Effective Strategies in the Teaching of Reading
Effective Strategies in the Teaching of Reading
Introduction Reading is a multifaceted process involving word recognition, comprehension, fluency, and motivation. Learn how readers integrate these facets to make meaning from print (Diane Henry Leipzig). The text presents letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs that encode meaning. The reader uses knowledge, skills, and strategies to determine what that meaning is. It requires to identify the words in print – a process called word recognition.
To construct an understanding from them – a process called comprehension and to coordinate identifying words and making meaning so that reading is automatic and accurate – an achievement called fluency. Reading in its fullest sense involves weaving together word recognition and comprehension in a fluent manner. Reading is done for a variety of reasons. A person may read to gain information, verify existing knowledge, or for enjoyment. Reading research shows that good readers read extensively, integrate information in the text with existing knowledge, have a flexible reading style and are motivated.
They rely on different skills, such as perceptual processing and phonemic processing. Reading is a means of language acquisition, of communication, and of sharing information and ideas. Like all language, it is a complex interaction between the text and the reader which is shaped by the reader’s prior knowledge, experiences, attitude, and language community which is culturally and socially situated. The reading process requires continuous practice, development, and refinement. Readers use a variety of reading strategies to assist with decoding (to translate symbols into sounds or visual representations of speech) and comprehension.
Readers may use morpheme, semantics, syntax and context clues to identify the meaning of unknown words. Readers integrate the words they have read into their existing framework of knowledge or schema. Much of the elementary and high school students are having dilemma when it comes to their reading skills. Some students are not yet fluent in reading English as our second language that we use here in the Philippines. Some students are readers but with no comprehension, and some are good readers and with comprehension.
Teachers want to produce students, even if they do not have complete control of the grammar or an extensive lexicon, can fend for themselves in communication situations. In the case of reading, this means producing students who can use reading strategies to maximize their comprehension of text, identify relevant and non-relevant information, and tolerate less than word-by-word comprehension. Instruction in reading strategies is not an add-on, but rather an integral part of the use of reading activities in the language classroom.
Teachers can help their students become effective readers by teaching them how to use strategies before, during, and after reading. Teachers use different styles that are appropriate to their students’ level for effective teaching. Teachers have varieties of teaching strategies in developing the reading skills of the students. The purpose of this study is to find out the effective strategies in the teaching of readingas perceived by the English teachers. Basically, it is to have the knowledge on what strategies teachers commonly use in developing the reading skills of the students.
The perception of the teachers regarding the effective strategies used in teaching reading in terms of different aspects will be the focus of this study. II. Statement of the Problem This case study aims to discover the effective strategies in teaching reading as perceived by English teachers of Blessed John Paul II Academy, S. Y. 2013-2014. In particular, this study seeks to answer the following questions: 1. How do the teachers perceive the effective strategies used in teaching reading in terms of the following: 1. 1 Fluency 1.
2 Vocabulary Development 1. 3 Reading Comprehension 2. How do strategies differ in teaching reading as perceived by the teachers? 3. How do teachers prepare the learning environment in teaching reading in association to the strategies they will use? 4. To what extent do teachers follow an order in teaching reading? ? III. THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS: According to Krashen, “the acquisition of language and grammatical structures proceeds in a predictable order. ” This is how the “Natural Order Hypothesis” of Stephen Krashen came into play in our study.
Evidences can be found in the effectiveness of teaching Reading from a teacher to a learner. The teacher play a crucial role in identifying first the ability and level of the learners before engaging in diverse reading styles and techniques. Teachers of Reading should always consider the individual differences of the learners. Reading competency can be build up successfully if the strategy is best fit on his reading capacity or level. However, such existing conditions should be accompanied of greater time and flexibility of a teacher.
Obviously, we may follow more than one learning style to allow them to progress in different reading areas such as: reading fluency, vocabulary development and reading comprehension skills. The success of an effective reading teacher mirrors on the quality of pupils produced. Teachers hold accountable for the effective and efficient learners he/she has. Related Literature Title: Two Views on Teaching Reading: Balanced Approach and Code-Emphasis Presently there are two differing points of view theorists have on teaching reading.
One group of theorists (Beaver, Clay, Lyons, Pinnell, Rumelhart) stresses research evidence emphasizing meaning, language context, prediction, anticipation and graph phonics in their theories of reading processing (Clay, 1991; Lyons, 1998; Pinnell, 2000; Rumelhart, 2004; Williams, 1999). These theorists stress integration of reading and writing and encouraging risk-taking so that children continue to be active discoverers and meaning-makers with self-extending systems (Jones, 1995; Rumelhart, 2004). The other group of theorists (Good, Kame’enui, Kaminski, LaBerge, Samuels, and Simmons) stresses research evidence suggesting that: a.
