Education of Pakistan
Education of Pakistan
Introduction: Education has always been considered as one of the main factors for socioeconomic and subsequently the national development because of its ability to raise the quality and productivity of the human capital. Education also creates awareness, tolerance, self esteem and confidence, which empower people to defend their rights, reduce poverty and inequality and improve in health, status and good governance in implementation of socio economic policies.
It also enables the people to protect their ideological inspiration and help in developing national cohesion. Source: Wikipedia, MoE GoP Education in Pakistan is overseen by Ministry of Education of Government of Pakistan. The academic institutions are the responsibility of the provincial governments whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and some financing of research. Background:
The Government of Pakistan recognizes education as one of the fundamental rights of a citizen as well as extends its commitment to provide access to education to every citizen. According to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the State is responsible, “to provide basic necessities of life, such as, food, clothing, housing, education and medical relief, for all citizens, irrespective of sex, caste, creed or race, [38 (d)] … to remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period.
” [37 (b)]. In this context, the public sector has invested in education in both urban as well as in rural areas, and in formal as well as non-formal institutions. The private sector also participates, though on a limited scale, in extending education and has established formal schools, mostly located in urban localities. Besides, some NGOs and non-profit organizations also offer primary schooling, both under the formal as well as non-formal systems. Stages of formal education.
The education in Pakistan is generally divided into five levels: primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six through eight); high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate or SSC); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary (School) Certificate or HSC); and university programs leading to graduate and advanced degrees. Primary education Only 63% of Pakistani children finish primary school education. Furthermore, 68% of Pakistani boys and 72% of Pakistani girls reach grade 5. The standard national system of education is mainly inspired from the British system.
Pre-school education is designed for 3-5 years old. After pre-school education, students go through junior school from grades 1 to 4. This is preceded by middle school from grades 5 to 8. The two commonly used indicators for measuring changes in primary and middle schooling are the Gross Enrolment Rate (GER and Net Enrolment Rate (NER). The Primary education is divided into the following three stages. i) Pre-Primary Education Pre-Primary Education is an important component of Early Childhood Education (ECE), Prep or Kachi classes of children having age of 3-4 years. An increase of 2.
6 % in Pre-Primary enrolment (8. 434 million) in 2008-09 over 2007-08 (8. 218 million) has been observed and during 2009-10, it is estimated to increase by 2. 2 percent. Primary Education (Classes I – V) A number of 156,653 Primary Schools with 465,334 Teachers are functional. An increase of 0. 6 % in Primary enrolment (18. 468 million) in 2008-09 over 2007-08 (18. 360 million) has been observed and during 2009-10, it is estimated to increase by 1. 3 percent. Middle Education (Classes VI-VIII) A number 40,919 Middle Schools with 320,480 Teachers are functional . A decrease of 0.
2 % in middle enrolment (5. 414 million) in 2008-09 over 2007-08 (5. 426 million) has been observed and during 2009-10, it is estimated to increase by 0. 6 percent. Sources: 1. Figures of Primary, Middle, High and Higher Sec. from 1992-93 to 2007-08 is based on Annual Pakistan Education Statistics Reports, AEPAM, Islamabad 2. Figures of Inter Colleges and Degree Colleges for 2004-05 and onwards is based on Annual Pakistan Education Statistics Reports, AEPAM, Islamabad 3. Figures of Private School data from 1992-93 to 1999-2000 is based on 8th Five Year Plan : Planning Division, Pakistan 4.
Figures of Private School data from 2000-01 to 2004-05 is based on ‘Census of Private Education Institution 1999-2000’, Federal Bureau of Statistics, Ibd 5. Figures of Private School data of 2005-06 onward is based on ‘National Education Census, 2005’ AEPAM, Ministry of Education, Islamabad Secondary education Secondary education in Pakistan begins from grade 9 and lasts for four years. After end of each of the four school years, students are required to pass a national examination administered by a regional Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (or BISE).
