Educational psychology Essay
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1. Understand the principles and requirements of assessment. 1. 1. Explain the function of assessment in learning and development. Lambert and Lines (2000) define assessment as “the process of gathering, interpreting, recording, and using information about pupils’ responses to educational tasks. ” While this is an acceptable definition of assessment (as regards an educational definition), Graham Butt (Into Teaching: Part 2) expands on this definition by proposing that assessment has four main roles within teaching and learning.
Firstly, it provides feedback to teachers and students about each child’s progress in order to shape their future learning (a formative role).
This is very similar to the diagnostic role of assessment in pin-pointing the precise cause of a child’s difficulty. The second role of assessment is that it provides information about the level of students’ achievements at a particular point, for example at the end of a school year or at the end of a Key Stage (a summative role). The third role of assessment is as a tool by which selection by qualification can be achieved (a certification role).
Finally, assessment helps people to judge the effectiveness of the education system as a while (an evaluation role). Prior to the work of Black and Wiliam (1998) very little was known about the formative role of assessment within teaching and learning, and it was clear that by 1997 the assessment emphasis within England and Wales was clearly focused on the function of assessment in learning and development is primarily to provide a measurable barometer for the students’ progress.
The key to effective practice is to be able to work out what a child’s specific needs are at one time, and to find ways of creating opportunities for them to succeed (Moyles and Robinson, 2002:281). Assessment is carried out through formative (checks throughout the course), impassive (to test against previous marks), and/ or summative (at end of course) activities to help the learner see their development whilst allowing the Assessor to give valuable feedback when appropriate.
Its purpose is to measure the learners understanding of the subject against the anticipated outcomes set by the criteria. For example, assessment provides clear measurement and recording of achievement during a course that provides identification of individual achievement or learners’ needs. I have found that by creating quizzes on socrative. com and/ or google forms that I can capture formative evidence of learners understanding of a task prior to the assessment deadline so I can intervene to give extra help.
It is widely recognized that the form and content of student assessment strongly influence students’ attitudes to study and quality of learning (Ramsden, 1997; Shepard, 2000). The learner’s development is typically measured using formative or summative assessment that meets criteria in a fit-for-purpose Assignment and consequently reflects the required standards and performance/ assessment criteria in any given course. The purpose is to monitor development via evidence that can be quantified and used as performance review/ targets/ benchmarking throughout a course.
From an Assessors point of view it is essential to ensure that assessment decisions are consistently reviewed and internally/externally verified where possible so as to contribute to the awarding institutions quality assurance and on-going development of best practice. 1. 2. Define the key concepts and principles of assessment. Principles are rules and functions of assessment which are based upon the concepts. (Gravells A. 2011, Principles and practice of assessment in Life Long Learning Sector).
The key concepts and principles of assessments include: Continuing professional development – At all times maintaining currency of knowledge and competency to ensure assessment practice is up to date. Equality and Diversity- all assessment activities embrace equality, inclusivity, and diversity and respect all aspects of society. Ethics: ensuring the assessment process is honest and moral, and takes into account confidentiality and integrity. Fairness –activities should be fit for purpose, and planning, decisions and feedback justifiable.
Health & Safety- ensuring these are taken into account throughout the full assessment process, carrying out risk assessments as necessary. Assessment methods must be suitable for the candidate’s needs. For example, a learner must have an option for an alternative whereby a mental or physical threat to their well-being could be presented by the assessment. Motivation- encouraging and supporting my learners to reach their full potential at an appropriate level. Quality assurance- this is an integrated process ensuring assessment decisions meet the qualification standards, and assessors are carrying out their role correctly.
Record Keeping- ensures accurate records are maintained throughout the learning and assessment process, communicating with others for example and awarding organisation. SMART- ensuring all assessment activities are specific, measurable, achievable, time bound and realistic Standardisation- ensuring the assessment requirements are interpreted accurately and that all assessors are making comparable and consistent decisions. Reliability – The assessment decisions must be by an assessor with competence in the discipline the work relates to so as to ensure a judgment that is informed by a professional perspective.
Risk assessments of locations my media student’s film in serve both to extend the learners understanding of health and safety whilst helping them help me make our learning space everyone’s responsibility. VACSR- is another important principle ensuring all assessed work is Valid: all the work is relevant to the assessment criteria. Decisions must be justified with clear referencing of assessment criteria stated by the examining body. Another Lecturer should be able to award the same grade for the piece of work as the same standardisation method is the barometer NOT the opinion of the assessor.
Authentic: the work has been produced solely by the learner. Current: the work is still relevant at the time of assessment. Sufficient: the work covers all the assessment criteria. Reliable: the work is consistent across all learners, over time and at the required level. (Gravells A. 2011, Principles and practice of assessment in Life Long Learning Sector). All the subjects (theory or practical) the assessment is carried on the basis of assessment cycle. http://www. gillpayne. com/2014/01/guide-understanding-the-training-cycle/ Purpose.
The aim, reason, and purpose of assessment is to help the learner track their progress, provide feedback, and inspire them to achieve. The trainer gains evidence of learning from assessment which can in turn be measured clearly against a criteria. This continuous assessment learning/ training cycle is designed to recognise prior learning and improve it with each assessment. The assessor grades the work so the trainer (if someone different from the assessor) can see the distance travelled on the course when compared to grades throughout the programme.