) readers process almost all of the visual information on the page; b. ) fast, automatic word recognition and thorough knowledge of sound-symbol relations separate good from poor readers; and c. ) phonemic awareness plays a significant, causal role in learning to read. These code-emphasis advocates believe that beginning reading instruction should be comprised of the development of phonemic awareness, letter knowledge, sound-symbol associations, and rapid word identification (Jones, 1995). DRA—A Balanced Approach Assessment
The Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA), developed by Joetta Beaver (1988), is a measurement tool used by teachers who believe that reading involves meaning, language context, prediction, anticipation and graphphonics(Williams,1999). Since the DRA is presently the closest assessment to the actual reading process, teachers can use the information to not only monitor student progress, but to learn what their next teaching move should be. The DRA provides teachers with information regarding which strategies the student is using and which strategies need to be reviewed.
Additionally, teachers can determine if students need instruction in areas of comprehension such as retelling, adding details, sequencing events, and main ideas (Williams, 1999) Teachers receive information from the DRA on a student’s fluency and word accuracy in addition to determining a student’s instructional reading level. When analyzing a student’s oral reading, teachers can determine whether the student needs to work on particular areas such as increasing the number of known high frequency words or areas needing review in phonics (Williams, 1999). The major purpose of the DRA is to help guide instruction.
Ninety-eight percent of the teachers and raters agreed to the statement that the information gained about the reader during the DRA conference helped them better identify things that the child needed to do or learn next (Williams, 1999). The DRA is both valid and reliable according to research conducted by Williams (1999). DRA instructional reading levels demonstrated a strong correlation with the Iowa Test of Basic Skills Total Reading subscale for one large urban/suburban school district. This evidence adds strength to the belief that the DRA validly measures a child’s ability to decode and understand/comprehend what he/she has read.
The DRA is an authentic performance based assessment in which children are responding to real text through retelling (Williams, 1999). DIBELS—A Code Emphasis Approach Assessment Teachers who feel that reading should be taught through a code-emphasis approach may use the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) as a measurement tool in their classrooms. DIBELS are a set of one-minute standardized measures of skills, individually administered, which Good and Kaminski (2003) feel underlie early reading success.
They claim that these assessments will predict how well children will do in reading comprehension by the end of third grade, yet they do not include one subtest to assess comprehension. Good, Simmons and Smith (1998) feel that the DIBELS is a useful tool in ascertaining which students are having difficulty in what they believe are the components of effective early reading instruction: phonological awareness, alphabetic understanding, phonological recoding, and accuracy and fluency with connected text.
At each grade level, K-1, there are three or four short subtests to help teachers locate, monitor, and intervene with at-risk students. At grade 2 there are two subtests and at grade 3 there is one subtest. Good and Kaminski (2003) believe the definition of reading is fluency in assessment tasks. In kindergarten these fluency tasks are: initial sound fluency, letter naming fluency, phoneme segmentation fluency, and nonsense word fluency. The fluency tasks for first grade are: letter naming fluency, phoneme segmentation fluency, nonsense word fluency and oral reading fluency.
The fluency tasks for second grade are nonsense word fluency and oral reading fluency, and in third grade, the fluency task is oral reading fluency. There is a retelling fluency component that is not valid or reliable since it is not standardized at the present time. A study by Hintze, Ryan and Stoner (2002), found a moderate to strong correlation between the DIBELS and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP), providing evidence that these two instruments are measuring a similar construct, phonological awareness.
However, the results of this study suggest the DIBELS “benchmark” or cut-scores may be set too high, from a diagnostic accuracy point of view. As a result, Hintze, Ryan and Stoner (2002) suggest the use of the DIBELS as a classification tool in practice should be undertaken with caution. Using DIBELS and these cut-scores could lead to school districts: 1. ) inaccurately identifying children as “at-risk” for early reading problems and, as a result, children’s self-esteem could plummet, and 2. ) unnecessarily allocating resources, leading to costly mistakes for school districts.
