale of needs the individual feels the desire to work in a cohesive group and develop a sense of belonging and identification with a group. He feels the need to love and be loved and the need to belong and be identified with a group.
In a large organization it is not easy to build up social relations. However close relationship can be built up with at least some fellow workers. Every employee wants too feel that he is wanted or accepted and that he is not an alien facing a hostile group. Ego or Esteem Needs: – These needs are reflected in our desire for status and recognition, respect and prestige in the work group or work place such as is conferred by the recognition of ones merit by promotion, by participation in management and by fulfillment of workers urge for self expression. Some of the needs relate to ones esteem e. g. ; need for achievement, self confidence, knowledge, competence etc.
On the job, this means praise for a job but more important it means a feeling by employee that at all times he has the respect of his supervisor as a person and as a contributor to the organizational goals. Self realization or Actualization needs: – This upper level need is one which when satisfied provide insights to support future research regarding strategic guidance for organization that are both providing and using reward/recognition programs makes the employee give up the dependence on others or on the environment. He becomes growth oriented, self oriented, directed, detached and creative. This need reflects a state defined in terms of the extent to which an individual attains his personnel goal.
This is the need which totally lies within oneself and there is no demand from any external situation or person. J. S Adams Equity Theory Employee compares her/his job inputs outcome ratio with that of reference. If the employee perceives inequity, she/he will act to correct the inequity: lower productivity, reduced quality, increased absenteeism, voluntary resignation. Vrooms Expectation Theory Vroom’s theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). Reward may be either positive or negative. The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated.
Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated. Two Factor Theory Douglas McGregor introduced the theory with the help of two views; X assumptions are conservative in style Assumptions are modern in style. X Theory • Individuals inherently dislike work. • People must be coerced or controlled to do work to achieve the objectives. • People prefer to be directed Y Theory • People view work as being as natural as play and rest • People will exercise self direction and control towards achieving objectives they are committed to • People learn to accept and seek responsibility. 2. 6 Types of Motivation.
Intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is morally significant. Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades) 2. 7 Incentives An incentive is something which stimulates a person towards some goal. It activates human needs and creates the desire to work. Thus, an incentive is a means of motivation. In organizations, increase in incentive leads to better performance and vice versa. Need for Incentives Man is a wanting animal.
He continues to want something or other. He is never fully satisfied. If one need is satisfied, the other need need arises. In order to motivate the employees, the management should try to satisfy their needs. For this purpose, both financial and non financial incentives may be used by the management to motivate the workers. Financial incentives or motivators are those which are associated with money. They include wages and salaries, fringe benefits, bonus, retirement benefits etc. Non financial motivators are those which are not associated with monetary rewards. They include intangible incentives like ego-satisfaction, self-actualization and responsibility. INCENTIVES
Financial Incentives Non-financial incentives – Wages and Salaries. – Competition – Bonus – Group recognition – Medical reimbursement – Job security – Insurance – Praise – Housing facility – Knowledge of result – Retirement benefits. – Workers participation. – Suggestion system. – Opportunities for growth 2. 8 Motivation is the key to performance improvement
There is an old saying you can take a horse to the water but you cannot force it to drink; it will drink only if it’s thirsty – so with people. They will do what they want to do or otherwise motivated to do. Whether it is to excel on the workshop floor or in the ‘ivory tower’ they must be motivated or driven to it, either by themselves or through external stimulus. Are they born with the self-motivation or drive? Yes and no. If no, they can be motivated, for motivation is a skill which can and must be learnt. This is essential for any business to survive and succeed. Performance is considered to be a function of ability and motivation, thus: • Job performance =f(ability)(motivation)
Ability in turn depends on education, experience and training and its improvement is a slow and long process. On the other hand motivation can be improved quickly. There are many options and an uninitiated manager may not even know where to start. As a guideline, there are broadly seven strategies for motivation. There are broadly seven strategies for motivation. • Positive reinforcement / high expectations • Effective discipline and punishment • Treating people fairly • Satisfying employees needs • Setting work related goals • Restructuring jobs • Base rewards on job performance Essentially, there is a gap between an individual’s actual state and some desired state and the manager tries to reduce this gap.