Education intermediate indicators include functional public schools, basic facilities in public schools, posts filled against sanctioned strength in public schools and percentage of trained teachers in these schools. Number 24,322 Secondary Schools with 439,316 Teachers are functional. An increase of 2. 9 % in middle enrolment (2. 556 million) in 2008-09 over 2007-08 (2. 484 million) has been observed and during 2009-10, it is estimated to increase by 5. 6 percent. Sources: Figures of Primary, Middle, High and Higher Sec.
from 1992-93 to 2008-09 is based on Annual Pakistan Education Statistics Reports, AEPAM, Islamabad Figures of Inter Colleges and Degree Colleges from 2004-05 onward is based on Annual Pakistan Education Statistics Reports, AEPAM, Islamabad Tertiary education According to the OECD’s 2009 Global Education Digest, 6. 3% of Pakistanis (8. 9% of males and 3. 5% of females) were university graduates as of 2007. Pakistan plans to increase this figure to 10% by 2015 and subsequently to 15% by 2020. There is also a great deal of variety between the different age cohorts.
Less than 6% of those in the age cohort 55-64 have a degree, compared to 8% in the 45-54 age cohort, 11% in the 35-44 age cohort and 16% in the age cohort 25-34. An enrolment of 1. 147 million is estimated in 2009-10 over 1. 074 million in 2008-09 and 959,690 in 2007-08. 3,291 Higher Secondary Schools / Inter Colleges with 76,184 Teachers are functional Sources: Figures of Technical & Vocational from 2003-04 onward is based on Pakistan Education Statistics Reports, AEPAM, Islamabad Figures of Universities from 1992-93 to 2007-08 was downloaded from website of HEC, Islamabad (www. hec. gov. pk) Quaternary education.
Many Master’s degree programs only require one and a half years of study. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) education is also available in selected areas and is usually pursued after earning a Master’s degree. Students pursuing PhD degrees must choose a specific field and a university that is doing research work in that field. PhD education in Pakistan requires at least 3–5 years of study. An enrolment of 458,835 students is expected during 2009-10 in Degree Colleges over 429,251 in 2008-09 and 383,810 in 2007-08. 1,238 Degree Colleges with 21,176 Teachers are functional and 205 new Degree Colleges have been added since July 2008.
Universities Education (Classes XV onwards) An enrolment of 948,364 is estimated in 2009-10 in Higher Education over 803,507 in 2008-09. In order to boost-up higher education four new universities have been established during the year 2009-10 making the total number to 132 universities with 50,825 Teachers in both Private and Public Sectors Sources Figures of Technical & Vocational from 2003-04 onward is based on Pakistan Education Statistics Reports, AEPAM, Islamabad Figures of Universities are provided by Higher Education Commission (HEC), Islamabad (www. hec. gov. pk).
Spending on education As a percentage of GDP, Pakistan spends only 2. 9% of it on Education. However, the government recently approved the new national education policy, which would result in education being allocated 7% of the GDP. The government plans to raise the literacy rate to 85% by 2015. In accordance with the target set by the Millennium Development Goals for Pakistan and EFA Education for All. Public Expenditure on Education as percentage to GDP is lowest in Pakistan as compared to other countries of the South Asian region. According to official data, Pakistan allocated 2.
5% of GDP during 2006-07, 2. 47% in 2007-08, 2. 1% in 2008-09 and 2. 0 % in 2009-10 which shows persistent declining trend. According to UNESCO’s EFA Global Monitoring Report 2009, the Public Sector expenditure on Education as percentage of GDP, in other countries of the region was 2. 6% in Bangladesh, 3. 2% in Nepal, 3. 3% in India, 5. 2% in Iran and 8. 3% of GDP in Maldives. The breakup of investment in education by the Federal Government and the Provinces for the year 2009-10 is given. [pic] Ministry of Education [pic] Education statistics, ministry of education Objectives/ Goals.
