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In this way thinking is the base of our voluntary behavior. Characteristics Of Thinking:- * Problem:- There is a certain problem, which has no readymade solution underlying each and every thinking process. * Associations:- Thinking has a chain of associative thoughts and ideas which help to solve the problem. * Analysis And Synthesis:- Analysis and synthesis are both used in thinking. Every aspect of problem is formerly analyzed separately and latterly all of these aspects are synthesized to examine the relationship between stimuli and responses.
* Presence Of Stimuli:-
Thinking does not need the presence of stimuli or objects to be sensed. * Physical Condition:- The physical condition is at rest during thinking . However, slight movement in the muscles, fingers, hands, arms, shoulders, eyebrows, lips and larynx are noticed in thinking. * Words And Language:- Verbal symbols are used in thinking in a sub vocal activity. An individual talks to himself in a low tone * Source Of Knowledge:- Thinking is a source of knowledge and is a higher mental process in human beings.
Animal also have thinking but lesser then human beings. Animal thinking is purposive in nature and is expressed in the primary stage.
Human thinking is more progressive and higher then animals as his life is more complex. Types Of Thinking There are two types of thinking * Autistic or crooked thinking * Realistic or straight thinking * Autistic Thinking:- This type of thinking is of free associative ideas in which an individual remains busy in wishful thinking and satisfies his unconscious desires, unsolved problems and conflicts.
It occur when an individual fails to satisfy his desires, fails io achieve his goals and aims of life.
Types Of Autistic Thinking It can be further divided into two types * Fantasy or day dreaming * Dreams Realistic or Straight Thinking:- Realistic thinking is a process which helps in problem solving in the real environment with the use of practical neurophysiologic process of overt behavior in productive and reproductive thinking. Types Of Realistic Thinking It can be further divided into three types * Problem solving * Reasoning * Creative thinking 1-Problem Solving Definition Of Problem:- A situation when a person finds any obstacles on the way to goal achievements in a new and strange situation and he does not have any readymade information or knowledge to cope with the situation Solution of problem:-
According to Jackson and Hyson “Problem solving is the scientific practical statement of neurophysiologic process instead of theoretical statement of the internal thinking process and learning. ” Problem solving cycle:- In short problem solving is a process which occurs in the presence of problem arising situation. Types Of Problem:- Problem are categorized in three ways * Arrangement problems Arrangement problem require the problem solver to rearrange or recombine the elements in a way that will satisfy a certain criterion Example Scrabbles in which we arrange different letters to make words * Inducing structure
Inducing structure requires a solver to identify the existing relationship among the elements presented and then construct a new relationship among them. * Transformation problems Problem gives you only the start and end state and the procedure or method to be followed Example The problem of tower of Hanoi, in which 52 rings are to placed using the 3 pegs only with the condition that you cannot place a bigger ring on the smaller one Such problem are solved by the * Knowledge * Trial and error method presented by Thorndike * Insight method presented by Koehler Thorndike’s experiment
In 1898, Thorndike constructed problem boxes made of iron bars for many experiment. He used to imprison the hungry cats in these boxes and kept their food a piece of meat outside. The cats could see their food through these problems boxes or the cages. Food worked as an incentive or positive reinforcement for the cat to come out and get foods. The problem was how to open the door? These doors could be opened by pulling the cord or pressing the lever or by moving clutch Conclusion Of Thorndike Experiment He observed that the cats sometimes hit their teeth or paw or the nose on the bars and used different method.
Accidently they succeeded to open the door He conclude that the animal not only learn by trial and error but also can retain their learning by the method of association of thoughts between past and present experiences. This is bases on productive thinking INSIGHT METHOD Experiment In 1925 a gestalt psychologist Kohler said that Trial and error is not sufficient in problem solving. Insight is also necessary for the problem solving Kohler conducted experiment on monkeys to see how the monkeys solved their problems of getting bananas hanged so high in the center of ceiling.
In one experiment he kept boxes in a corner and in the other experiment he kept small sticks. Conclusion He observed the monkeys in first experiment tried to get bananas by jumping high. In other experiment Kohler observed that the monkeys made use of the stick. It inserted punted end of one stick into other sticks. Afterward in 1926 he modified the process of insight is not a sudden act it recurs in the light of past experiences along with the perceptual organization. This was based on reproductive thinking Conclusion Of Both Experiments Researches show that some problems are solved by trials and error, and some other are solved by insight.
Herbert birch in 1945 gave stick to the four year old monkeys in a cage, and placed their food outside. Only one monkey used this stick as a tool to get its food, this monkey has already used this stick. The other monkeys were given three days to play with sticks. These monkeys attained the experience of looking into the sticks, peeping through the holes, pressing and touching things beyond approach. Then on the fourth day they were able to solve their problems with the sticks. The solution of a problem attained by insight is not purely new but it is the consequence of the learning of past experiences.
