Educational stages Essay
Education is the process of learning and knowing, which is unending. It is so significant in the lives of every people living in this world and it would not be an exaggeration to say that the existence of human being is fruitless without this. Education helps us to gain knowledge, think scholarly and apply knowledge into logical action for us to cope up with the problems, issues and challenges that our country is encountering in this present time, hence it is a holistic process and it continues through our life. The Philippines is facing various problems including high unemployment and low economic rate and at the same time the Educational System in the Philippines. Thus, the government is trying their best to improve the quality of education because they believe it is one of the solutions to solve this problem that is why Department of Education tries new strategies to improve the quality of education delivered to the students. The Department of Education had done so many surveys and reports so that they will be able to deal with the needs of the people and society. In 1925, the Monroe Survey was passed to Department of Education stated that the secondary education cannot prepare students for life that is why they suggested students to have training in agriculture, commerce and industry. In 1930, the Prosser Survey was passed to recommend improving vocational education such as 7thgrade shop work, provincial schools, and practical arts training in the regular high schools, home economics, placement work, gardening, and agricultural education. In 1970, the Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education (PCSPE) suggested the implementation of 11-year program to improve the state of education in our country.
They recommended the program to have a compulsory 6 years for elementary education and 5 years for secondary education or for high school. In 1991, the Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) Report (1991) was passedsuggested if one year would be added to our education program, it would either be 7 years for elementary and 4 years for secondary education or 6 years for elementary and 5 years for secondary education. This report supported the survey of Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education (PCSPE). In 2000, the Presidential Commission on Educational Reforms suggested the establishment of one year pre-baccalaureate system. In 2008, Presidential Task Force on Education discussed our education program should add two more years that other countries are implementing it and because of this discussion the K-12 Education Program was formed. In 2012, the government is now implementing this program offered to Grade 1 and Junior High School Students. K to 12 means Kindergarten and the 12 years of elementary and secondary education. This model involves Kindergarten, six years of elementary education, four years of junior high school (Grades 7 to 10) and two years of senior high school (Grades 11 to 12). The two years of senior high school intend to provide time for students to consolidate acquired academic skills and competencies (DepEd, 2010). The study was designed for readers to cope up with the current issue and to have a clearer understanding on the implemented K-12 Education Program. This study is important for readers to have a knowledge why the DepEd implemented this program and to compare it with the previous program consisting of 10 years. Fortunately the researchers have come up with this study because this is the latest issue and many editors and writers argue about the effectiveness of K-12 on the newspapers and magazines. This study intends to know the Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude of the parents of Pedro E. Diaz towards the K+12 program Implemented by the Department of Education recently. Background of the Study
Nowadays Philippines is considered as one of the countries that has already low standard of education. Lack of budget and resources are the primary reasons on why the education system in our country was considered poor. Among other reason why a group of public school teachers remains critical of K+12. Due to this phenomena DepEd pursued a program that is believed to put the Philippines’ education system to higher grounds – the K+12. The K+12 Program covers kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of junior high school, and two years of senior
high school [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship. (Retrieved from discussion paper on the enhanced k+12 basic education program.pdf) The K+12 curriculum aims to enable every child “to achieve mastery of core competencies and skills” and develop tracks based on the student’s interests and competencies. The focus of K+12 is twofold: curriculum enhancement and transition management. With the K-6-4-2 model, the 2 years for senior high school is aimed to giving the student time to strengthen competencies and academic skills. The curriculum will also provide specializations in the following: science and technology, music and arts, agriculture and fisheries, sports, business and entrepreneurship, etc, depending on the occupation or career that they intend to pursue. These two years will build on skills that are essential to their chosen field. DepEd is preparing a carefully sequenced implementation plan to ensure smooth transition with the least disruption in the current program. (Retrieved from discussion paper on the enhanced k+12 basic education program.pdf) Every graduate of the enhanced K+12 basic education program is an empowered individual who has learned, through a program that is rooted on sound educational principles and geared towards excellence, the foundations for learning throughout life, the competence to engage in work and be productive, the ability to coexist in fruitful harmony with local and global communities, the capability to engage in autonomous critical thinking, and the capacity to transform others and one’s self. (Retrieved from discussion paper on the enhanced k+12 basic education program.pdf)
The adoption of the program is in response to the need to improve the competitiveness of our country’s graduates as the ten-year basic education cycle is seen as inadequate for work and higher education. In fact, overseas Filipino workers are not automatically recognized as professionals in other countries that view the ten-year education program as insufficient. The Philippines is the only country in Asia and is one of only three countries in the world with a ten-year basic education cycle. (Retrieved from Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.htm) The K+12 education system is the public education system that most of us are familiar with today. Comprised of thirteen grades, kindergarten through 12th, the K+12 education system refers
to all school system in the Philippines. It is difficult to pinpoint the exact history of education, as education has been occurring in some from for centuries in all parts of the world. For the purposes of this article, we will explore the history of K+12 education system we know today as it applies primarily to the Philippines. Also, we would like to know the sides of the parents who are financing their children’s education. And in accordance to this the researchers expect that by the end of the study they could produce an instrument for the awareness of people in this K+12 project. Thus, this study gives importance on education, specifically on the part of mostly parents regarding on their awareness, knowledge and attitude on the k+12 program of the Department of Education. Theoretical Framework
This study entitled “A Study on the Level of Awareness, Knowledge and the Attitude of the Parents of Pedro E. Diaz High School on the K+12 Program of the Department of Education” will be using Input Process Output. Input Process and Output Model is defined as the graphical representation of all the factors that make up a process. An input-process-output diagram includes all of the materials and information required for the process, details of the process itself, and descriptions of all products and by-products resulting from the process. Elements of Input Process and Output Model
* Input- The information, ideas, and resources used.