• Promote the educational and economic interests of backward classes or areas with special care. • Remove illiteracy, and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period. • Make technical and professional education generally available on merit. • Enable the people of different areas, through education, training to participate fully in all forms of national activities, including employment in the service of Pakistan. • Decentralize the Government administration to facilitate expeditious disposal of its business to meet the convenience and requirements of the public.
• Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning, life skills and citizenship programmes; • Achieving 50% improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for adults; • Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills.
• Ensuring that by 2015 all children with special emphasis on girls and children in difficult circumstances have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality. • Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2015 and achieving gender equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality. • Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills. Source: MoE website.
Situation analysis: [pic] GER at primary education The primary-level GER for children 5-9 years old, excluding katchi16 class, according to the PIHS, was 72 percent in FY 2001/02. Sound progress has been made so far in improving both GER and NER and is evident when the comparison is made between FY 2000/2001 and FY 2006/07 based on PSLM. The PSLM results are encouraging in many aspects. The overall increase in primary school GER is impressive in PRSP period, from 72 percent in FY 2001/02 to 91 percent in FY 2006/07 The role of the private sector in primary education has increased overtime.
Of the total primary level GER of 87 percent in FY 2005/06, the government school GER was 57 percent and private school GER 30 percent. The government school GER increased by 15 percent between FY 2001/02 and FY 2005/06 period while the private school GER increased by 33 percent during this period. It suggested, on the one hand, that new enrolment has taken place in both public and private schools. On the other hand, the relatively higher increase in private school GER suggested some shifting of children from public to private schools.
However the PSLM shows that the coverage of the public school system increased to 69 percent in FY 2006/07 compared to 65 percent in FY 2005/06 but witnessed an overall decline from 72 percent in FY 2004/05 to 69 percent in FY 2006/07. Source: Annual Report, SPRSM Isb. Percentage change in education from year 2000-2001 to 2008-2009 Education related expenditures in FY 08-09 recorded increase of 28. 10 percent relative to FY 07-08 with largest increase in “Others” followed closely by Secondary and Primary Schools.
There is considerable provincial variation in the sub sectors of education; Punjab achieving highest percentage increase in Secondary and Professional Education; in Khayber Pakhtoonkhwa, two sub sectors of higher education, General University and professional education taking precedence over primary education; Baluchistan and Sindh expenditures in Technical and Vocational Training depicts increase in FY 08-09 as compared to year 07-08. Statistics show that Primary and Secondary Education hold major share in total education related expenditures.
Professional education and Vocational Trainings hold least share in years 08-09. A uniform pattern emerges at the provincial level with Primary and Secondary Education contributing the most to respective aggregate provincial education expenditures. In university/college education, all the provinces exhibit identical trend with a share of 8-10 percent while professional education depicts highest share of 7. 85 percent in the year 08-09.
Teacher and Vocational Training assume the least contribution in all but two provinces Baluchistan with 1. 96 percent and Punjab with 2.93 percent of aggregate education expenditures. |Percentage distribution of education expenditures in FY 08-9 and FY 08-09 by province | | | |Federal |Punjab |Sindh |KBRPKTNKWA |Baluchistan |Pak| | | | | | | | |ist| | | | | | | | |an | |Primary Education |6. 2 |37. 4 |40. 71 |38. 01 |34. 9 |32. 4 | | |Secondary Education |
08. 52 |24. 21 |29. 24 |38. 88 |31. 64 |24. 68 | | |University/College |63092 |8. 21 |11. 97 |8 |9. 63 |19. 3 | | |Professional Technical universities |10. 81 |1. 78 |5. 26 |7. 85 |4. 94 |5. 13 | | |Techs & Voc training |. 16 |2. 9 |0. 77 |0 |1.
