Ebay, A Company Analysis Essay
Ebay, A Company Analysis
In August 2 ,1990, after Saddam Hussein’s military forces invaded and occupied Kuwait , there was large Iraqi military build up close the Saudi Arabia’s border. President Sr Bush perceived that Iraqi’s aggression and military build up was a serious threat not only to the security and independence of Saudi Arabia but also vital to US national interest in the Persian Gulf region.
The main intention of Saddam Hussein was to control half of the world’s supply of Petroleum from Gulf region .Sr Bush initiated “ Operation Desert Shield “ and dispatched US military to Saudi Arabia to defend that country against a possible Iraqi attack. President Bush took bold decision and dispatched US troops to Saudi Arabia even without obtaining prior approval from US Congress. Later when reporting to Congress and Nation, Bush informed that he has acted in deference to Saudi Arabia’s specific request for American assistance in bolstering Saudi defenses and deterring possible Iraqi attack.
To free the Kuwait from Iraqi occupation , President Bush ( Sr) rallied the support of United Nations by getting the U.N Security Council approval on November ,29,1990 to pass U.N. Resolution No 678 which authorized U.N members to use “ all necessary means” to coerce Iraqi invaders from Kuwait , and to take military action if Iraq failed to withdraw from Kuwait by January 15,1991.
OPERATION DESERT STORM:
On January ,12,1991 , President Bush succeeded in getting Congress approval for the President use of “ all necessary means “ to carry out the UN Resolution 678. Now the President Bush had all the authority and support to persuade Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait. On January16, after the Iraqi Government failed to withdraw its military forces from Kuwait by the deadline ,President ordered “ Operation Desert Storm “ and Iraqi forces were defeated and Kuwait was liberated. After Iraqi Government agreed to observe and comply with all U.N.Resolution , a ceasefire was ordered .Operation Desert Storm helped to destroy greater part of Iraq’s military machinery and Iraq’s claim to Kuwait.
During June 1993, President Clinton ordered U.S. air strikes at Iraqi intelligence service headquarters at Iraq which had instigated and fostered a conspiracy to assassinate former U.S.President George Bush during his to Kuwait during April 14-16,1993.
After the Persian Gulf War in 1991, the USA continued to engage economic as well as military conflict with Iraq. The main aim of the USA was to put an end to Saddam Hussein’s military regime in Iraq and to prevent Iraq becoming threat to international peace and U.S National interest in Middle East and to deny Saddam Hussein the opportunity to utilize Iraqi military to extinguish his political opponents among the Kurdish inhabitants of northern Iraq and among the Shi’ite Muslim marsh Arabs of Southern Iraq.
The other main aim of US is to compel the Iraqi Government to honor its International obligations, including those relating to
(1) The ban on the further development, productions and stockpiling of nuclear, biological, chemical and other weapons of mass destructions.
(2) To call for the destruction of existing stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction.
(3)Recognition of and respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, and political independence of Kuwait,
(4) Compliance with the terms of the ceasefire agreement ending the Persian Gulf War.
The main objective of the continuing military presence and activity of the USA and its allies in the Middle East –the Southwest Asia / Northeast Africa / Persian Gulf region is to prevent the Iraq regime and military forces from jeopardizing international peace and US National interest in the region. The other main aim was to prevent Iraq from threatening the security and independence of neighboring countries such as Kuwait and Saudi Arabia and from endangering US access and that of the other industrialized nations to the oil of the Middle East, the region which has over 70% of the Globe’s known petroleum reserves.
During early October , 1994, US decided to drawdown its troops in the middle east in a phased manner , Saddam Hussein ordered the movement of his troops towards southward and headed in the direction of Kuwait. As a result, there was a significant Iraqi military build up along the Kuwait border. Saddam Hussein action clearly demonstrated his capacity to threaten neighboring countries and imperil the industrialized West’s access to Middle Eastern petroleum. Saddam Hussein action also revealed about lack of trustworthiness and his determination to violate the terms of the ceasefire agreement ending the Persian Gulf War.
Again, UN Security Council had passed a resolution on October, 15, 1994 condemning the Iraq Government for the deployment of troops along the Kuwait Border. Bill Clinton, who was then the President of USA, deployed US Reinforcements on the Kuwait border to Iraq to counter the Hussein’s troops. Because of the strong and determined US response, Saddam Hussein backed down and withdrew all the troops from Kuwait border. Because of the defused environment, US also ordered the withdrawal of its troops from Kuwait.