* Process- Actions taken upon/using input
* Output- Results of the processing.
Input Process Output Model
This study entitled “A Study on the Level of Awareness, Knowledge and the Attitudes of the parents of Pedro E. Diaz High School on the k+12 Program of the Department of Education” will aims to quantify the Awareness, knowledge and attitudes of the respondents. Moreover, in order to have a deeper indulgent in this study the researchers logically applied the study on the Model – Input Process and Output Model. To meet the researchers objectives cited here, a step-by-step procedure would be first considered: First is the Input Element. The Input of this study are the following: Demographic Profile of the respondents, Respondent’s Socio-Economic Profile, Level of Respondent’s Awareness, Respondent’s Knowledge, Attitude(s) of the respondent and the relationship of the respondent’s Educational Background, Family Background and Socio-Economic Profile to their Identified Attitude(s) regarding on the k+12 Program of DepEd. These Inputs would be process, in the process. Second is the Process Element. This element or the process element processes the said input(s) of this study. In the process the researchers will conduct survey and analyze the collected data in order to come up a reliable and productive result. The last one is the Output Element. The output of the study would come from the processed data. The outcome of the processed data would be the Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude of the respondents. Application of IPO – Input Output Process Mode
Statement of the Problem
The researchers designed this paper to know the Awareness, Knowledge and Attitudes of the Parents of Pedro E. Diaz High School regarding on the K+12 Program of the Department of Education. The main problem of this study will focus on in the question: What are the level of awareness, Knowledge and the Attitude of the parents of Pedro E. Diaz High School on k+12 Program of the Department of Education?
Objectives of the Study
General Objective: To know the level of awareness, Knowledge and the attitude of the parents of Pedro E. Diaz High School on the k+12 program of DedEd. Specific Objectives:
1. To lay down the Demographic Profile of the respondents, in terms of their: a) Respondent’s Profile
a4) Civil Status
b) Respondent’s Educational Background
b1) Elementary Graduate
b2) High School Graduate
b3) College Undergraduate
b4) College Graduate
2. To know the respondent’s Socio-Economic Profile; in terms of their: a) Monthly income of parent(s)
b) Respondent’s State of work or source(s) of Income:
b1) Employmentb2) Business Owner
3. To determine the Level of Respondent’s Awareness regarding on the K+12 Program of the Department of Education. 4. To know the Respondent’s Knowledge on the K+12 Program of DepEd. 5. To identify the Attitude(s) of the respondent toward K+12 Program of DepEd.
1. The researchers hypothesized that most of the respondents are married and ages 45-55 years and most of them are college undergraduates. 2. The researchers hypothesized that most of the respondents are unemployed since on the first hypothesis of the researchers is that most the respondents are college undergraduates so that they weren’t able to have a work whether Private or Government. 3. The researchers also hypothesized that most of the respondents of this study are living on apartment type or boarding house as their nature of occupancy since it is really hard to have or to own house and lot especially in commercial or in urban places. 4. The researchers hypothesized that most of the respondents have monthly income which ranges from P5000-10000 because most of them are college undergraduates. Even though they’re belonged on the lower part of the social strata their children are still studying. It is because that Filipinos believed on education that is the only key to success. 5. The researchers hypothesized that most of the respondents are aware on the K+12 program of the Department of Education due to the easy access on the information from TV, Radio, Internet or Newspapers. 6. The researchers hypothesized that a big number of respondents are insufficient on the knowledge about the k+12 Program of the Department of Education though there is an easy access to information that information is inadequate to give knowledge on the part of
the respondents, the researchers believed that face-to-face communication is better than mediated means. 7. The researchers hypothesized that a great number of respondents are unfavoured on the k+12 program of DepEd because the researchers believed that the respondent’s capability such on financial state on the sudden implementation of this program is not enough.
