Science has explained human evolution and the existence of Homo sapiens uniquely from other hominas and greater apes. It is believed that Homo emerged from Australopithecus which existed 4. 2 Million years ago. They are believed to originate from Africa and build the scientific explanation of the origin of man. They had four main species Australopithecus Aphaeresis, Australopithecus Boise, Australopithecus Africanas, and Australopithecus Robusta. They are believed to be the ancestors of man. Behavior, technology, morphology, and climate hypothesized the emerging of early homo.
Their body shape was more similar to that of the modern ape and the members of genus family. They stood about 1 to 1. 5 meters with a slightly larger brain than that of a chimpanzee. However, its limbs were more adapted to climbing trees with a semi upright walking style that differs from that of the human apes. The behavioral innovation and adaptations of these early homo differed from those of living non-human primates in numerous morphological, behavioral and social structures. The early homos had a complex social structure different from the non-human primates.
Lovejoy (1981:56) argued that the Australopithecines had established a social pattern different from the ape ancestors. There was division of labor evidently from the roles and responsibilities assigned to the mature males and females. The females had the responsibility of securing their young ones, training them, feeding them, sheltering them and upbringing the immature ones while the male brought food, provided security to the colony. They lived in communities and thus, had adopted a food sharing strategy. (Felzer J. H. , 1985:34).
Though in the living non-human primates, they were still having some elements of social structure like living in colonies headed by the dominant male, these structures are less complex. Division of labor was less practiced and not uniquely defined. Security issue for the non- human primates is an issue to all. The collection of food involved scavenging, hunting, digging and cutting. The male homos therefore needed tools to help in those activities. Such tools were the digging sticks, crushing tools etc. there was need to carry whatever they gathered from the field back to the colony.
Therefore, they made carrying tools for light and bulk food. This innovation grew to better tools which were stone made showing that they possessed an abstract thinking different from the living primates. Though the living non human primates use some tools, they have not shown any element of advancing them. They use what is already in existence like sticks, stones, leaves and many others. (Felzer J. H. 1985:17). The making of such tools and performing of various activities must have involved some signals and demonstration to each other among the early homos. Thus, a system of communication was present.
The older males had to train the younger males on how to make some tools and the females to teach their young ones on simple tasks. This involved use of communication. It grew gradually to adopt a growing need to know more skills and activities. However, this communication was unique as the imitation gestures in the non-human primates could not be mistaken for communication. These only existed as a form of response or observation from others. In most animals far from primates, the element of imitation is demonstrated. The young ones observe the behaviors of the older ones thus behaving the same.
This is what happens in non human primates and should not be interpreted as a form of communication. Natural outcomes brought about some gradual adaptations in their nutrition and their physical structures, diet and mode of living. Climate conditions which were characterized rainy seasons, winter, summer, dry seasons and shrinking forests affected their nutrition and movement. They migrated from the Savannah to the forests in search of food, better shelter and habitats therefore, they adopted a promoted hunting behavior which was now more organized and cooperated.
They made stronger tool for hunting and even crushing tools to be breaking hard foods were invented. Physically, the homos developed longer torsos, limbs; narrow hips a large brain and reduced dentition. Among the non-human primates, such behavior is limited. Though, there was migration it was always limited but that of homos was intercontinental e. g. they would migrate from Asia to Africa. (Dubre,1997:13) Researchers have found out that the genes of homos are different from that of the modern apes. It is evident that their brain was bigger than the closest primate to the human chimpanzee.
Their brains could and this brought along various innovation that continues to be demonstrated even in the present homos. Their physical structure was different from that of the non-human primates. Their structure was characterized by adaptations as a result of migration, climatic conditions and nutrition. However, these behaviors influenced the evolution of early homos. The evolution of technological tools brought was an evidence of brain development. As a result, there was a greater routine of activities. Climatic conditions influenced migration which affected some of their body organs for adaptation.
They generated a complete hand which could hold tools better. (Lewin & Foley, 2007: 29). Their behavioral influence on their evolution was evident in their descendants. The homo Habilis brain capacity was increased to around 670 cc. these were the earliest representative of our genus. The main activities were hunting as well as scavenging thus evolutionary process of stone made tools was practiced. Sharper tools were also made from bones of dead animals. The Homo Erectus came after the Homo Habilis. They could use a wider range of stone tools and hand axes.
There was use of fire for cooking and keeping warm, they made caves to shelter themselves and were characterized by organized hunting. Their migration to other parts of the world from Africa was evidence to a well adoption to various climatic conditions. There brains increased and ranged between 800cc to 1100cc which was greater than there immediate ancestors. Their pelvis and lower limbs were fully adapted for bipedal locomotion. Migration to colder parts of the world marked a great evolution as animals could survive in hostile environment by evolution and not by biological adaptation.
In their previous habitats in savanna and other tropical environment, there was loss of hair but could survive elsewhere by putting on hair from other animals. There was passing of knowledge from one generation to another. They could build huts and wear animal skins. They used their intellectual capacity to short circuit the evolutional process. There social network enhanced organized hunting, division of labor and specialization. However, their organized hunting gave them a distinct advantage over other animals hence causing extinction of some species of other animals.
There was an increase in population. Invention of fire led to exploitation of a higher range of animals and plant resources. Homo Sapiens emerged right after the Homo Erectus. Their intellectual ability was greater than their immediate ancestors. Their stone made tools were of higher degree. They made sharper tools from bamboo trees, they were more flexible in there habitats. They adopted in a wider range of climatic conditions like rainfall, ice, hot and average weather. These came along with advanced tools for preparing animal skins for their clothing and digging caves.
Their intellectual capacity increased cultural diversity. (Kohen, 1995:17) The early homos though with a common ancestral origin with the other non human primates differ in their behaviors and adaptation though these differences should not conflict. Researchers have demonstrated some differences in their genetic make ups. The major characteristic that distinguished the two is the intellectual ability. This is the major issue bringing along various innovations like their diet, their tools, their social structures, and their security.
The Homo sapiens are believed to be the modern man but has continued evolving in different phases of ages. Much of the innovations that has affected there lifestyle is their nature of curiosity. Therefore, they have used fire as a tool and invention of more tools, cook food and warm themselves. They are different from other animals. Their nature continued affecting the evolution and will continue even in the present homo sapiens who day by day are continuing with innovations. From this its evident that in centuries to come there will be better innovation than what we have today.
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 13 January 2017
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