I as a teacher can encourage and motivate teachers and adults to accommodate learners who are experiencing barriers to learning by encouraging teachers to Promote Positive attitude of both teachers and learners towards one another supporting one another and stand as a united as a school and colleagues. As well as equal input in school activities all teachers should enjoy participating in school activities it would make learners feel more comfortable to join and also participate in school activites. Teachers should accept one another and their differences, respect one another In addition, avoid judgement and criticism towards each other.
Inclusive education promotes Human rights as well as Good and sensible educational values. Social wisdom is also promoted and encouraged greatly . The equal right to learn and live together is highlighted and explained in inclusive education. Acceptance, diversity, and respect are a few of the main core values that inclusive education is built up on and were the concept came from. A school that is equipped and supported to provide a broad range of learning needs.
It May not necessarily have all forms of learner support in place, but it should have the Potential and capacity to develop and provide them.
A school that understands that barriers to learning are not only essential to learners, however, can also be cultural and systemic. Barriers might also be linked to a learner’s environment. These could include negative attitudes to and stereotyping of learners, inflexible teaching methods, and practices. 3. A school that is prepared to explore and address the challenges of everyday school Life through capacity building among teachers and on-going institutional development aiming at empowering the whole school.
A school that wards off practices which leave out learners so that learning and Development can happen and makes efforts to ensure that all children of school-going age in the Localities attend the school and achieve to their full potential. A school with excellent leadership that serves as a symbol of hope of the transformation process in education by developing cultures, policies and practices that celebrate diversity, respect Difference and value innovation and problem solving. Educators do not know the overall concept of what inclusion means. They can formulate school policies, which are marginalizing and excluding.
Educators also have a Downbeat approach towards learners with disabilities. Educators Categorize and are bias to learners with disabilities. The staff can be thoughtless to the special needs. They might be not capable to respond to a wide range of leaner needs. At the National level, a few factors cause barriers to learning such as, lack of advocacy and information programme in support of inclusion form and ignoring the rights of learners. If they do not join forces with other government department and if they do not give support and guidelines to the province.
Bronfenbrenner has had significant influence on the determining and creating of our understanding of how diverse levels of systems, in the public perspective, interact in the process of child development. The first of these is what is referred to as the Microsystems – this system refers to a pattern of roles, activities and interpersonal relations experienced between individuals and the systems in which they are active participants (such as the family, school or peer group). This is the direct environment experienced by the child where proximal relations occur.
This type of relations refers to face-to-face, usually continuous social interactions. A second level or system is what Bronfenbrenner refers to as the mesosystem. “The mesosystem is a set of Microsystems that continuously interact with one another. So, what happens in the family or peer group can influence how children respond at school and vice versa”. When looking at how this theory informs inclusion, it can be deduced that implementing inclusive education is not possible without paying attention to relationships developing between the different Microsystems.
This needs to be done in order to give educators an idea of the effects of contextual factors on the child’s functioning and it is relevant to understand the potential for collaborative relationships. The exosystem is seen as including other systems in which a child is not directly involved, but which possibly influence the people he or she has proximal relationships with in the Microsystems (Donald et al. , 2006). Examples could include the education system (e. g. curriculum, inclusive policies), a parent’s place of work, the media, or a sibling’s peer group.
A fourth system Bronfenbrenner notes is the macrosystem. It involves dominant social, cultural, and economic structures, as well as beliefs, values and practices that influence all systems. This system includes ideologies and discourses inherent in the systems of a specific society (Donald et al. , 2006). Encompassing these four systems is what Bronfenbrenner refers to as the chronosystem. Provincial level should provide experts to act as advisers and see that actual policy is implemented in the province. Also that all services in the provinces are properly coordinated.
Make sure The Money received from central government for education is wisely spent. The District as a whole does not have proper training, monitoring, and support. Also, lack of resources and equipment e. g. devices that assist teachers, hardly any guidelines to support learners with learning barriers, no organization of learning support, lack of partnerships with other schools in the dame area. 2. 1. 6 Socio-Economic Barriers The relationship between education provision and the socio-economic conditions in any society must be recognised.
Effective learning is fundamentally influenced by the availability of educational resources to meet the needs of any society. Lack of Access to Basic Services One of the most significant barriers to learning remains the inability of learners to access the educational provision that does exist and their inability to access other services, which contribute to the learning process. In most instances, the inability to access education provision results from inadequate or non-existent services and facilities, which are key to participation in the learning process.
For example, in many poor communities, particularly in our own country in rural areas, learners are unable to reach centres of learning because there are no transport facilities available to learners or the roads are so poorly developed and maintained that centres cannot be reached. Poverty and Underdevelopment Closely linked to the lack of access to basic services is the effect which sustained poverty has on learners, the learning process, and the education system.
For learners, the most obvious result of poverty, often caused by unemployment and other economic inequalities, is the inability of families to meet basic needs such as nutrition and shelter. Learners living under such conditions are subject to increased emotional stress, which adversely affects learning and development. Additionally, under-nourishment leads to a lack of concentration and a range of other symptoms, which affect the ability of the learner to engage effectively in the learning process.
Attitudes Negative and harmful attitudes towards difference in our society remain a critical barrier to learning and development. Discriminatory attitudes resulting from prejudice against people on the basis of race, class, gender, culture, disability, religion, ability, sexual preference and other characteristics manifest themselves as barriers to learning when such attitudes are directed towards learners in the education system. For the most part, negative attitudes toward different learners manifest themselves in the labelling of learners.
Sometimes these labels are just negative associations between the learner and the system such as ‘drop outs’, ‘repeaters’ or ‘slow learners’. While it is important to recognise the impact, which this kind of labelling has on the learner’s self-esteem the most serious consequence of such labelling results, when it is linked to placement or exclusion. Inflexible Curriculum One of the most serious barriers to learning and development can be found within the curriculum itself and relates primarily to the inflexible nature of the curriculum, which prevents it from meeting diverse needs among learners.
When learners are unable to access the curriculum, learning breakdown occurs. The nature of the curriculum at all phases of education involves a number of components, which are all critical in facilitating or undermining effective learning. Lack of Human Resource Development Strategies The development of educators, service providers and other human resources is often fragmented and unsustainable.
The absence of on-going in-service training of educators, in particular, often leads to insecurity, uncertainty, low self-esteem, and lack of innovative practices in the classroom. This may result in resistance and harmful attitudes towards those learners who experience learning breakdown or towards particular enabling mechanisms. If the education system is to promote effective learning and prevent learning breakdown, it is imperative that mechanisms are structured into the system to break down existing barriers.
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