OPERATION DESERT STRIKE.
In early 1996, Saddam Hussein began to initiate military actions which demonstrated that his predisposition toward making mischief in the Middle East had not really abated. The Iraqi despot dispatched his military forces into the Kurdish region of Iraq, seeking to regain political control over Iraqi territory .Saddam Hussein military invaded the region of north of the 36th parallel ,captured Irbil and pursued and attacked Kurdish refugees .
Bill Clinton responded to Iraqi aggression by initiating Operation Desert Strike. However Operation Desert Strike was not as vigorous as it might have been because US response was to take action affecting Iraqi military positions and matters far from the battlefield in Northern Iraq. In short , US abandoned the Kurds and failed to live up to the obligation to protect and defend against Iraqi aggression over the region north of the 36th parallel , where thousands of members of groups opposed to Hussein’s rein were operating and functioning under the guidance of the US Central Intelligence Agency.
The reason for the not taking stringent action during Iraq’s aggression against Kurds in 1996 by Clinton was mainly due to forth coming Federal elections which due during November, 1996.
US ELECTION -1996
President Clinton however managed to keep the Iraq issue out of the 1996 elections to enhance his reelection chances. However, Saddam took it as US weakness and started to continue his endeavor to circumvent, erode the strength of USA. Saddam soon began a series of challenges to the system of UN Sanctions and inspection imposed on his regime to prevent if from developing, producing and stock piling weapons of mass destruction .Saddam’s continuous resistance to the UN WMD Program and its implementation came to a peak in January, 1998 when he expelled the US members of UNSCOM, the UN Weapons Inspection team.
OPERATION DESERT FOX:
From 1997 onwards, Saddam tried to obstruct the UN weapons inspection program in Iraq. He frequently protracted military confrontation with the USA and its allies. At one stage, he expelled the most of the US members of the weapons inspection team and because of this action, UN Security Council threatened to reinstate economic sanction against Iraq and Saddam never took serious of the warning issued by UN Security Council. In protest, the United Nations recalled the other inspection team members.
The non cooperation from Saddam resulted in American –British military build –up in the Persian Gulf. This had effect of attitude of Saddam and it induced him to back down short while and he readmitted the weapons inspectors, including those from the USA. In November, 1997, Iraqi regime gave notice that it would not permit the U.N inspectors to enter and inspect sites at designated “palaces and designated residences “
In January, 1998, Saddam Hussein again expelled the U.S. members of the U.N weapons inspection team. The UN again protested by withdrawing the other inspectors and due to this a standoff continued and tensions were heightened. The UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions on Iraq. Again, a US military build up in the Persian Gulf commenced.
In February, 1998, U.N Secretary General –General Kofi Annan negotiated an agreement whereby the Iraqi regime allowed readmission of U.N inspectors and resumption of the weapons inspection program. In return for this concession, the Iraqi government was given assurance that the Security Council would consider lifting the economic sanctions.
The UN Weapons inspectors team did not receive full support from Iraqi regime during this period as Iraq claimed that the Security Council had shown no signs of taking steps for the removal of sanctions imposed .On October ,1998 Saddam again terminated the work of the UN Inspection team at Iraq. This has resulted again in building up of military presence by American –British in the Persian Gulf. On November 5, 1998, United Nations recalled UN Inspection team assigned to Iraq.
Again Saddam yielded and allowed the UN inspection team in Iraq. But this was short lived .Again on December .1998, the UN team once again left Iraq.UN report dated 15th December .1998 charged the Iraqi Government for non cooperation and denial of access to records and inspection sites and through clandestine movement of equipment and records from site to site.
OPERATION DESERT FOX :
Based on the UN report. President Clinton decided to take military action against Iraq. The operation was named as Operation Desert Fox, a massive campaign of air strikes against key military and security targets in Iraq .Several targets were attacked in this operation including head quarters of Saddam Baath Party, barracks of the sad dam’s elite security guards, republic guard barracks and his daughter’s palace at Tikirt.
The main goals of the Operation Desert Fox were (1) to degrade Saddam ability to make and use of weapons of mass destruction .(2) to diminish Saddam ability to wage war against his neighbors and (3) to demonstrate the consequences of flouting International obligations.