Further research on benchmark or cut-scores is warranted due to these problems. Reading Recovery—A Balanced Approach for Struggling Beginning Readers Reading Recovery (RR) is a 12-20 week accelerated program designed to move struggling first grade readers in a short time from the bottom of their class to the average (Lyons, 1998; Swartz & Klein, 1996). At the end of the RR program, children develop a self-extending system that uses a variety of strategies to read increasingly difficult text and to independently write their own messages (Clay, 1991).
These outcomes are sustained over time (Lyons, 1998; Shanahan & Barr, 1995; Swartz & Klein, 1996). RR provides one-to-one tutoring, five days per week, 30 minutes a day, by a specially trained teacher. RR uses supportive conversations between teacher and child as the primary basis of instruction. For this reason, RR teachers are required to train for a year in this method as they work with students. After the year-long training, RR teachers are required to meet throughout the year with their RR Teacher Leader to refine their instructional techniques and keep abreast of new findings in the field (Swartz & Klein, 1996).
Reading Recovery lessons consist of the following components: • Reading familiar stories • Reading a story that was read for the first time the day before • Working with letters and/or words using magnetic letters • Assembling a cut-up story • Introducing and reading a new book (Swartz & Klein, 1996) As a result of RR, learners construct their own knowledge by actively pursuing meaning, relating new learning to old, and using strategies to solve problems. Print knowledge and letter-sound associations become internalized.
By learning how to learn as they explore a variety of stories under expert tutorial guidance, young children develop a self-extending system; that is, the more they read, the more they learn about the reading process (Clay, 1991; Jones, 1995). Studies throughout the world have shown RR to be effective with diverse populations, closing the gap in students’ learning along racial and economic lines (Ashdown &Simic, 2000; Center, Wheldall, Freeman, Outhred, &McNaught, 1995; Lyons, 1998; Pinnell, Lyons, Bryk& Seltzer, 1994; Quay, Steele, Johnson, &Hortman, 2001; Rodgers, Wang, & Gomez-Bellenge, 2005; Sylva & Hurry, 1996; Swartz & Klein, 1996).
Cox, Fang, & Schmitt (1998) found that RR may be especially effective in helping at-risk children accelerate to or even surpass the level of their peers in terms of gaining metacognitive control. Project Optimize/Early Reading Intervention—A Code Emphasis Approach for Struggling Beginning Readers Project Optimize was developed for kindergarten as part of a field-initiated grant from the U. S. Department of Education Office of Special Education Programs. The purpose of the grant was to study the components and intensity of instruction necessary to ensure that all children read by grade 3.
Project Optimize, a scripted program, was designed for children who need early, intensive intervention in phonological awareness, letter names, letter sounds, word reading, spelling, and simple-sentence reading. Daily 30-minute lessons include 15 minutes of phonological and alphabetical understanding and 15 minutes of handwriting letters and spelling. There are 126 lessons. In November 2002, the Project Optimize became the Scott-Foresman Early Reading Intervention Program, published by Scott-Foresman (Scott-Foresman, n. d. ). According to Coyne et.
al’s study (2001), Project Optimize students displayed faster learning rates and higher end-of-year levels for both phonological awareness and alphabetic understanding. These researchers believe that attaining proficiency in phonological awareness and alphabetic understanding in kindergarten allows the instructional focus to shift to the next higher-order skill (such as blending, word reading, and comprehension) in optimizing reading development. Title: Developing Reading Fluency Introduction In order for students to develop fluency in reading, teachers must incorporate a variety of interactive fluency activities (Oakley, 2005; Welsch, 2006).
Though fluency has been recognized as an important aspect of reading, it is very rarely an expressed goal of reading instruction (Rasinski, 1989). By monitoring student progress with informal assessments of fluency and word recognition, instructors will be able to provide students with immediate feedback and guidance to help students progress in this critical area (Cowen, 2003). Using a variety of classroom fluency strategies, teachers can develop fluency for everyone, bringing each student closer to balanced literacy. Reading Fluency Reading fluency has a plethora of definitions.
It has been defined as smooth effortless reading, precise and speedy reading, and steady and natural oral production of written texts (Oakly, 2005; Rasinski, 1989; Welsch; 2006). In actuality, reading fluency is made up of many components. Speed, accuracy, automaticity, appropriate phrasing, and even expressiveness are all characteristics of fluent reading (Oakley, 2005). In addition, researchers have stated that the above definition is incomplete without appropriate consideration for the role of comprehension (Oakley, 2005; Stahl &Heubach, 2005).
