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Pesticides are substances used for destroying insects or other organisms harmful to plants or animals. Usually this benefits those who purchase them to get rid of unwanted pests or animals.There are multiple types of pesticides such as herbicides,insecticides and rodenticides. People usually believe that pesticides are made solely for their purpose and don’t affect other beneficial organisms.However, pesticides can be a killer to not only pests but beneficial organisms and humans.The purpose of this science fair experiment is to was to view the effects pesticides,in this experiment herbicides,have on beneficial organisms.
To get a better understanding of the science fair experiment research was done on pesticides.The collected research allowed the reader to hypothesize that pesticides harm organisms that are not meant to be affected by exposing them to toxic cancerous chemicals.In the experiment the independent variable pesticide will be measured by use of a dropper.The dependent variable is the well being of the beneficial organisms and the state of the plant after exposed to the herbicide.
The controlled variables are the amount of pesticide used and, how much water is used to grow the plant. This research led to the basic conclusion that pesticides have are helpful to the user of the pesticide they, also have deadly long term and short term effects on beneficial organisms .
The first source reviewed was a article written by Md.Wasim Aktar, Dwalpayan SENGUPTA and Ashim CHOWDHURY titled “Impact of pesticides in agriculture:their benefits and hazards”.
In this article Md.Wasim Aktar, Dwalpayan SENGUPTA and Ashim CHOWDHURY go over the use of pesticides use in agriculture,the dosage misuse,the benefits of pesticide use,improving productivity,protection of crop losses,yield reduction,vector disease control,quality of food,hazards of pesticides,impact through food commodities,impact on the environment,surface water contamination,groundwater contamination,effect of soil fertility,contamination of cur soil and non target vegetation along with non target organisms.
This article explained pesticides the pros to pesticide use. In the text it states “The secondary effects (of pesticides)are less immediate or less obvious benefits that result from primary benefits.They may be subtle, less intuitively obvious or longer term.For example the higher cabbage yield might bring additional revenue that could be put towards children’s education o medical care,leading to a healthier,better education population.There are various secondary benefits identified,ranging from fitter people to conserving biodiversity”(Aktar 1).Meaning that pesticides eliminating pests that harm the crops allow various types of benefits economically which can eventually help people physically and educationally.Pesticides can also be used to control vector borne diseases such as Malaria in Africa.Where this disease causes moderate to severe shaking chills,high fever,sweating,headaches,vomiting,diarrhea,cerebral malaria,breathing issues,organ failure,anemia,low blood sugar leading up to death in majority of cases. This is proven in the text when the article explains how “Vector borne diseases are most effectively tackled by killing vectors.Insecticides are the only practical way to control the insects that spread deadly diseases such as malaria resulting in 5000 deaths each day”(SENGUPTA 2). In addition to this the article also further gives readers the concept of how pesticides are significant to combating vector borne diseases by mentioning how “Almertion of vector borne diseases,then their debits have resulted in serious health implications to man and his environment”(SENGUPTA 2).The research will help the reader be able to understand the purpose of pesticides and understand the concept of the herbicides side effects on the beneficial organism.
However,pesticides used to get rid of pests have been not only affecting pests but the purchasers as well.This statement is true according to Dr Walter J Rogan MD and Aimin Chen MD the authors of the article “Health risks and benefits of bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT)”. DDT (bis[4-chlorophenyl]-1,1,1-trichloroethane) is a insecticide used to get rid of insects that harms crops by eating it.In the article Dr Walter J Rogan MD and Aimin Chen discuss DDT exposure and concentration in human tissues, toxic effects of DDT,Neurobehaviour, cancer,reproductive health,infant and child development,immunology and DNA damage,efficacy and effectiveness of DDT for malaria control,benefits of DDT spraying in sub-Saharan Africa,and risks of DDT spraying in sub-Saharan Africa.In the text is mentions how “Although DDT is generally not toxic to human beings and was banned mainly for ecological reasons, subsequent research has shown that exposure to DDT at amounts that would be needed in malaria control might cause preterm birth and early weaning, abrogating the benefit of reducing infant mortality from malaria”(Rogan and Chen 1).