Significance of the Study
K to 12 Curriculum is an innovative education system. This area of education has a dominance over the usual educational systems as it puts more weight on thinking and reaching own self-explanatory conclusions. To the Readers
This study is primarily for the concern of the readers especially the parents who will shoulder most of the saddles of this new education program. But parents should be motivated of what this K to 12 education plan could offer to their children’s future. This is important because parents play a major role in providing for their child’s allowances, supplies and other fees in school. Add to that, the support and effort of teaching and guiding their children. Since K to 12 offers a more balanced approach to learning that will enable children to acquire and master lifelong learning skills, therefore, K to 12 graduates will have higher earning potential since they will be more competent and skilled compared to graduates of the current 10-year system. Aside from the parents, it will be the students who will benefit a lot from this new education system. Students will be free to pursue their passion. They will be given enough attention and will be given the chance to choose electives that will suit their needs. Students will be more equipped, enriched and ready enough to face reality – the career world. To the Researchers
As researchers, we get to be aware of the advantages of this program on how it can help and improve the quality of life of the country as a whole. Through having this research, it can change your wrong intuition about K to 12. And this will serve as a future reference. To the Educators
Educators will also take a big part on this program. They will be playing bigger roles towards the students. Primary need of teacher education
programs is to design and implement powerful uses of technology that will provide the students with more effective and challenging experiences. Educators would undergo different seminars and programs in relation with the K to 12 education system. It will help teachers to be more equipped in teaching and it will be a professional development tool that boosts their confidence to integrate the latest technology in the classroom. To the Filipinos
Once this new program succeeds, it is best hoped that Filipino students would be more literate, capable, and competitive to be able to find jobs more easily and contribute to the country’s pride as well as the country’s economy. The Philippine education system will be at par with international standards. K+12 will facilitate mutual recognition of Filipino graduates and professionals in other countries. Lastly, a better educated society provides a sound foundation for long-term socio-economic development. The Enhanced K+12 Basic Education system will contribute to the development of emotionally and intellectually mature individuals capable of pursuing productive employment or entrepreneurship or higher education disciplines. To the Department of Education
This would be a great assist on the institution with the data and results that would be gathered and prepared by the researchers, the Department of Education would have an information based material that will be useful in developing the said program.
Scope and Limitations
The researchers limit the study on the level of awareness, knowledge and the attitude(s) of the Parents of Pedro E. Diaz High School about K+12 education program. This study looked into the discernment of parents regarding the issue of K+12, as well scrutinizes the benefits they assumed to be develop from this issue. The researchers limited its study into 50 respondents via random sampling technique. Only parents from Grade 7 students of Pedro E. Diaz High School were involved. The study will be conducted from the month of July to the month of October year 2012-2013.
Definition of Terms
*Attitude- it is a manner, disposition, feeling, position, etc., with regard to a person or thing; tendency or orientation, especially of the mind: a negative attitude; group attitudes. Position or posture of the body appropriate to or expressive of an action, emotion, etc.: a threatening attitude; a relaxed attitude. (Retrieved from www.attitude.org.nz/) Awareness -is the state or ability to perceive, to feel, or to be conscious of events, objects, or sensory patterns. In this level of consciousness, sense data can be confirmed by an observer without necessarily implying understanding. More broadly, it is the state or quality of being aware of something. In biological psychology, awareness is defined as a human’s or an animal’s perception and cognitive reaction to a condition or event. (Retrieve from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Awareness) * Curriculum-In formal education, a curriculum is the set of courses, and their content, offered at a school or university.
As an idea, curriculum came from the Latin word for race course, referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow to become mature adults. A curriculum may also refer to a defined and prescribed course of studies, which students must fulfil in order to pass a certain level of education. (Retrieved from www.ibe.unesco.org) * Dominance-superior development of one side of the body, the power or right to give orders or make decisions. (Retrieved from dictionary.reference.com) * K+12-are a designation for the sum of primary and secondary education. It is used in the United States, Canada, Philippines and Australia. P–12 is also occasionally used in Australia. The expression is a shortening of Kindergarten (K) for 4–6-year-olds through twelfth grade (12) for 16–19-year-olds, the first and last grades of free education in these countries. (Retrieved from wikipedia.org) Knowledge- it is Human faculty resulting from interpreted information; understanding that germinates from combination of data, information, experience, and individual interpretation. A information that changes something or somebody—either by becoming grounds for actions, or by making an individual (or an institution) capable of different or more effective action. ( Retrieved from www.businessdictionary.com/definition/knowledge.html#ixzz21sSOrnbY) * Motivation- is a process that elicits, controls, and sustains certain behaviours. Motivation is a group phenomenon that affects the nature of an
individual’s behaviour, the strength of the behaviour, and the persistence of the behaviour. (Retrieved from dictionary.reference.com)
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter includes some related literature and studies of foreign and local researchers which are presented in the following paragraphs.