One of the five goals of fluency oriented reading instruction incorporates comprehension: “Lessons will be comprehension oriented, even when smooth and fluent oral reading is being emphasized” (Stahl &Heubach, 2005, p. 30). Consequently, it is natural for activities designed to develop fluency to result in improved comprehension, because a fast pace in reading allows the short term memory to retain words long enough to create meaning (Oakley, 2005). A stress on comprehension also improves word recognition, which is another necessary component of fluency (Stahl &Heubach, 2005).
Oakley (2005) provided a comprehensive definition of reading fluency based on the outcome of interactive reading processes: Oral and/or silent reading fluency results when a reader can successfully engage,integrate and self-monitor a repertoire of interactive reading competencies, including automaticity of word recognition, appropriate reading rate, smoothness, phrasing, expression and comprehension. Reading fluency involves the strategic use of graphophonic, syntactic/grammatical, semantic knowledge. (p. 14) The Importance of Reading Fluency
Fluency is an essential component of reading. Included in the five literacy areas is one whole section devoted to fluency (Cowen, 2003). Fluency is a foundation of proficient reading (Hiebert& Fisher, 2005). According to Hiebert& Fisher, “Once decoding becomes automatic, readers can devote their attention to comprehending text” (2005, p. 444). Additionally, the strong link between fluency and comprehension is another reason to consider teaching fluency lessons, especially fluency explicit lessons (Oakley, 2005).
Another important aspect of fluency is its role in the six stages of reading ability (Stahl &Heubach, 2005). Confirmation and fluency are both components of the third stage, in which students “learn to decode words fluently and accurately and to orchestrate the use of syntactic and semantic information in text to confirm word recognition” (Stahl &Heubach, 2005, p. 27). Without fluency, students are at risk of never reaching the subsequent stages, where students learn by reading and grow as individuals through their knowledge, and apply what they have read to the world.
Perhaps a more important reason to develop fluency in reading is the aesthetic and motivational aspects that come along with fluency improvement. According to Oakley, “fluent readers tend to enjoy reading more, have more positive attitudes toward reading and a more positive concept of themselves as readers than do less fluent readers” (2005, p. 15). In short, when fluency is attained, reading becomes a fun pastime, which leads to more time spent reading, which results in additional growth in fluency. Assessing Reading Fluency
The Oral Reading Fluency Rating Scale is a comprehensive tool for assessing reading fluency (Oakley, 2005). The scale measures three aspects of fluency, accurate decoding of words, automatic decoding of words, and prosody, or “the appropriate use of phrasing and expression to convey meaning” (Oakley, 2005, p. 19). Identifying the characteristics of non-fluent readers is also valuable, because it allows teachers to focus on the aspects of fluency that the reader is struggling with the most. When non-fluent readers are categorized, teachers can focus on choosing the strategies to help students improve (Oakley, 2005).
According to Oakley, there are at least 4 categories of non-fluent readers. The first category is called non-fluent struggling. “These readers struggle in all areas: accuracy, comprehension and rate” (Oakley, 2005, p. 17). Non-fluent struggling children need help with self-monitoring, graph phonics, semantics, syntactic and strategic areas. Oakley refers to the second category of non-fluent readers as non-fluent competent. These readers mainly need help in self-monitoring. They have achieved a decent amount of accuracy, comprehension and rate.
Another category of non-fluent readers is called non-fluent low accuracy (Oakley, 2005). These are the readers that manage to make meaning even though they lack accuracy of word recognition. These students need help with sight words and some graph phonic techniques. Many fluency strategies would probably help readers in this category. The last category of non-fluent readers is called non-fluent low comprehension. “These readers have reasonable word recognition skills but low comprehension” (Oakley, 2005, p. 17).
Incorporating comprehension strategies into fluency instruction would be very beneficial to students in this category. Developing Reading Fluency There are many activities and strategies to develop both oral and non-oral reading fluency. The first step in designing a fluency lesson is to choose a piece of literature with an appropriate level of readability (Hiebert& Fisher, 2005; Oakley, 2005; Rasinski, 1989; Stahl &Heubach, 2005; Welsch, 2006). Rhythmic, predictable, and repetitious literature has been found to aid fluency (Welsch, 2006).