President Clinton terminated Operation Desert Fox after three days as it had inflicted significant damage on Saddam WMD programs and his military and security infrastructure. and Iraq’s missile programme had been set back by at least 12 months and its military might had been substantially damaged.
President Clinton ordered at the end of December ,1998 to draw down the U.S. forces in the Persian Gulf .But it is to be noted Operation Desert Box though successful but could not compel the Iraqi regime to accept and cooperate with the U.N.Weapons inspection program.
GAME OF CHICKEN:
This encouraged Saddam Hussein to play the dangerous “ game of Chicken “ with USA and its allies. Saddam Hussein continued to play hide and seek game with U.S.A , its Allies and with UN by defying the west and jeopardize its interests in the Middle East. He yielded temporarily when threatened with or subjected to western military attack. He reneged on the International commitments which he made in order to avoid or end a western military assault against his political regime and military / security forces.
After the end of the operation Desert Fox , the U.S.A and its allies have engaged in a low level war with Iraq. The main aim of US to give protection to the Kurdish and Shi’ite minorities in Iraq from suppression and genocide from Saddam. The other aim is to replace Saddam region by another leader or group of leaders favorably disposed to US. In waging war with the Iraq , President Clinton has been acting in compliance with the reporting requirements of section 4 of the War powers Act of U.S.A. The President has been periodically reporting to Congress on the Status of U.S hostilities with the Iraqi regime and on other matters relating to the hostilities.
Bill Clinton pursued a policy of belligerence towards Iraq , imposing crippling economic sanctions , undertaking the most sustained bombing campaign after Vietnam war and making “ regime change” in Iraq as official US Policy.
US POLICIES UNDER BUSH REGIME:
A secret blue print for US global domination reveals that President Bush and his cabinet were planning a premeditated attach on Iraq to secure “ regime change “ even before he took power in January 2001. A plan called “Global Pax Americana “was drawn mainly to take control of the Persian Gulf region sans Saddam Hussein region while civil government was reestablished.
It is to be noted that war was initiated on the main ground that Iraq was non cooperative in allowing inspection of weapons of mass destruction. However, in the aftermath of war, it became apparent that Saddam had no such weapons programme. Many Americans including prominent members of the Congress, claim Bush and his administration lied or misled the country based on doctored intelligence reports.
The Bush Administration also linked the invasion of Iraq to the war on Terrorism, claiming that Hussein was giving safe heaven to and supporting terrorist groups. There were also accusation that Saddam was indirectly supported the September 11, 2001 attacks on America. It is to be noted that although the Bush administration strongly suggested ties at some level between Hussein and Al-Qaeda, it did not accuse Saddam of complicity in the specific events of 9/11 events.
POST INVASION OF IRAQ:
Military occupation was established and run by the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) Which later appointed and granted limited powers to an Iraq interim Governing Council. Coalition and allied Iraqi forces have been fighting a stronger –than –expected militant Iraqi insurgency and hence ,the reconstruction of Iraq has been slow .
In mid -2004, the end of the occupation was brought about and a new sovereign and independent Interim Government of Iraq assumed the full responsibility and authority of the State. The CPA and the Governing Council were disbanded on June 28, 2004 and a new transitional constitution came into effect. Sovereignty was transferred to a Governing Council Iraqi interim Government led by Iyad Allawi as Iraq’s first post-Saddam Prime Minister. But this Government can make laws only with the approval of CPA.
The Iraqi interim Government was replaced as a result of elections which took place in January, 2005. A period of negotiations by the elected Iraqi National Assembly was followed which culminated on April 6,2005 with the selection of the leaders who currently head Iraq among them Prime Minister Ibrahim al –Jaafari and President Jalal Talabani.
The multinational forces still exercise considerable power in the Country and with the New Iraqi Army, conduct military operations against the Iraqi insurgency .The role of Iraqi government forces in providing security is increasing.
Even though, the Ba’ath Party organization was disintegrated, elements of the Secret police and Saddam army began forming guerilla units and focused attacks around Mosul, Tikrit, Fallujah .These elements who called themselves freedom fighters began using ambush tactics, suicide bombings and improvised explosive devices, targeting coalition forces and check points.