The organisation can use this quantitative data to track a class, department, and/ or, entire organisations performance in relation to peer organisations so employers can often assess their own staff’s performance. COGNITIVE The cognitive domain relates to the more traditionalist assumptions of academic/ intellectual learning. In this domain Bandler and Grinder counted ‘knowledge, comprehension/ understanding’ as well as ‘application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation’. Cognitive assessment should focus on the application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation rather than towards only the acquisition of knowledge and understanding.
To this end any theory in lectures must be made applicable in a video/ practical task that puts in to practice the idea/ terminology/ argument we have discussed – which in turn serves to consolidate and validate the learning. This domain relates to objectives concerned with knowledge and intellectual skills and there are six categories which can be used in lecturers: Knowledge: Asking learners to recall specific and general items of information (e. g. media terminology) and also information about methods (‘how do you add this effect? ’), processes and patterns (using software such as Photoshop).
Comprehension: Encouraging recognition of items of information settings similar to but different from those in which they were first encountered e. g. relating theories and debates to contemporary issues such as Laura Mulvey’s Feminist theory of female objectification in mainstream cinema. Application: I actively build my learners understanding of our culture so they can explain previously unseen data or events by applying knowledge from other situations e. g. using simile, analogy, and metaphor in my verbal explanation/ articulation of concepts during lectures so they will do the same in their work.
Analysis: Learners are presented with problems to break down the blocks of information into elements for the purpose of clarification. This can be in the form of a provocative discussion, essay question that asks them to show comprehension of ideas in a structured essay with a clear conclusion. Synthesis: Learners are constantly asked to combine elements to form coherent units of information in their responses whether it be a Vlog, Podcast, or Written piece for Assessment. Evaluation: Throughout Assessments the learners are asked to make judgements about the value of information, materials, or methods for given purposes.
This is a common feature of each Edexcel Units as it demands reflection and growth on the part of the learner. AFFECTIVE The affective domain for Bandler and Grinder includes objectives which describe changes in interest, attitudes and values, and the development of appreciations. There are different levels of understanding: According to the theory the lowest level is where the learner is merely aware of the fact that other people have particular attitudes and values. As a learner progresses on our courses it is essential to develop this through their personal experience so they slowly develop affective ideas which are uniquely their own.
While some values are indoctrinated – respect for others’ rights, honesty, media law, understanding of morals/ ethics, the key is to enable the learner to come to this plane of understanding through a process of development and clarification in lectures. The Affective domain for Bandler and Grinder relates to objectives concerned with interest, attitudes, and values. The five levels of the affective domain from the simplest to the most complex are as follows:
Receiving: Sensitivity to certain stimuli and a willingness to receive or attend to them e. g.students receiving information from Lecturers about Media issues. Responding: Involvement in a subject or activity or event to the extent of seeking it out, working with it or engaging in it eg Twitter debates about contemporary issues such as engaging in discussion about the Woolwich attacks in 2013 using the hashtag #bcotterror Valuing:
Commitment to or conviction in certain goals, ideas, or beliefs e. g. constructing and arguing a point in an Assignment such as an essay in which the learner shows the pros and cons of existing theorists’ approaches to their Assignment subject.
Organisation: Organisation of values into a system, awareness of relevance of and relations between appropriate values and the establishment of dominant personal values e. g. constructing an essay that demonstrates structure and engaging with complex levels of conjecture, statement, and fact with objective, rigorous, scholarly approaches to balance in their argument beyond opinion. Characterisation by a Value Complex: Integration of beliefs, ideas, and attitudes into a total philosophy of world view e. g. a learner composing a project based on their own interests/ perspective informed by values acquired on course.
PSYCHOMOTOR This is largely defined as Physical and Motor skills. We work to develop key social and employability skills through what Bandler and Grinder categorise in to define as 6 categories: ‘Reflex Movements’ are developed with the use of equipment such as cameras and complex editing software to develop the involuntary motor responses to stimuli which in turn form the basis for all behaviour involving any movement.
‘Basic Fundamental Movements’ are developed by doing this as movements of using lighting, microphones, cameras etc. involve movement patterns which help the learner become more ambulatory. ‘Perceptual Abilities’ are tied in to this as they help learners to interpret stimuli so that they can develop their perception of visual and auditory risks, hazards, logistics to adjust to their environment and demonstrate coordinated abilities of eye and hand, eye and foot. Similarly the ‘Physical abilities’ of the learner are utilised and developed in our practical tasks as they are essential to efficient motor activity.
Due to the nature of a Creative Media professional the vigour of the person is tested by activities designed to measure the individual and how they meet the demands placed upon him or her in and by the environment. ‘Skilled Movements’ are a necessity in terms of storyboarding, engaging with complex editing software, and other tasks which ask the learner to efficiently perform complex movements. The learning targets are negotiated after gathering diagnostic information from the learner to gauge the potential/ possibility e. g. all skilled movement activities are based upon some adaptation of the inherent patterns of movement described in the ‘Physical Abilities’ demonstrated by the learner.
‘Non-Discursive Communication’ manifests itself relatively organically in our subject through interviews, debates, video-logs, discussions, podcasts, and any other form of media that captures a range of evidence of the developing communication skills from facial expressions to highly sophisticated choreography/ directing/ blocking of entire sets. [Source: Planning for Pre-Service Primary Teachers Prof Experience Unit, face of Education, QUT, Qld, 1998 (pp11-13)].