Motivation is, in effect, a means to reduce and manipulate this gap. | | |CHAPTER-3 | |RESEARCH METHODOLOGY | SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study is intended to evaluate motivation of employees in the organization. A good motivational program procedure is essential to achieve goal of the organization.
If efficient motivational programmes of employees are made not only in this particular organization but also any other organization; the organizations can achieve the efficiency also to develop a good organizational culture. Motivation has variety of effects. These effects may be seen in the context of an individual’s physical and mental health, productivity, absenteeism and turnover. Employee delight has to be managed in more than one way. This helps in retaining and nurturing the true believers “who can deliver value to the organization. Proliferating and nurturing the number of “true believers” is the challenge for future and present HR managers. This means innovation and creativity. It also means a change in the gear for HR polices and practices.
The faster the organizations nurture their employees, the more successful they will be. The challenge before HR managers today is to delight their employees and nurture their creativity to keep them a bloom. This study helps the researcher to realize the importance of effective employee motivation. This research study examines types and levels of employee motivational programmes and also discusses management ideas that can be utilized to innovate employee motivation. It helps to provide insights to support future research regarding strategic guidance for organizations that are both providing and using reward/recognition programs Objectives of the study Primary objective 1.
To study the important factors which are needed to motivate the employees. Secondary Objective. 1. To study the effect of monetary and non-monetary benefits provided by the organization on the employee’s performance. 2. To study the effect of job promotions on employees. 3. To learn the employee’s satisfaction on the interpersonal relationship exists in the organization. To provide the practical suggestion for the improvement of organization’s performance Research methodology. Research is a systematic method of finding solutions to problems. It is essentially an investigation, a recording and an analysis of evidence for the purpose of gaining knowledge.
According to Clifford woody, “research comprises of defining and redefining problem, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, reaching conclusions, testing conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulated hypothesis” Sampling Design. A sample design is a finite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. Simple random sampling is used for this study. Universe. The universe chooses for the research study is the employees of Hyderabad Industries Ltd. Sample Size. Number of the sampling units selected from the population is called the size of the sample. Sample of 50 respondents were obtained from the population. Sampling Procedure.
The procedure adopted in the present study is probability sampling, which is also known as chance sampling. Under this sampling design, every item of the frame has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample. Methods of Data Collection. The data’s were collected through Primary and secondary sources. 1. Primary Sources. Primary data are in the form of “raw material” to which statistical methods are applied for the purpose of analysis and interpretations. The primary sources are discussion with employees, data’s collected through questionnaire. 2. Secondary Sources. Secondary data’s are in the form of finished products as they have already been treated statistically in some form or other.
The secondary data mainly consists of data and information collected from records, company websites and also discussion with the management of the organization. Secondary data was also collected from journals, magazines and books. 3. Nature of Research. Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how. Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship, where one variable affects another.
In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. 4. Questionnaire. A well defined questionnaire that is used effectively can gather information on both overall performance of the test system as well as information on specific components of the system. A defeated questionnaire was carefully prepared and specially numbered. The questions were arranged in proper order, in accordance with the relevance. 5. Nature of Questions Asked. The questionnaire consists of open ended, dichotomous, rating and ranking questions. Pre-testing A pre-testing of questionnaire was conducted with 10 questionnaires, which were distributed and all of them were collected back as completed questionnaire.
On the basis of doubts raised by the respondents the questionnaire was redialed to its present form. Sample A finite subset of population, selected from it with the objective of investigating its properties called a sample. A sample is a representative part of the population. A sample of 50 respondents in total has been randomly selected. The response to various elements under each questions were totaled for the purpose of various statistical testing. Variables of the Study. The direct variable of the study is the employee motivation Indirect variables are the incentives, interpersonal relations, career development opportunities and performance appraisal system.
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