Malaria causes premature delivery,maternal anemia, intrauterine growth retardation, and delivery of low birth-weight infants and fetal loss. The text explain how pesticides created to combat vector borne diseases are countering the purpose of stopping the effects malaria has on women who are with child.The article goes over how although pesticide DDT has useful factors,scientists need to pay attention to the adverse effects.For example the author state “DDT might be useful in controlling malaria, but the evidence of its adverse effects on human health needs appropriate research on whether it achieves a favourable balance of risk versus benefit”(Rogan and Chen 1).Meaning that the effects of pesticides are often long term and the effects follow subsequently after each other.Penultimately the authors add in the fact that “The world wide death and chronic diseases due to pesticides poisoning number about one million per year(environment forum 1999)”(Rogan and Chen 1).Supporting the prediction that pesticides do not only affect it’s targeted organisms.This article helps the reader get a further outlook on how pesticides affects those who are contacted by them.Including how pesticides can kill and cause health issues for those who are poisoned from them as well.
The penultimate source is the article “Suicide by intentional ingestion of pesticides: a continuing tragedy in developing countries”written by David Gunnell and Michael Eddleston.In the article Gunnela and Eddleston overview patterns of suicide on countries where pesticide suicide is commonplace,method activity,economics of pesticide poisoning how can the death toll from pesticide poisoning be reduced and why has there been a failure in the act.In the text it states how “In rural China, for example, pesticides account for over 60% of suicides.Similarly high proportions of suicides are due to pesticides in rural areas of Sri Lanka (71%), Trinidad (68%), and Malaysia (>90%).”(Gunnel and Eddleston 1).The authors emphasize how threatening consuming pesticide is and how it is so deadly it’s consumption can be used a method of suicide.The article explains how in countries where agricultural jobs such as farming pesticide suicide is a common method.In the text it says “In industrialized countries, the drugs that people commonly take in overdose—analgesics, tranquillisers, antidepressants—are relatively non-toxic. The estimated case fatality for overdose in England, for example, is around 0.5%. Most individuals who self-harm do not intend to die. Studies carried out in industrialized countries have found that only 2% go on to commit suicide in the subsequent 12 months.5
In developing countries the situation is quite different. The substances most commonly used for self-poisoning are agricultural pesticides. Overall case fatality ranges from 10% to 20%”(Gunnel and Eddleston 1).This information explains how in developing countries pesticides can be just as dangerous as the drugs that people overdose on in industrialized countries.The article also goes over how “In China, whilst suicide rates do tend to increase with age, there is a notable peak in rates amongst males and females aged 20–24 ; recent data show that this peak is more prominent in rural localities. In rural India rates of suicide in 15–24 year old females are higher than rates in males of the same age and most other female age groups. Similar patterns are seen in Sri Lanka. In both China and Sri Lanka pesticides are the most frequently used method of suicide, likewise in India self-poisoning is the commonest method”(Gunnel and Eddleston 1).Further emphasizing the fact that pesticide is misused as a death potion in prominent rural countries.This information acts as an advisory to the user of pesticides not to consume it.The article opens reader’s eyes to how common the intentional misuse of pesticides in developing countries is.
In order to get a better understanding and insight into the experiment research was done a similar experiment called the “Results of the seventh joint pesticide testing programme of ‘Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms”carried out by the IOBC(International Organization for Biological Control) /WPRS(West Palaearctic Regional Section-Working Group).This article is about the conduction of a experiment on the 10 insecticides,5 fungicides and 5 herbicides on 24 different species of beneficial organisms.In this article similar procedures and results were found in finding the effects of herbicides on beneficial organisms.For example in the text the scientists observed that “The microbial insecticides …. and the herbicides …were harmless to nearly all the beneficial arthropods”( IOBC/WPRS 1).Including the discovery that “The benzoylurea teflubenzuron (Nomolt) and flufenoxuron (Cascade) affected predators such as anthocoridae, earwigs, coccinellids and lacewings”(IOBC/WPRS 1).As well as the realization that “ The remaining preparations were more toxic and should therefore be further tested in semi-field and field experiments on relevant organisms. Most tested fungicides were toxic for the entomopathogenic fungi”(IOBC/WPRS 1).This information gave predictions on how the possible results of the experiments.Based on the experiment conducted by the IOBC/WPRS herbicides,insecticides are harmless and fungicides are very harmful to beneficial organisms such as arthropods.
In conclusion,this research gave clarity on the misuse,effects,hazards and significance pesticides have.This research further confirms original predictions on the outcome of the experiment on the plant and beneficial organism.As expected the research confirmed that pesticides can harm other organisms ecologically .One significant fact found during researching was how common pesticide suicide is in developing countries.Thousands of people kill themselves by consuming pesticide each year.Knowing this information will affect the science fair project because the reader knows that the herbicide will have to affect the beneficial organism or plant in some way.Researching and reviewing these four sources help the exhibitor get a better understanding of pesticide misuse and their harmful effects on beneficial organisms including humans .This knowledge will help the exhibitor to complete a more successful science fair project.
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