Suicide bombers believed to be mainly disheartened Iraqi Sunnis, Syrians and Saudis tore through Iraq. Their targets were often Shia gatherings or civilian concentrations mainly of Shias,
During early May, 2005, the U.S launched Operation Matador, an .assault in the ungoverned region of western Iraq. Its goal was the closing of suspected insurgent supply routes of volunteers and material from Syria .The US allies succeeded in recapturing the whole area and even fighting the insurgents all the way to the Syrian border , where they were blocked .
PARTICIPATING NATIONS IN THE MULTI NATIONAL ARMY IN IRAQ:
As of September, 2005, there were 26 countries with military forces stationed in Iraq. These were Albania, Armenia, Australia , Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria ,Czech Republic , Denmark ,El Salvador , Estonia , Georgia , Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania , Macedonia ,Mongolia , Netherlands ,Norway, Poland ,Romania, Slovakia, South Korea, United Kingdom , United States, Fiji and Ukraine. Poland, the Netherlands, Norway, Bulgaria and Ukraine have announced plans to withdraw.
The Kerry campaign in Presidential election against George Bush charged that US is acting as neo-colonial power and claimed that US bungled the war due to incompetence , mismanagement and arrogance .Designed to advance US commercial and corporate interest abroad , military force was often used to break open markets that resisted diplomatic and economic pressures.
“ The Carter Doctrine” as it become known , made it clear the United States would use military power in the Gulf to secure and maintain the oil resources needed to turn of the wheels of the Empire.
This policy explains the US sale of heavy weaponry to Saddam Hussein in the early 1980’s when war broke out between Iraq and Iran. US took many efforts to normalize relationship with Iraq then .Despite Saddam’s use of Chemical against Iran and Kurdish population in northern Iraq, the United States continued to back Iraq .Emboldened by these signs of support for his regime, Saddam invaded Kuwait in 1990.The first Bush administration however quickly came to view the invasion as a threat to US supremacy in the region and launched the first Gulf War.
Sanctions were imposed by the UN at the behest of US in order to secure US control over Iraq’s Oil. The United States did not care about the “fact” that the sanctions have apparently killed hundreds of thousands of Iraqi’s by withholding necessary food supplies and medical supplies.
Madeline Albright ,the US ambassador to UN ,when asked that more than 500,000 children had died because of a lack of adequate nutrition and medical care, replied “ I think this is a very hard choice ,but the price-we think-the price.
The American’s gross ignorance of conditions in Iraq was shown by their miscalculation in relation to the Shiites in the South. They thought that the latter would rise up against Saddam Hussein and welcome the invaders with open arms. But none of this happened
Napoleon knew a lot about bayonets and found many uses for them, but there is one thing they can not be used for , as he pointed out: You can not sit on bayonets. The Americans and British do not have a real base of support in Iraq. A long term guerrilla war waged with low-tech methods like sniping, ambushes and suicide bombings can have a devastating effect over a long period if it has the backing of the people –and it will .
Though the US is a super power, it is to be remembered that it was defeated by barefoot army in Vietnam. The Great Britain was once the land of rising sun has to vacate their colonies in all most all countries due to upsurge of the subjects of that nation.
After Iraq , US is now concentrating how to destabilize Syria on the pretext of extending military aid to Baghdad and harboring escaping Ba’athist leaders ,but also of possessing weapons of mass destructions. Again US is also try to destabilize the Iran by accusing that it is under the way to add nuclear arsenals which is going to be great threat to world peace.
The number of causalities in the Iraq’s war is alarming .US alone lost 2105 innocent Americans (soldiers) and Allies lost 201 and innocent Iraqis killed was around 30,420 . Who is going to be father or brother or care taker of the innocent family which lost their life in the war . To prove its mightiness, innocent lives have been lost and do the US or its allies are going to answer the cries and hues of foresaid the families who have lost their dear and near for the nation. Let alone history has to tell us what is Iraq’s fate and political independence in the near future.
1.Public Opinion and American Foreign Policy- by Ole R.Holsti.
2.The Dynamics of Coercion – American Foreign Policy and the limits of the Military Might-by Daniel Byman , Matthew C.Waxman.
3.The Iraq war and its consequences :Thoughts of Nobel Peace Laureates and Eminent scholars.- edited by Irwin Abrams, Wang -Gung –Wu.
4. Wars on Terrorism and Iraq :by Mary Robinson.
5.Today ,Iraq – Tomorrow –The World ? –by Gill Hinshaw
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 19 April 2017
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