Regarding knowledge, Palmer (1998) emphasized that people should acquire appropriate range of knowledge, understanding, and concepts about the environment so that critical judgment can be achieved. Further, experiences and reflection in the environment should be allowed to refine “environmentally focused skills, further relevant knowledge, and development of appropriate attitudes and environmental awareness” (p.146). Orr (1992) reflected upon the concept of forming attitudes in order to build on ecological literacy. This ecological literacy should not be interpreted as the knowledge of facts and concepts only, but “the knowledge necessary to comprehend interrelatedness, and an attitude of care or stewardship” (p.92). Therefore “knowledge, the attitude of caring, and a practical competence are the basis of an ecological literacy” (Orr, 1990, p.51). Madsen (1996) emphasized the concept that awareness is the ultimate driving force that stimulates knowledge. The acknowledgement that an environmental problem exists entails being more cognizant of the facts about the state of the environment. “This degree of environmental awareness involves a personal commitment to work to solv/e environmental problems” (p.72). He emphasized the power behind the awareness factor by categorizing three levels of awareness as: basic belief of an environmental problem, factual and scientific knowledge, and a commitment to solve environmental problems. Athman and Monroe (2000) stated that awareness and knowledge of environmental processes and systems play an important role in EE. However, these are not the only factors affecting the behavior outcome. Behavior is what people do, whether it is environmentally appropriate or inappropriate (Hernandez & Monroe, 2000).Behavior in general is supported by knowledgeand attitude but there is not a direct cause-and-effect progression from knowledge to attitude to behaviour (Monroe, Day, & Grieser, 2000).
Awareness was studied along with environmental knowledge and concern by Hausbeck, Milbrath and Enright (1992).In this study the authors concluded that awareness and concern scores were significantly higher than knowledge levels.They linked this result with the fact that a primary source of environmental information is electronic media (NEETF, 1998, p.14), where as awareness and concern can be picked up with little substantive knowledge (p.31). Some predictors of environmentalism using the NEP 2000 instrument were: age, education, and political ideology (Dunlap, Van Liere, Mertig, & Jones, 2000). Rovira (2000) concluded in an evaluation of parents, that environmental consciousness might be influenced by social factors such as social position, age, and level of education. The awareness, knowledge, and attitude of the parents can de influenced with the socio-economic and educational factors. Morrone, Mancl, & Carr (2001) included socioeconomic status (SES) as one of four factors in a study related to ecological knowledge. Respondents from low SES did not perceive environmental threats as seriously as did other respondents. Low SES respondents also rated themselves as more informed about the environment than did students and minorities. “Parents play a vital role in the development and education of their children. Parents and families have the primary responsibility for the development of their children’s character, with the support of their school and community. In addition, research clearly indicates that good schools become better schools when there is a strong connection with parents as part of the learning community. Thus, parents play an important role within the school community, but also through the attitudes they help to shape, and the direct supports they provide to their children.” The researchers want to conclude that the knowledge, awareness and attitude of parents can have an impact on the acceptance of K+12 Education system that our government has now implemented. Local Literature
The researchers would want to focus now about K+12. It has long been a popular notion that any attempt to lengthen the required number of years in basic education will be faced with a howl of protests, particularly from
parents who will bear the brunt of additional expenses and students who will have to spend more years in school. I’m really searching to actively engage them towards a consensus because it would be pointless to come up with the program that is good objectively but is not acceptable to people. “So I always feel it’s important that we engage people. I think it’s a matter of explaining to them, but also engaging them because I’ve gotten some very good inputs and suggestions from people. So I think our task is to respond to their concerns and anxieties. K+12 program pg 9 K+12 aren’t meant to be the pill that cures the illness that pervades Philippine education. The most obvious component is the additional two years that will be added to the basic education cycle (that and the inclusion of universal kindergarten). For President Aquino, k+12 will give public schoolchildren “an even chance at succeeding.” In the long run, it is the education initiative that supposed to open doors for economic advancement to young Filipinos. This envisioned becoming one of the Aquino administration’s most significant accomplishments towards producing a highly-skilled and educated citizenry and building a more robust economy. If substantial improvements in the quality of public basic education can be introduced through k+12 the department argues, our country’s gross Domestic product can increase by 2 percent. It has also been pointed out that k+12 can help spur the entrepreneurial climate in the country. Ultimately, therefore, K+12 hopes to go beyond lengthening the basic education cycle. It hopes to empower our students, allowing them to complete more effectively for jobs abroad, have their academic credentials recognized automatically in other countries without the benefit of tertiary education. Among the 115 Unesco member-states, the Philippines os said to be one of only three countries (the other two being Djibouti and Angola) that maintains a 10-year pre-university education system. Proponents argue that shifting to a 12-year basic education cycle will give more time for teachers to teach a subject and for students to absorb what is being taught in school. The introduction of k+12 is thus envisioned to help solve some of the most pressing problems facing Basic education: low achievement test scores, a congested curriculum, and the inadequate preparation of high school students for work and college.