Factors influencing the problem solving Following are the factors which influence the problem solving * Intensity of the motivation It is the general view that the stronger motive provokers more struggle to solve the problem. Weaker motive creates distraction, stronger motive creates functional fixedness and medium motive is the best for problem solving as it encourage new responses. * Functional fixedness Functional fixedness is an inability to see the new use for a familiar tool. So a response set hinders the problem solving. * Response Set
Response set is a constant tendency to respond to a situation in a certain manner, according to gestalt principle of perceptual organization wholeness, collectiveness and relativeness become the habit family hierarchy which cause hindrance in changing the response set and a rigidity causes difficulty in problem solving * Past Experience Past experience is facilitating in problem solving of the similar situational problem but is a hindrance in the new situation * Personal Context Every individual is influenced by his personal values, faith and creed and does not want to change his response set beyond it. Mental Set Mental se is to prepare mentally to do certain things in certain order. Mental set may be facilitating in problems solving for the desired situation. * Frustration and stress Too much stress and frustration cased by failure in the most difficult problem decrease the problem solving efficiency. * Social background An individual seldom has his individual problem as he does not live alone. He is an integral part of the society and he has to interact within the society, so his problems are social problems as a consequence of social interactions. 2-Reasoning Definition
According to Philip G. Zimbardo Reasoning is a purposive thinking which collects information or data about the problem and to work on it in a traditional or a new way. Types Of Reasoning There are three types of reasoning * Deductive reasoning * Inductive reasoning * Evaluative reasoning Deductive Reasoning Deductive reasoning proceeds on the basis of past knowledge. It draws conclusion from general bits of knowledge to specific presents. It follows the rules of Aristotelian logic. Inductive Reasoning Inductive reasoning is the essence of creative thinking both in science and arts.
It leads from specific present to the more general conclusion. In this type of reasoning the thinkers build from known to unknown, and he may give more than one conclusion. Thus the conclusion is not totally predictable. Evaluative Reasoning Evaluative reasoning is critical in nature. It judges the correctness or suitability of an idea. The validity of the conclusion depends both upon the reasoning process and the standard used. Step Of Evaluative Reasoning According to Holliman there are five steps in evaluative reasoning i. Establishing of the purpose and standard for the appropriate process ii.
Evaluating the solution to proceed further iii. Finding out the correct responses to achieve the goals iv. Arranging the sequence of the responses and solutions to achieve the goal in time v. Compare the drawn conclusion with the given standard to check validation and success Steps Of Reasoning * Identifying The Problems Reasoning can’t take place in the absence of problem The problem must be sated explicitly so that its important may be evident and one should try to reason out for its solution * Preparation For The Collection Of Information
The second step is to prepare him to collect data and the necessary information about the problem by reading relative books by arranging the responses achieve from the past knowledge. * Analysis The third step is to analysis to collect data according to its merits and demerits * Synthesis After analysis one has to synthesis data by classifying correct and incorrect separately in systematic order to draw result. * Evaluation The last step is to evaluate the result to check the validity and reliability Principles Of Reasoning * Problem must be real.
The information collected about the problem must be tangible. Reasoning must be clear, solid and evident. * Reasoning must be according to the proved logic. 3- Creative Thinking Definition According to Zimbardo and Ruche “Creative thinking is the occurrence of uncommon or unusual but appropriate responses. ” Creativity is the process of choosing and shaping appropriate representation for a problem which lead an important discovery. Basically the creative response is not predictable until it is made a standard for the judgment of future creativity. Steps Of Creative Thinking Following are the steps of creative thinking. * Preparation Preparation is the first step in creative work.
It start when a person observe natural phenomenon deeply, reads books, magazines and interact with creative people of his interest. * Incubation Incubation is a period of postponing the thinking process about a certain problems for creativity. Sometimes the preparation period is so longs or the ideas and information stored in mind are so overloaded that it becomes difficult for creator to choose and shape appropriately.
Inspiration or illumination After or sometimes during the incubation period of rest, suddenly creator’s mind has a flash of light or illumination. He is inspired to write down in an automatic way. Verification And Elaboration The last step of creative thinking is of the verification and elaboration. At this step the creator reviews his creation, check his mistakes, verifies it according to the social norms present it to the public, asks for their critical views and opinions about his work and tries to update it accordingly. Characteristic Of The Creative People According to psychologist creative belongs to human traits. It is shown that there I particular patterns of psychological traits that characterized creative people regardless of their age, cultural background and areas of work.
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