96 |1. 53 | | Others | |10. 39 |25. 23 |12. 05 |7. 2 |16. 93 |16. 9 | | |Total | |100 |100 |100 |100 |100 |100 | | |Source: Annual Repot SPRS Monitoring Islamabad. Literacy: According to the latest Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PSLM) Survey 2008-09, the overall literacy rate (age 10 years and above) is 57% (69% for male and 45% for female) compared to 56% (69% for male and 44% for female) for 2007-08. The data shows that literacy remains higher urban areas (74%) than in rural areas (48)and is prevalent for men (69%) Compared to women (45%).
However, it is evident from the data that overall female literacy is raising over time, but progress is uneven across the provinces. When analyzed provincially, literacy rate in Punjab stood at (59 %), Sindh (59%), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (50%) and Balochistan at (45%). The literacy rate of Sind and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has improved considerably during 2007-08 to 2008-09. According to the data, the overall school attendance, as measured by the Net Enrolment Rate (NER), for 2008-09 was 57% as compared to 55% in 200708.
All the provinces have shown an increasing trend, with Sindh recording the highest increase, followed by both Khyber Pakhtunkhwa was well as Balochistan. Nationally, the Gross Enrolment Rate (GER), sometimes referred to as the participation rate, which is the number of children attending primary school (irrespective of age) divided by the number of children who ought to be attending, in case of both male and female saw no change and remained at 91% between 2007-08 and 200809.
Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have shown Noticeable increase in the respective period. According to latest Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PSLM) Survey 2008-9 the literacy rate (age 10 years and above) is 57% (69% for male and 45% for (female) compared to 56% (69% for male and 44% for female) for 2007-08. The data shows that literacy remains higher in urban areas (74%) than in rural areas (48%), and is more prevalent for men (69%)compared to women (45%).
However, it is evident from the data that overall female literacy is rising over time, but progress is uneven across the provinces. When analyzed provincially, literacy rate in Punjab stood at (59 %), Sindh (59%), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (50%) and Balochistan at (45%). The literacy rate of Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has improved considerably during 2007-08 to 2008-09 According to the data, the overall school attendance, as measured by the Net Enrolment Rate (NER), for 2008-09 was 57% as compared to 55% in 2007-08.
All the provinces have shown an increasing trend, with Sindh recording the highest increase, followed by both Khyber Pakhtunkhwa as well as Balochistan. Nationally, the Gross Enrolment Rate (GER), sometimes referred to as the participation rate, which is the number of children attending primary school (irrespective of age) divided by the number of children who ought to be attending, in case of both male and female saw no change and remained at 91% between 200708 and 200809.
Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have shown noticeable increase in the respective period. [pic] [pic] Source: Annual Pakistan Education Statistics Reports, AEPAM, Islamabad National Education Policy 2009 The new National Education Policy (NEP) 2009 has been formulated after lengthy deliberation initiated way back in 2005. NEP formulation process remained almost dormant during the years 2007 and 2008, owing to fluctuating political situation.
The present Government re-activated the NEP process and convened 15th Inter-Provincial Education Ministers (IPEM) Meeting in February 2009 at Islamabad to share the draft NEP and getting implementing partners new political and bureaucratic leadership of education departments of provinces as well as other federating units on board. After establishing consensus at aforesaid IPEM meeting, a summary for the Cabinet on “National Education Policy 2009” (NEP 2009) was submitted to Cabinet Division in early March 2009, which was considered by the Federal Cabinet on 8th April 2009.
The Honourable Prime Minister directed Ministry of Education (MoE) to share the Policy document with all stakeholders for evolving more broad-based policy actions. MoE also made a presentation before the National Assembly Standing Committee on Education, which endorsed most of the policy actions contained in NEP 2009. Finally, Cabinet in its meeting held on September 9th, 2009 approved NEP 2009. A shift has been made by making national policy a truly ‘national’ rather than a federal matter.