Deped has pointed out that our 10-year basic education system produces graduates below the age of 18, which means they are too young to eitherenter the labor force or start a business on their own. K=+12 program pg.11 By 2020, the Philippines will join the APEC Trade Regime. Before these two events happen, we have to prepare our graduates to be globally competitive. There are no other alternatives but to align our degree programs with those of other countries.” This is the main reason that the members of the Presidential Task Force for Education (PTFE), particularly CHED, are rushing the addition of at least one more and even two more years to our education cycle. All other countries in the world have 15 or 16 years of education from Grade 1 to undergraduate graduation. The Philippines has the shortest education cycle in the world (only 10 years of public basic education and usually only 4 years of undergraduate education, for a total of 14). European countries have 12 years of basic education and 3 years of undergraduate education. The United States and Asia-Pacific countries have 12 years of basic education and 4 years of undergraduate education. (Myanmar is an exception because it has only 11 years of basic education before 4 years of undergraduate education. India is also an exception, because it has only 3 years of undergraduate education after 12 years of basic education.) Mutual recognition of qualifications and degrees will be undertaken by ASEAN countries and the rest of the Asia-Pacific region. Thus, HEIs [Higher Education Institutions] must prepare for it now. The qualifications of our graduates must be improved to meet our development goals. Isagani R. Cruz pg.103 A good example of how equivalencies work is the Washington Accord (1989), an international agreement that specifies that a professional engineer must have gone to school for at least 16 years if she or he wants to practise in another country. With only 10 years of public basic education and even with 5 years of engineering, we are still one year short. Another often-cited international agreement is the Bologna Accord (1999), which specifies that professional accountants, pharmacists, physical therapists, and so on should have at least 3 years of undergraduate education in addition to 12 years of basic education.
Again, our 14-year education cycle is one year short. In fact, since most Filipinos want to live and work abroad anyway, there is no reason to think that ensuring employment abroad through equivalent local education will be met with resistance. The answer is simple: students and parents cannot afford the extra year of food, clothing, shelter, and lost income. Isagani R. Cruz pg.104-105 Fortunately,we have a Philippine best practice to guide us in this matter of length versus content. When De La Salle University shifted from a semestral to a trimestral system in 1981, teachers had to rethink their syllabi. It was not just a matter of teaching 18 weeks’ worth of material in 14 weeks. That would have been not just impossible, but pedagogically unsound. The expected learning competencies per subject, and therefore the entire curriculum, had to be revised. It is, therefore, not just a matter of saying that there should be a Grade 7 or a Fifth or Sixth Year High School or a Pre-University Year in college. Just as important as the decision on when to add the missing year or years is the decision on how to change the entire curriculum to make it rational and effective. Isagani R. Cruz pg.108-109 It is also clear that we cannot add the missing year to elementary school, because we would have to wait 7 years for a Grade 1 student to finish Grade 7, 4 more years to finish high school, and 4 more years to finish college. Isagani R. Cruz pg.111 CHED wants to solve a problem (the lack of years) of basic education through higher education. That, of course, seems inappropriate, because CHED is not supposed to worry about basic education. The second thing is to understand that the extra year should focus on subjects that will prepare the student for college work (“college” as defined by Harvard and Oxford). Isagani R. Cruz pg.112-113 The Presidential Task Force for Education (PTFE) has hit upon the correct solution to this mismatch. It recommends that we should not expect everybody to go to college. The PTFE recommends that high school graduates be streamed into either college or technical-vocational (tech-voc) programs. For tech-voc, our current ten-year basic education cycle is enough. With some improvements to be brought about by moving some college General Education Curriculum (GEC) subjects down to high school, the public school system should be able to prepare students to go into a tech-voc program that may take anywhere from one to three years. Everybody goes through six years of elementary school and four years of high school (plus preschool and kindergarten, where feasible). This is the DepEd cycle as we now have it. After high school, everybody takes an exam.
