Early Life and Education of Muhammad Ali

About this essay
About this essay
How can I use this essay sample?
You can use the free samples as references, and sources, and for finding quotes, and citations. They can be helpful to learn about formatting, styles, and different types of essay structures. They're also a great source of inspiration!
Who wrote this sample and why are these essays free?
These samples are written by graduate students who have donated them to us and by our own expert writers. We only accept writing samples from experienced and qualified writers. The essays are free because we want to help all students, regardless of their financial situation. This is why we offer a mix of paid and free services and tools.
Is it plagiarism to use sample essays?
If you use the essay as a whole, then yes. These samples are only examples and someone else's work. You should paraphrase and cite everything you use from sample essays properly.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born on 25th of December, 1876 in Karachi, Pakistan. At the time of his birth, Jinnah’s official name was Mahomed ali Jinnah bhai. The eldest of his parents seven children, he was under weight and appeared fragile at the time of his birth. Jinnah was ten years old when he went to Gokhul Das Tej Primary school, in Bombay. After one year returned to Karachi and for further studies he get admission in Sindh Maddrassah High school, he remain there for four years.

Jinnah got admission in Christian Missionary Society High school. He visit to

High court with his father, where he saw first advocate in a gown and bands, he decided that he want to be a Barrister. In 1892, Sir Frederick Croft, a business associate of Jinnahbhai Poonja, offered Jinnah a London apprenticeship with his firm, Graham’s shipping and trading company. He joined Lincoln inn to study law. Jinnah joined Congress 1906. In 1913, he joined AIML.

Get quality help now
Doctor Jennifer
Doctor Jennifer
checked Verified writer

Proficient in: Asia

star star star star 5 (893)

“ Thank you so much for accepting my assignment the night before it was due. I look forward to working with you moving forward ”

avatar avatar avatar
+84 relevant experts are online
Hire writer

Jinnah, who was an “Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity” tried for many years to persuade the Hindu majority to abandon its aggressive design against the Muslims and struggled to make a united front of the two nations against the British was at last disappointed by the attitude of the Hindu nation. When he could not convince the Nehru Committee to accept his reasonable amendments in its recommendations, he presented his own fourteen points as the demands of Muslims.

Historical Background: Hindu Mahasabha and Shuddhi:

The Muslims of India had allied themselves with the Hindus with an open mind under the Lucknow Pact 1916 but the extremist group of congress rejected it.

Get to Know The Price Estimate For Your Paper
Number of pages
Email Invalid email

By clicking “Check Writers’ Offers”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We’ll occasionally send you promo and account related email

"You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy"
Write my paper

You won’t be charged yet!

The Home Rule League, Muhammad Ali Jinnah was more active than even Mrs. Beasant. In 1921, Pandit Madan Mohan Maliwiya, Monjey, Kalkar and such other bigoted Hindu leaders founded a new social organization Hindu Mahasabha, the center of which was Hindu University Benaras. The latter encouraged Shuddhi to convert Muslims to Hinduism and its leader Dr. Monje guided the Shuddhi Movement.

Delhi-Muslim Proposals 1927:

In 1927, a conference was held by the Muslims at Delhi. In this Conference, Muhammad Ali Jinnah proposed that if the Hindu majority Congress agreed to protect the rights of Muslims then the Muslim League would give up their demand for separate electorates. Following proposals were given:

  • Sindh to be separate from Bombay, and made a separate Province.
  • Introduction of reforms in the NWFP and Baluchistan.
  • 1/3rd representation in the Central legislature should be ensured for the Muslims.
  • Hindu minorities in Muslim majority Provinces will get weightage more than their proportion of population, and so will the Muslims in Hindu majority provinces.

The Congress accepted Joint Electorates proposal but rejected all other points.

Simon Commission 1927:

In November 1927, a commission headed by Sir John Simon was sent to the Subcontinent to investigate the constitutional problems in British India. The commission, which comprised of all British members, had to make recommendations for the future constitution of India. Congress decided to boycott in Simon Commission because it had no Indian member. AIML wanted to cooperate with the commission, but Jinnah and a large group of Muslim leaders boycotted too.

Nehru Report 1928:

The British Secretary of state remarked that:

“The Indians are so divided, opposed and fed up of each other that they are unable to produce a unanimously accepted constitution”. Congress at once called All Parties Conference to answer this challenge. Many sessions were called but due to stubbornness of the Hindus, those issues couldn’t be resolved on which the Muslim and Hindus had different point of view. At last, Moti Lal Nehru presented a report in 1928 known as the Nehru Report, which was comprised of following points;

  • Full responsible government on the model of the constitutions of the self-governing dominions to be introduced in the Sub-continent.
  • Federal form of government to be established at the center with residuary powers vested in the central government.
  • Separate electorate should be replaced by the joint electorate with reservation of seats for the minorities in proportion to their population.
  • Sindh should be replaced from Bombay.
  • Full provincial status should be given to NWFP and Baluchistan.
  • No reservation of seats in Punjab and Bengal.
  • The Muslim seats in the Central assembly should be ¼ as compared to 1/3 agreed to in Lucknow Pact.

The Muslim of India reacted sharply to the recommendations of the Nehru Report. They were justifiable enraged because they considered the report inimical to their interests. At last Jinnah got disillusioned when his amendments were not accepted by the Indians. It is at this juncture that Mr. Jinnah was disappointed regarding his efforts to Hindu Muslim Unity and remarked that “it was PARTING OF THE WAYS”.