Challenging texts are more appropriate for lessons on concepts and vocabulary, while the easier texts, which can be read with a high accuracy rate of 90%-95% or more, are ideal for fluency development (Oakley, 2005; Welsch, 2006). This can make choosing the literature challenging, because many easy texts might be considered boring to read. For this reason, it is beneficial to allow the students to determine their own readability level and choose the texts, to avoid using boring or frustrating texts (Oakley, 2005; Rasinski, 1989). According to Clark, “Readers must be able to monitor their own oral reading in order to
learn to read aloud with appropriate expression” (Oakley, 2005, p. 16). Once students attain self-monitoring through explicit teaching and feedback, repeated reading with a model, such as the teacher, a proficient peer, or a tape recording, can be used to develop fluency (Welsch, 2006). Allowing students to preview texts beforehand is another important fluency strategy. Silent reading and rereading, paired reading, and read aloud are all good previewing practices to incorporate before oral reading is required (Welsch, 2006). Once the literature has been previewed, there are many whole class activities that can be used to develop fluency.
Choral reading (reading aloud in unison) is one of the most popular whole class activities (Rasinski, 1989). Echo reading can also be done with the whole class (Welsch, 2006). A newer activity that combines many concepts into one lesson is oral recitation (Oakley, 2005). This lesson has two components. First the teacher introduces the text through a read aloud. The class discusses the story and creates a story map. The students use the map to each create an individual summary of the story. After the summaries are written the teacher models fluency again by rereading the passage (echo or choral reading can be used here with easier texts).
During the rereading there should be discussion on what the model is doing to show fluency. The second component of oral recitation is individual practice. Students practice the summaries that they created using a barely audible voice. After many rereads and practices, the students present their summary to the class (Oakley, 2005). Readers’ theatre has also been found to aid fluency development (Oakley, 2005; Welsch, 2006). This activity includes plenty of rereading, and a performance style is often used and modeled, which greatly aids the expression characteristic of fluency.
“Readers’ theatre provides an authentic reason to engage in repeated readings while providing a model of fluent reading” (Welsch, 2006, p. 182). Paired reading, or partner reading, is another effective activity that can take the place of round robin reading (Stahl &Heubach, 2005). Students choose a partner and find a somewhat personal place. Then they take turns reading a passage, alternating paragraphs. The texts for partner reads can be anything, from the math text book, a book that was recently read to the students by the teacher, or a book that has been reread many times.
Substituting partner reading for round robin during regular class time offers students more time to practice fluency and can even engage the students in their learning (Stahl &Heubach, 2005). Feedback is a very important part of fluency instruction and will aid growth in reading fluency (Oakley, 2005; Rasinski, 1989; Welsch, 2006). Teachers should provide “the correct words when students read words incorrectly during oral reading. This can reduce the number of errors and, in turn, increase reading fluency” (Welsch, 2006, p. 182).
Teachers don’t always have to provide the feedback. Computerized audio recordings can be used to assist children in analyzing their own and others’ performances (Oakley, 2005). Oakley provided visual waveforms to the students so they could see where they needed work on smoothness of speech. According to Oakley (2005), “…This additional feedback on their oral reading served as an extra context for discussion and thinking, and drew their attention to aspects of their reading that had not seemed worthy of comment through listening to the audio recordings” (p. 17).
Programs like Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) and Drop Everything And Read (DEAR) have debatable purposes in the classroom (Oakley, 2005). Though these programs are good for offering practice time, students first need to be somewhat fluent readers to get the full benefit from SSR and DEAR. This activity would be most beneficial to non-fluent readers if the right assistive technology is used (Oakley, 2005). Text-to-speech programs, such as CAST and eReader, are beneficial to struggling students, because these program “help them read texts in a sustained, independent manner (although not silent)” (Oakley, 2005, p.18).
For a combined use in the classroom, proficient readers can be given SSR time while non-fluent readers are given time to work with text-to-speech assistive technology. ? IV. PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA After conducting a survey among all Reading teachers of Blessed St. John Paul Academy, the researchers have gathered the following data: Teachers’ Profile *5 Female Reading Teachers *Level of pupils handled: (2) Preschool, (2) Grades 1-3, and (1) Grades 4-6 *Years of Teaching Experience: Respondent 1 : 1 Year Respondent 2 : 5 Years Respondent 3 : 8 Years.
Respondent 4 : 9 Years Respondent 5 : 10 Years A. Reading Fluency 1. Most important area in reading fluency as perceived by the teachers: 2. Strategies used in teaching fluency in reading: •Oral Drills •Speech Choir •Drama •Reading Comprehension and Applying on different skills •Reading of Stories •Practice reading with intonation in words and pauses 3. Most difficult strategies to use for teaching reading fluency: •Usage of schema •Group Reading 4. Ways to prepare learning environment for teaching reading fluency in association with the strategies used •Conduciveness.