Those that pass the exam may go to the university stream. Those that do not pass the exam may go to the polytechnic stream (polytechnic sounds much better than tech-voc). The Final Report of the Presidential Task Force for Education (PTFE) contains several recommendations to reform our educationalsystem. Many of these recommendations are not new, but were widely discussed and agreed upon in earlier surveys, such as the Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM, 1992) and the Presidential Commission on Educational Reform (PCER, 2000). (Isagani R. Cruz pg.114-115) There are numerous questions concerning the issues and problems existing in the Philippine Educational System as to how we can resolve it the best way we could to attain that kind of quality of education we have been searching and longing for. Where do we begin and how do we respond to such? Public schools are the building blocks of our societies. They can be considered our foundational instruments. Although these venues of learning play significant roles, they are unable to provide the best they can, due to their numerous flaws. As I’ve gone through different readings and researches, questions were arising in my mind as to what solutions are applicable in addressing the problems about the quality of education, affordability, budget, mismatch, integration of sex education in the curriculum, R.A. 9710 (Magna Carta for Women) and other concerns which are somehow related to it. I will always stand for what I believe in according to my observations that we have good guidelines and policies on education but what is lacking is the ability to implement such in accordance to the needs of every school, majority of which belong to the public education system. Generally, Philippine Education aims to provide quality and free education both for the elementary and secondary public schools but again this have not been observed and understood well causing it to be a burden most especially to the students and parents. www.essays.se/…/Local+literature+about+educ…
The researchers would want to focus on the outcomes of the K-12 education system to other countries. In fall 2005, 757,116 students wereenrolled in grades K-12 in Colorado’s public schools, ranking 22nd in the country in terms of total state K-12 public school enrollment (NEA 2005). Researcher Tom Mortenson of Postsecondary Education Opportunity calculates a ninth-grade student’s “chance for college” by age 19 in each state and nationwide by combining high school graduation rates with rates of student college-going. In Colorado in 2004, a ninth-grader had a 42.2% chance for college by age 19. Nationwide, the chance for college is just 38.1% Colorado
ranks 15th on this indicator. Of the peer states used in this report, only Minnesota ranks higher, with a chance for college of 54.6% (Mortenson, 2006).In 2002, 57.3% of high school graduates in Colorado continued directly on to post-secondary education. This is slightly higher than the national average of 56.6%. In a study conducted for the Department of Local Affairs, researchers convened directors of Colorado’s regional Workforce Investment Boards. These officials reported difficulty finding qualified applicants for both entry-level and skilled positions, and concerns about a lack of basic skills in the workforce (Blansett and Gershwin, 2005). According to the conclusion of Learning Together: Assessing Colorado’s K-12 Education System conducted by Center for Education Policy Analysis at the Graduate School of Public Affairs and University of Colorado at Denver And Health Sciences Center, Colorado could and should be doing better in educating K-12 students. Notably, their state’s struggles with educating traditionally at-risk students has resulted in student achievement and high school graduation gaps that are among the largest in the country. If they were to make substantial progress on closing these gaps, their achievement statistics would quickly rise to the top. Many of their peer states face greater challenges than they do in terms of state-wide poverty and diverse student populations, yet they have managed to find greater success with closing gaps. Until Colorado finds the collective will, the leadership, and the resources to solve this problem, they will continue to be average when they could be outstanding.
The 1987 Philippine Constitution puts special premium on education and accords it with the highest budgetary priority. Article XIV, Section 1, in particular, explicitly provides: “The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels.” Article XIV, Section 5(5) clearly mandates the State to “assign the highest budgetary priority for education.” However, despite these constitutional guarantees, current performance indicators showed a dismal picture of the quality of education in the country. Participation rates have worsened; dropout rates remain high and the Philippines continue to perform poorly in both national and international assessment tests (Policy Brief, 2011). As a response to
this issue, the DepEd is pushing for the passage of a law that will implement the so-called K to 12 program, which will institutionalize pre-school and add two more years of high school in the country’s basic education cycle. However, in light of the tight fiscal situation and the mounting demands coming from all other sectors, the increasing cost of living and the additional burden that this measure will entail particularly for households, it is important to determine whether K to 12 is a viable and critical program that needs to be pursued (Ibid, 2011). Philippine Business for Education (PBEd), a group of top businessmen who are pushing for education reforms, welcomed government’s strong resolve to finally put in place a decades-old proposal for a K+12 basic education cycle. “The K+12 gives to the masses the extra years of schooling that for many years has only been available in private elite education institutions. Studies have shown that every additional year of schooling improves the income potential of a student as she/he enters the world of work” (Malipot, 2010). The government wants to improve the quality of education not only for private education institutions but also for the public education institutions in the Philippines and as a result of that, the country will have higher employment rate. However, the problem that can arise from the implementation of K+12 education system is the acceptance of the parents. It has long been a popular notion that any attempt to lengthen the required number of years in basic education will be faced with a howl of protests, particularly from parents who will bear the brunt of additional expenses and students who will have to spend more years in school (Educator Magazine, 2011). The government is trying different strategies on how the parents will have awareness and knowledge on the K+12 Education Program. “[Former DepEd Secretary] Br. Andrew Gonzalez used to say, ‘I’m really searching to actively engage them towards a consensus because it would be pointless to come up with a program that is good objectively but is not acceptable to people. There should be political will, but it’s not like we ram things down people’s throats. You have to win them over, you have to explain-that’s a very long process” (Ibid, 2011). Luistro qualifies. “So I always feel it’s important that we engage people. I think it’s a matter of explaining to them, but also engaging them because I’m gotten some very good inputs and suggestions from people. So I think our task is to respond to their concerns and anxieties”
(Ibid, 2011). After two months of regional consultations, Education Secretary Armin Luistro revealed that the proposal was able to get support from 1,274 out of 1,417 participants or 77 percent in the 17 regions. Among the stakeholders, DepEd found that the most supportive group is the students. The program got 100 percent support from Regions IVA, IVB, V, VII, VIII, XI, and XIII (Caraga).But Luistro admitted that there are still many sentiments against it. Stakeholders in Region IX, for example, presented a lot of concerns and reservations. Out of 45 attendees, only six or 13 percent showed support to the program. In the NCR, the K+12 Education program was able to get support from 67 out of the 94 participants or a grade of 71 percent (Malipot, 2011).
