Einstein’s Letter

military-industrial complex
Concept commonly used to refer to policy and monetary relationships between legislators, national armed forces, and the military industrial base that supports them. These relationships include political contributions, political approval for military spending, lobbying to support bureaucracies, and oversight of the industry.

Mutually Assured Destruction
A doctrine that stated if two opposing sides used Nuclear weapons, they would both be destroyed.

Manhattan Project
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II

nuclear fission
A nuclear reaction in which a massive nucleus splits into smaller nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy

Robert J. Oppenheimer
American physicist; he led the Manhattan Project laboratory in Los Alamos, which developed the first atomic bomb.

Franklin D. Roosevelt
1882-1945. 32nd President. Renounced right of U.S. to intervene in Latin America. Felt America should be “Arsenal of Peace” at onset of WWII. Was “anti-imperialist” and sought to end European colonialism. Gave “Infamy Speech” and declared war on Japan in 1941.

Leo Szilard
leading physicsist in the Manhattan Project, came up with the petition signed by 70 other scientists arguing that it would be immoral to drop an atomic bomb on Japan without fair warning.

Harry Truman
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb

Bombings of Hiroshima/Nagasaki
1945; bombing of Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki with uranium and plutonium nuclear weapons by the United States with the intention of preventing an invasion of the home islands of Japan and speed up a surrender.

Germany invades Poland
1939, Germany invaded the neutral Poland which made Britain and France declare war with the now untrusted, Hitler controlled Germany. This was the start of World War 2.

Pearl Harbor
7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 – Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.