All Parties Muslim Conference 31st December, 1928:

To deliberate on Nehru Report, Sir Fazl-i-Hussain and Lahore ML called an All Parties Muslim Conference on December 1928. Sir Agha Khan was especially invited. Maulana Muhammad Ali Johor also attended. Jinnah didn’t participate due to his differences with Sir Shafi.

Historical Fourteen Points of Jinnah 1929:

A positive implications of the Nehru Report was that the Muslims felt the need of unity among themselves.at that time AIML was divided into two opposing camps known as the Jinnah and Shafi league. Jinnah took the first step towards reuniting the party and called a meeting of the league in March 1929. During the meeting Jinnah termed the Nehru Report as “Hindu Document” and presented the demands of Muslim league which came to be known as Jinnah Fourteen Points which had full support of Muslims.

Jinnah fourteen points-1929:

  1. Federal system: The form of the future constitution should be federal with the residuary powers vested in the provinces.
  2. Provincial autonomy: A uniform measure of autonomy shall be granted to all provinces.
  3. Representation of minorities: All legislatures in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principles of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even equality.
  4. Number of Muslim representatives: In the Central Legislature Muslim representation shall not be less than onethird.
  5. Separate electorate: Representation of communal groups shall continue to by separate electorate provided that it shall be open to any community, at any time, to abandon its separate electorate in favor of joint electorate.
  6. Muslim majority provinces: Any territorial redistribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way affect the Muslim majority in the Punjab, Bengal and NWFP.
  7. Religious liberty: Full religious liberty, that is liberty of belief, worship and observance, propaganda, association and education, shall be guaranteed to all communities.
  8. Three-fourth representation: No bill or resolution or any part therefore shall be passed in any legislature or any other elected body if three-fourth of the members of any community in that particular body oppose it as being injurious to the interests of that community or in the alternative, such other method is devised as may be found feasible and practicable to deal with such cases.
  9. Separation of Sindh: Sindh should be separated from the Bombay presidency and constituted into a separate province.
  10. Introduction of reforms in NWFP and Baluchistan: Reforms should be introduced in the NWFP and Baluchistan on the same footing as in other provinces.
  11. Government services: Provinces should be made in the constitution giving Muslims an adequate share along with the other Indians in all the services of the state and in Local self-government bodies having due regard to the requirements of efficiency.
  12. Protection of Muslim culture and language: The constitution should embody adequate safeguards for the protection of Muslim culture and for the protection and for promotion of Muslim education, language, religion, personal laws, and Muslim charitable institutions and for their due share in the grants-in-aid given by the state and by self-governing bodies.
  13. One-third Muslim ministries: No Cabinet, either central or provincial, should be formed without there being at least one-third of Muslim ministries.
  14. Constitution: No change shall be made in the constitution by the Central Legislature except with the concurrence of the states constituting the Indian federation.

Why Jinnah’s fourteen points bear great importance in the politics of Muslim League (ML)?

Jinnah has rightly pointed out the Nehru report was the turning point in the history of the Sub-continent. Fourteen points are, in fact the indicator or milestone of the new road.

The Hindus at that time, were trying to absorb the Muslims in Indian Nation because of the frustration which was the result of the failure of khilafat Movement. The Muslims refused to surrender. Jinnah represented the Muslims aspiration in a very precise and polite manner.  The reconciliation between the two leagues under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the forecast that he will lead the future struggle of the Muslims.

Fourteen points also proved that Jinnah was no more Ambassador of Hindu-Muslin Unity. He was now convinced that Hindu and Muslims are two separate nations in every perspective.

The Muslim demands were so reasonable and their diction was so rational that by rejecting them, Hindu leadership proved to be unreasonable and their aggressive design become quit explicit.

Chaudhry Muhammad Ali thus remarks:

“In retrospect, it must astonish thoughtful Hindus that these reasonable and moderate demands were rejected by Hindus”.


Jinnah fourteen points clearly reflected the demands, sentiments and aspirations of the Muslim. The Hindu press strongly criticized the fourteen points. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru wrote a letter to M K Gandhi and talked about fourteen points like this:

“If I had to listen to my dear friend M A Jinnah talking the most unmitigated nonsense about his fourteen points for any length of time, I would have to consider the desirability of resorting to the South Sea Islands, where there would be some hope of meeting with some people who were intelligent or ignorant enough not to talk of the fourteen points. I marvel at your patience”.

This letter of Nehru clearly reveals the fact the right from the beginning, Hindus had adopted an absolutely irresponsible attitude towards the desires and demands of the Muslims. Their attitude towards separate electorate, Delhi Proposals, Nehru Report and Fourteen points prove that in every case, they wanted to enforce their will upon the Muslims. Secondly, it teaches a lesson to those who still argue that a compromise with the Hindus was and is still possible. These points prepared the Muslims for a bold step to struggle of freedom. These points were also presented in Round Table Conferences. Though fourteen points were rejected by Congress party and Hindus but they provide a clear path way for the Muslims of India and become the demand of Muslims till the establishment of Pakistan 1947.

Cite this page

Early Life and Education of Muhammad Ali. (2020, Oct 11). Retrieved from http://studymoose.com/early-life-and-education-of-muhammad-ali-essay

Early Life and Education of Muhammad Ali

👋 Hi! I’m your smart assistant Amy!

Don’t know where to start? Type your requirements and I’ll connect you to an academic expert within 3 minutes.

get help with your assignment