This chapter presents the research design, sample and sampling technique, instrumentation and statistical treatment of the data used in the development of this study; the most convenient and precise methods were used that enabled the researchers to obtained functional information.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD
For this study “A Study on the Level of Awareness, Knowledge and the Attitudes of the parents of Pedro E. Diaz High School on the k+12 Program of the Department of Education”, the researchers used Quantitative approach. In Quantitative research, the process is formal, objective and systematic in which numerical data are utilized to obtain information about the world. Moreover, this study is descriptive in the manner of interpreting the data. As pointed by John W. Best, in descriptive research, the variables and procedure are described as accurately and completely as possible so that the study can be replicated by other research. Thus, the researchers used the Quantitative – Descriptive Approach and Design since it lent itself to the identification of the actual conditions relative to the K+12 curriculum and the relationship of the respondents with the recurring situation. The research method used in this study was Survey Questionnaire Method. Survey Questionnaire method according to Cruz et.al. (2011) is a set of questions,
which is intended for the problem to be answered by the respondents. This is usually accompanied by clear and concise directions, which are sent to the respondent by mail or hand carried. This method is relatively simple and inexpensive for it requires small staff to handle it. A standard set of questions can be prepared and the respondents may feel a greater sense of freedom to express views and opinions because their identities are not known. For this study the parents of Pedro E. Diaz an answer the questionnaire with privacy at their own convenience.
Sample and Sampling Technique
For this study, the group used probability technique specifically the random sampling in deriving or in determining the sample of this study. In random sampling, this is done by getting a certain percentage of the population to be included in the study. In this research 25 % of the total population is used. In relation to this study, the parents of Grade 7 students, randomly selected, from Pedro E. Diaz High School were the Study sample.
The instrument that was used in this study to gather pertinent data needed in this study is survey questionnaire. The survey questionnaire was developed by the researcher anchored with the research objectives. The items were organized based on the Level of Awareness, Knowledge and the Attitudes of the parents of Pedro E. Diaz High School on the k+12 Program.
The survey questionnaire consists of the following: Demographic Profile, Respondent’s Socio-Economic Profile, Level of respondent’s Awareness on k+12, Respondent’s Knowledge on K+12 and Attitude(s) of Respondent on K+12.
Data Gathering Procedure
The researchers asked permission to administer the questionnaire checklist from the school authorities concerned which included the Principal of Pedro E. Diaz High School.
After the approval of the authorities concerned, the researchers distributed personally the questionnaire to 50 parents on July 2012.
The questionnaire checklists were therefore administered to all 50 parents. The retrieval of the instrument was through one week after the questionnaires have been distributed. With the fully cooperation extended to the researchers by the teachers the 100% of the distributed instrument was retrieved.
Statistical Treatment of Data
The researchers used the random sampling technique to the get respondents. The 25 % of the population is used, thus: Population = 200 parents
Population x 25 % = 50 respondents
The data was obtained was tallied and tabulated. Tables and figures were used to illustrate the data gathered for presentation, interpretation and analysis. All data obtained from the responses to the questionnaire-checklist were collected and tabulated after which they are statistically treated using this percentage and weighted are on rank order.
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter shows analyzed and interpreted tables of the information gathered.
1. Demographic Profile
Age (Class)| Frequency| Percentage|
29-32| 2| 4%|
33-36| 7| 14%|
37-40| 5| 10%|
41-44| 12| 24%|
45-48| 12| 24%|
49-52| 9| 18%|
53-56| 1| 2%|
57-61| 2| 4%|
| Total=50| Total:100%|
The respondents’ percentage of ages 41 to 44 is 24 %, same with ages 45 to 48. The least percentage is 4 % which falls on the respondents aging 57 – 61. Table 1.2
Gender| Frequency| Percentage|
Female| 42| 84%|
Male| 8| 16%|
| Total=50| Total:100%|
There are 42 females which is 84 % of the respondents, wherein there are 8 males which is 16 % of the respondents.