•Advance Reading •Giving questions to answer •Unlocking of difficult words •Mastery of the lesson 5. Do you follow an order or a sequence in teaching fluency? If yes, share the order you follow; if no, why? •Respondent 1 : YES (Reading aloud with minimal error – Reading aloud with no error) •Respondent 2 : YES (Unlocking of vocabulary words – reading with the students – Explaining details – application of skills) •Respondent 3 : YES (Unlocking of vocabulary words – Silent reading – Oral Reading – Reading comprehension – Application) •Respondent 4 : YES (Comprehension – Drills).
•Respondent 5 : No (it depends in the lesson B. Vocabulary Development 1. Strategies teachers use in teaching vocabulary development lessons •Context Clues •Looking for Synonyms and Antonyms •Picture Clues •Say-Spell-Say •Identifying the meaning by using it in a sentence 2. Most difficult strategy to use for teaching vocabulary development •Context Clues •Unlocking unfamiliar words with difficult pronunciation 3. Ways in preparing the learning environment for teaching vocabulary development lesson in association with strategies used •Highlight words that are new to the students.
•Preparing pictures 4. Do you follow an order or a sequence in teaching a vocabulary lesson? If yes, share the order you follow; if no, why? •Respondent 1: YES (Explain meaning – Using of words in sentence – Comprehension check) •Respondent 2 : YES (Say-Spell-Say – identify the parts of speech – use it in a sentence) •Respondent 3 : YES (Spelling drill – Sentence Construction) •Respondent 4 : YES (Vocabulary – Comprehension) •Respondent 5 : NO (It depends on the lesson) C. Reading Comprehension 1. Strategies teachers use in reading comprehension lessons: •Noting details
•Character Map •Point of View •Unlocking of difficult words •Checking of Authors background •Stories •Question and Answer •Context Clues •Pictures 2. Most difficult strategy to use: •Characterization / Point of View •Context Clues 3. Ways of preparing the learning environment for teaching reading comprehension lesson in association with strategies used •Looking for meaning of words •Reading in advance •ICT usage •Use catchy visual aids •Very well ventilated room 4. Do you follow an order or a sequence in teaching a reading comprehension lesson?
If yes, share the order you follow; if no, why? •Respondent 1 : YES (Read aloud – highlight foreign words – note details) •Respondent 2 : YES (Vocabulary words – noting details – comprehension check – Application) •Respondent 3 : YES (unlocking of Difficult words – Silent Reading – Oral Reading – Retelling Story – Moral Lesson) •Respondent 4 : YES ( Unlocking of difficult words – Sentence construction – Reading Story – Noting details) •Respondent 5 : No (It depends on the lesson) V. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS V. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS The findings of this case study are the following:
•Accuracy is the most important area to consider when teaching reading fluency among pre-school and primary levels. •There is variety of activities that teachers find effective in teaching reading fluency such as: oral drills, speech choir, and drama. •Usage of schema and group reading are the most difficult strategies in teaching reading fluency. •Advance reading is essential in teaching reading fluency. •Teachers vary in the strategies they use in teaching reading fluency. •Say-Spell-Say, picture clues, and context clues are among the strategies used in teaching vocabulary building.
•Usage of context clues as a strategy is the most difficult to use though it is effective. •Teachers allow students to highlight new words along the process of reading and pre-reading. •Teachers follow an order in teaching vocabulary building but their order differs with each other. •Noting details, character map,point of view,unlocking of difficult words,checking of author’s background,question and answer, context clues, and picture usage are the strategies teachers use in teaching reading comprehension among elementary students.
•Context clue and point of view are the strategies teachers found difficult to use. •Reading in advance, ICT usage, usage of catchy visual aids is the means of how teachers prepare the learning environment for the students. •Teachers have an order they follow in teaching reading comprehension, however, they differ on the step-by-step process they use. VI. INSIGHTS To the concerned educators, it is expected that this study will provide baseline strategies in setting up effective techniques in the teaching of reading on the areas of fluency, vocabulary development and reading comprehension.
The effectiveness and efficiency of the teachers will certainly be improved if the learning styles and strategies will be flexible and would best fit to the level and variety of learners the teachers engage in. The students will likewise benefit from this study. Effective teaching – learning will produce well- learned and well-developed individuals. Finally, well -learned and well-developed individuals will contribute to a more productive and quality educational syst.
Subject: Educational psychology,
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 17 October 2016
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