Eighteenth-Century Britain Essay
The relationship between the Indian and British societies has given the most fundamental source of reference for scholars writing about modern India since 1947. The British ruled India through the East India Company. The Company was formed in 1600 and was mainly concered with the British trade interests. It was given rights by the then Indian ruler Emperor Jajangir. India was a major trade centre hence was of great benefit to the country whose major function was trade. The company interest later on changed from trade to expansion of its territory and power in India.
During this period India was ruled by the Munghal Empire which was then declining, ruled India at that time. As a result there was and invasion between 1750 and 1757, led by Major General Robert Clive. Through this campaign, the British succeeded colonizing Britain which then became its colony for a period of 200 years. After the colonization of India, the British had several interests in the country. India was endowed with a lot of mineral which was necessary for the British industries. India was also an important source of slaves.
When Clive returned to Britain in 1760, discovered that it was possible for Britain to create an empire from the ruins of the mogul empire, which the British brought down within a span of ten years after the death of aurangzeb in 1707. Clive decided that taking the risk was advantageous to Britain, so the company collected taxes but under the emperor in Delhi. The emperor’s seat was handed down to a choice of the British East Africa company, and in 1764 the win of Hector Munro over Indian military at Baksar gave the company full control in Bengal.
Clive returned to India in1764 to take up governorship after he had left for England due to ill health. He was governor from 1765-66. The British had been given a pass after the treaty of Paris (1763) that led to an end of the seven year war. All the other European nations such as the Portuguese, Dutch and the French had all become allies of Britain; the British had gotten a clear path to stamp in their authority in India with little worry of interference from any other European power (Black, 2008).
In the period between 1767 and 1772 the British government was uncertain about its policy regarding India; Clive knew this and requested that the British government should take over. Warren Hastings was appointed as governor of Bengal in 1772. Hastings changed the revenue collecting system and set up civil and criminal courts. He protected British territory by selling land to the nawabs of Oudh, which acted as a buffer state (barrier) between the British and the Marathas. They also helped the Oudh in winning the rohilla war.
Lord Charles Cornwallis was appointed governor general and commander in chief in 1786. He was given more control over policies in India than warren Hastings. Cornwallis set up an efficient system of civil service for the servants of the company, supervised the collection of taxes and made legal changes. Cornwallis stepped in with British forces when tipu sultan of Mysore tried to take over travancore, the company took over half of Mysore. Cornwallis left in 1793 and sir john shore took over. Richard Wellesley was appointed governor of India in 1798 (Black, 2008).
The British went back to its policy of taking more Indian land into their possession in 1813. They also caused the stoppage of the monopoly of the east India Company except for commerce in the China Sea, and put marquess of Hastings as governor general. Hastings won against the gurkhas and took over part of their territory in Nepal. When Hastings left India in 1823 Britain had taken over the other indigenous states, and the whole of India was under British rule. Oudh became a British colony in 1856, nagpur and jhansi became British colonies also.
Some the issues in Jeremy Black’s book is that it betrays many symptoms of its balanced literature. The book appears unbalanced in its emphases. The topics of life, death, society as a whole, towns, agriculture, religion, politics, trade and transport and trade have all received enough attention in the past few years as they all received individual chapters (Black, 2008). What has been failed to be explained is why the topics of women and families have only been explained in only ten pages. Some other important topics have also been neglected.
He has densely explained some topics which will not be easily understood by the beginner’s or learner’s mind.
Black Jeremy(2008). Eighteenth-Century Britain 1688-1783. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. Black Jeremy(2008). Eighteenth-Century Britain 1688-1783. Oxford: Lincoln College. Black Jeremy (2001). Eighteenth-Century Britain 1688-1783. New York: Palgrave. http://findarticles. com/p/articles/mi_qa3686/is_200304/ai_n9214130 http://encyclopedia. farlex. com/India:+history+1526-1858
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 31 December 2016
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