Civil Status| Frequency| Percentage|
Separated| 3| 6%|
Widowed| 2| 4%|
Married| 44| 88%|
Single| 1| 8%|
| Total=50| Total:100%|
The 88 % of the population is married. The least percentage is 8 % which belongs to single respondents. Table 1.4
Respondent’s Educational Background| Frequency| Percentage| Elementary Graduate| 3| 6%|
High School Graduate| 32| 64%|
College Graduate| 12| 24%|
Others: (College Undergraduate)| 3| 6%|
| Total=50| Total:100%|
The table shows the educational background of the respondents. 64 % of the respondents graduated from High School, 6 % is Elementary graduate same with College Graduate.
2. Respondent’s Socio-Economic Profile
Respondent’s Monthly Income| Frequency| Percentage|
5,000- 10,000| 30| 60%|
10,001-15,000| 11| 22%|
15,001-20,000| 3| 6%|
20,001-25,000| 6| 12%|
| Total=50| Total:100%|
The table shows the respondents’ monthly income. The 60 % of the respondents have an income ranging from 5,000 to10, 000. The 22 % has an income ranging from 10,001 to 15, 000. The least 6 % has an income ranging from 20,001 to 25,000.
Respondent’s Source of Income| Frequency| Percentage|
Employment| 41| 82%|
Own Business| 9| 18%|
| Total=50| Total:100%|
The table shows the respondents’ sources of income. The 82 % of the respondents are employed privately while the 18 % of the respondents have their own business.
3. Level of respondent’s Awareness on k+12
Respondent’s Awareness| Frequency| Percentage|
Yes| 38| 76%|
No| 12| 24%|
| Total=50| Total:100%|
The table shows the level of awareness of the respondents. The 76 % of the respondents are aware of the K+12 Program while 24 % of the respondents do not know exactly the program. If Yes,
In Media| Frequency| Percentage|
Radio| 8| 21.67%|
Newspaper| 9| 24.17%|
TV| 13| 33.33%|
Internet| 4| 10.83%|
Others:| 4| 10.83%|
| Total=38 | Total:100%|
The table shows where the aware respondents acquired the information. 33.33 % of the respondents get the information from television; 24.17 % get the information from newspaper; 21.67 % from radio; 10.83 % from internet and 10.83% get the information from other ways. Table 3.3
Awareness of Respondent’s on Additional 2 years in Basic Education| Frequency| Percentage| Yes| 39| 78%|
No| 11| 22%|
| Total=50| Total:100%|
The table shows the awareness of respondents on the additional 2 years in the basic education. The 78 % of the respondents are aware of the additional years while 22 % of the respondents are not aware of the additional years. Table 3.4
Awareness of Respondent’s on Required Kindergarten on Education | Frequency| Percentage| Yes| 40| 80%|
No| 10| 20%|
| Total=50| Total:100%|
The table shows the awareness of the respondents on required kindergarten on the education. The 80 % of the respondents are aware of the required kindergarten while 20 % of the respondents are not.
4. Respondent’s Knowledge on K+12
Respondent’s Knowledge on Required Junior and Senior High School before Entering College| Frequency| Percentage| Yes| 32| 64%|
No| 18| 36%|
| Total=50| Total:100%|
The table shows the respondents’ knowledge on required Junior and Senior High School before entering college. The 64 % of the respondents know about the required years while 36 % of the respondents do not. If yes,
Respondent’s Knowledge on technical and minor course in Senior High School| Frequency| Percentage| Yes| 26| 81.25|
No| 6| 18.75|
| Total=32| Total:100%|
The table shows the respondents’ knowledge on technical and minor courses in Senior High School. The 81.25 % of the respondents know about the courses while 18.75 % of the respondents do not.
5. Attitude(s) of Respondent on K+12
Respondent’s Attitude on K+12| Frequency| Percentage|
Yes | 35| 70%|
No| 15| 30%|
| Total=50| Total:100%|
The table shows the respondents’ attitude on K+12 Program. The 70 % of the respondents agreed on the Program while 30 % of the respondents do not. Table 5.2
Degree of Favorableness| Frequency| Percentage|
Strongly Agree| 7| 14%|
Agree| 26| 52%|
Neutral| 17| 34%|
| Total=50| Total:100%|
The table shows the degree of favourableness of the respondents who agreed on the K+12 Program. The 52 % of the respondents agree on the said program
while 14 % f the respondents strongly agreed and 17 % of the respondents are neutral.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter shows the conclusions and recommendations of the researchers. Conclusions
After doing the survey to the selected respondents, the researchers arrived at the following conclusions: 1. Most of the respondents are aware of the K+12 Program regardless of their educational background. 2. The main source of the information to the program is through television and many from the respondents are aware of the additional 2 years to the basic education curriculum. 3. Most of the family of the respondents is having an income that is not enough to sustain and support the additional years for education.
The researchers recommended the following:
1. The respondents for the future researches should be more than on this previous study. 2. The respondents must be categorized properly to get a reliable information from Filipino families. 3. The survey should be improved in scope and in reliability. 4. A longer duration of study is commended to achieve more accurate results.
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