For this, it has been recommended that the Inter-Provincial Education Ministers’ (IPEM) Conference, with representation of all the federating units, will be the highest body to oversee progress of education in the country. Problems Of Educational systems of Pakistan. 1- Academic Problems: • Inefficient use of available resources. • Unequal distribution of Faculties among Public & Private Sector • Lack of Monitoring • Lack of standardization of Private Universities. • Emphasize on quantitative education rather than qualitative aspect of education.
• Inadequate attention to research and support for it. 2- Management Problems: • Ineffective governance and management structures and practices. • Inefficient Regulatory steps • Strong skepticism about the realization of reform • Politicization of faculty, staff and students • Poor recruitment practices and inadequate development of faculty and staff. 3- Practical Problems: • Lack of internship facilities for students of higher Education institutions and universities. • Week coordination between Universities and industrial, agricultural, and other sectors of the economy.
4- Financial Problems: • Inadequate funding. • Un adjusted fee structure of private universities • No share of Foreign Direct investment in Education sector • No concept of Debt Financing in Education sector 5- Social Problems: • Lack of moral training in Higher Education Institutions • Promoting Westernization on the name of Modernization • Creating social misbalances EFA Education For All Financing education, in general, and especially in the context of the six goals of EFA has Emerged as a key area, which needs urgent attention. More specifically, the study attempts to:
i) develop a sound financing plan, based on the financial requirements and available resources to meet EFA targets in the country; ii) accurately estimate the financial resources gap, and serve as a credible instrument to indicate the magnitude of assistance required from external development partners’ iii) understand the financial management procedure prevalent in the country (under a devolved set up, if any);
iv) capture the essence of public private partnerships in vogue and its financial implications /benefits through case studies; and v) Recommend a set of suggestions to improve education finance – related to financial management procedures, collaboration between various government departments, coordination with private sector / NGOs and civil society and effectiveness of donor assistance.
Based on information obtained from provincial population census reports and population projections by NIPS, the net enrolment in primary education is expected to reach 17. 536 million students in 2015/16. Of these, 9. 041 million will be boys and 8. 495 million will be girls. The total cost of primary education to be incurred by the public sector is estimated to be around Rs. 955,571 million, with Rs. 582,300 million projected to maintain the present participation rate and Rs. 373,271 million to finance the additional students for the achievement of the EFA goal related to universal primary education. The total cost of achieving 86% adult literacy rates for all Pakistani males and females is Rs.
208,197 million while the total cost of achieving a participation rate of 50% in early childhood education for both boys and girls in both urban and rural areas is Rs. 48,329 million. The total bill for achieving EFA goals and targets by 2015/16 is, therefore, about Rs. 1,212,097 million. Problems The main question arising is whether this bill can be met from domestic resources? In Pakistan the absolute amount of budget allocated to education is low. Although education enjoys the highest priority on the social sector agenda, yet allocations are relatively modest due to the intrinsic rigidities in the financial system of Pakistan, arising from more pressing commitments of the country.
As national expenditures have always far exceeded revenue collections, fiscal deficits have remained high. To close the resource gap, there has been a historical heavy reliance on external borrowing. In addition, the present geo-political situation of the country is such that high defense allocations are required for maintaining security and national sovereignty. As such, interest payments and defense expenditures make up bulk of expenditures. During the past four years, defense expenditures and interest payments consumed about one-fifth and one-third of total expenditures. The amount spent on social, economic and community services is approximately 15 % of total expenditure. Estimates suggest that of this, almost one-half i. e.about 7%-8% is spent on education.
Projections of the financial resources available to meet EFA targets in the three themes, i. e. , primary education, adult literacy, and early childhood education for the thirteen years show that the total budgetary resources available by 2015/16 would be Rs. 786,005 million. Given the financial requirements of Rs. 1,212,097 million, the resulting “financing gap” is to the tune of Rs. 426,092 million. It may be highlighted that these estimates include an annual average additional cost of achieving Given the financial requirements of Rs. 1,212,097 million, the resulting “financing gap” is to the tune of Rs. 426,092 million.
It may be highlighted that these estimates include an annual average additional cost of achieving UPE by 2015/16 of US $495 million, which compares well with the average annual additional cost of achieving UPE by 2015 for Pakistan estimated by international agencies such as UNICEF (US $790. 38m); UNESCO (US $394. 91 m); and the World Bank (US $660. 69 m. ). However, if a more idealistic approach based on good quality i. e. , five-classroom in urban and two-classroom in rural model schools, is considered, the financing gap is considerably higher and expected to exceed Rs. 2,031,292 million. How these problems can be met? Recommendations? Problems in education can be solved by solving following series of effective approaches. • More resource generation and higher budgetary allocation to education: The major issue in education finance in Pakistan is the low public sector investment.
Although education enjoys the highest priority on the social sector agenda, yet allocations are relatively modest due to the intrinsic rigidities (such as resource constraints, large establishment bills due to a large salaried workforce and heavy debt interest repayments) in the financial system of Pakistan, arising from more pressing commitments of the country. Public sector allocations to education have steadily declined over the past five years from 2. 7% of GDP in 1995-97 to 1. 8% of GDP in 2001/02. It is, therefore, recommended that all efforts should be made to enhance the budgetary allocation to education to 4% of GDP, as suggested in the National Education Policy (1998).
In addition, innovative approaches should be designed to generate additional resources for increased funds for the education sector, especially to primary education, adult literacy and early childhood education if Dakar targets have to be met by 2015.
• Higher proportion of development spending in education: At present, an extremely high proportion (over 95%) of education budgets at the provincial levels are spent on recurrent heads, particularly on salaries of teaching staff, with negligible proportions i. e. , below 5%, remaining for development expenditures due to avoidable delays and budgetary cuts in view of shortfall in resources. It is recommended that besides improving these procedures, more emphasis should be placed on quality improvements such as teachers’ training, curriculum development, assessment systems and overall supervision of delivery of education.
• Higher participation of the NGO and private sectors: Though considerable progress has been observed during the past decade in the participation of NGO and private sectors in the field of education, especially primary and university education, but more involvement of NGOs and private organizations would benefit the delivery of educational services .
To facilitate this, the national and provincial education foundations also need to play a more active role in guiding and coordinating NGOs and private organizations in “adopting” public schools and supporting rural community schools to achieve rapid progress in achieving the Dakar goals. Costing of such arrangements needs to be worked out in greater detail and its implications for the financing gap of meeting EFA goals up to 2015. Also, it is essential for the government to provide a legal and policy framework as well as a regulatory mechanism for a realistic and sustainable public-private partnership.
• Better efforts to seek required foreign assistance: In view of its commitments to the achievement of EFA goals, the Government of Pakistan has developed a National Plan of Action (NPA) on Education for All for the period 2001-2015, supported by the study based on estimates of financial need and availability of resources, incorporating targets, strategies and investment requirements of primary education, adult literacy and early childhood education.
The gap in financial resources required to implement this plan is enormous and will, most certainly, have to be met from external assistance. It is, therefore, recommended that efforts should be made to obtain the required assistance through grants, loans, debt SWAP and/or Fast Tracking Initiative (FTI). Based on the EFA goals of universal free and compulsory primary education of good quality, the study estimates the total cost requirement of the achieving these goals by 2015/16.
The total cost on primary education to be incurred by the public sector is estimated to be around Rs. 955,571 million, with Rs. 582,300 million projected to maintain the present participation rate and Rs. 373,271 million to finance the additional students for the achievement of the EFA goal related to universal primary education. [pic] Source Research paper on “Education for all” ministry of education, GoP Challenges: • Declare education as the highest priority of the government.
Explain that unless the impediments of illiteracy and lack of education are removed, the road to democracy will remain fraught with the danger of exploitation of.
Subject: Higher education,
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 15 October 2016
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