Drug Addiction Essay
-Drug addiction is a complex brain disease. It is characterized by compulsive, at times uncontrollable, drug craving, seeking, and use that persist even in the face of extremely negative consequences. -Drug seeking becomes compulsive, in large part as a result of the effects of prolonged drug use on brain functioning and, thus, on behavior. For many people, drug addiction becomes chronic, with relapses possible even after long periods of abstinence. Drug addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use despite harmful consequences to the individual that is addicted and to those around them. Drug addiction is a brain disease because the abuse of drugs leads to changes in the structure and function of the brain.
Although it is true that for most people the initial decision to take drugs is voluntary, over time the changes in the brain caused by repeated drug abuse can affect a person’s self control and ability to make sound decisions, and at the same time send intense impulses to take drugs. It is because of these changes in the brain that it is so challenging for a person who is addicted to stop abusing drugs. Fortunately, there are treatments that help people to counteract addiction’s powerful disruptive effects and regain control. Research shows that combining addiction treatment medications, if available, with behavioral therapy is the best way to ensure success for most patients.
Treatment approaches that are tailored to each patient’s drug abuse patterns and any co-occurring medical, psychiatric, and social problems can lead to sustained recovery and a life without drug abuse. Similar to other chronic, relapsing diseases, such as diabetes, asthma, or heart disease, drug addiction can be managed successfully. And, as with other chronic diseases, it is not uncommon for a person to relapse and begin abusing drugs again. Relapse, however, does not signal failure — rather, it indicates that treatment should be reinstated, adjusted, or that alternate treatment is needed to help the individual regain control and recover.
How Do Drugs Affect The People Around
* One of the largest ways in which drug abuse affects families is the creation of an unstable environment. Children especially are influenced and affected by their parents behaviors. As such, a sibling can also be affected by the actions of another sibling who is abusing drugs. Drugs can affect the way family members talk, act and care for their families. For example, the drug can often come before basic needs such as food, clothing or even the love and attention a child needs to have a stable environment. All of these actions can have long-lasting effects on others in the household, especially young children who grow up with drug abusers as role models. These effects can include the child following in the abuser’s footsteps, especially if they have never seen what a functional family should look like.
* Drug abuse can affect both family and friends financially. This can come both from enabling and from theft. Enabling is the action of helping a user with his habit because you feel bad for him, or feel it is keeping him around long enough for you to be able to change them. One of the main ways that enabling occurs is through directly or indirectly financing the drug habit through loaning or giving money to the addict. Drug abuse can also lead addicts to steal from friends and family members to support their habit.
* Drug abuse can also affect family and friends by inviting violence into the relationship. There are two main times where violence can quickly escalate for an addict: during extreme highs and during withdrawal. Alcohol is an especially guilty substance for causing violence when users are well over the legal limit of blood alcohol content. This can cause violence both through direct actions, such as getting in a fight, as well as indirect actions, such as driving a car while intoxicated. Violence can also affect the friends and family of a drug abuser during withdrawal. One of the most common symptoms of alcohol withdrawal is irritability and anxiousness. The desire to use can quickly cause users to become violent to even close family members in order to get help or money for their next high.
* One of the most heart-breaking effects of drug abuse on families especially is abandonment. Once drugs have altered the nerve pathways in the brain, the desire to use quickly becomes more important to anything else in the drug addict’s life. Friends and family members quickly get replaced by the next score of the drug of choice. This can often lead to divorce or the loss of children to state custody due to a lack of ability to be a loving and providing parent. There is also an increased risk of parents or spouses being locked up in prison for extended periods of time, leaving their children to grow up without a mother or father. The effects of this abandonment may stick with kids all the way through adulthood.
Diseases Involved In Using Drugs
Date: Tue 29 Jan 2013
Source: University of Oxford/Medical Research Council, press release [edited] The genetic variant rs12252-C was present in 69 per cent of Chinese patients with H1N1 swine flu [influenza A/(H1N1)pdm09]. A genetic variant which explains why Chinese populations may be more vulnerable to H1N1 swine flu has been found by researchers at the University of Oxford and Beijing Capital Medical University. This finding could help identify those at high risk of severe infection and help prioritise those in highest need of treatment The study, led by Dr Tao Dong of the University of Oxford, showed that people with a specific genetic variant are 6 times more likely to suffer from severe influenza infectionthan those without. The particular variant rs12252-C is occasionally found in Caucasian populations and was already known to be associated with more severe influenza disease. However, the research teams in the UK and China showed that this variant was present in 69 percent of Chinese patients with severe pandemic (swine) influenza in 2009 compared with 25 percent who only had a mild version of the infection.
The results are published today [29 Jan 2013] in the journal Nature Communications. The study was part-funded by the Medical Research Council Dr Tao Dong of the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine at Oxford University says: “Understanding why some people may be worse affected than others is crucial in improving our ability to manage flu epidemics and to prevent people dying from the virus. It’s vital that we continue to fund research that examines flu from the smallest details of our genetic code in the populations around the world that continue to be vulnerable to infection.” The results suggest that the gene variant increases the severity of, rather than susceptibility to, influenza infections.
It is thought that the DNA change increases risk of severe infection by limiting the effectiveness of a protein which helps to defend against influenza and similar viruses. This protein, known as IFITM3, has been previously shown to slow down virus replication in mice.Professor Andrew McMichael, co-author of the study at the University of Oxford, says: “The apparent effect of this gene variant on the severity of influenza is of great interest. It remains to be seen how this gene affects the whole picture of influenza in Southeast Asia, but it might help explain why new influenza viruses often 1st appear in this region of the world.”. During the 2009 pandemic, hospitals in China admitted patients with severe infection but also, unusually, patients with mild infection who, under normal circumstances, would not require hospitalization. This “open-door” policy provided a unique opportunity to capture a relatively unselected group of patients with divergent outcomes, observed and managed under similar clinical conditions. The introduction provides the background and rationale for this investigation.
“The SNP rs12252-C allele alters the function of interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 increasing the disease severity of influenza virus infection in Caucasians, but the allele is rare. However, rs12252-C allele is much more common in Han Chinese. The authors report that the CC genotype is found in 69 percent of Chinese patients with severe pandemic influenza A H1N1/09 virus infection compared with 25 percent in those with mild infection. Specifically, the CC genotype was estimated to confer a 6-fold greater risk for severe infection than the CT and TT genotypes. More importantly, because the risk genotype occurs with such a high frequency, its effect translates to a large population-attributable risk of 54.3 percent for severe infection in the Chinese population studied compared with 5.4 percent in Northern Europeans.
Interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 genetic variants could, therefore, have a strong effect on the epidemiology of influenza in China and in people of Chinese descent.”The authors conclude that: “These data clearly extend the earlier observation in a European cohort that the IFTM3-rs12252CC genotype is significantly associated with influenza severity. The association is primarily with severity of disease rather than susceptibility to infection, although larger studies are required to prove this specific association.
IFITM3 may have an important role in virus replication and dissemination following the initial infection. The much higher level of the CC genotype in the Han Chinese population compared with Caucasians may place the Chinese at a higher risk for developing severe illness upon influenza infection. It is not known whether those who are more severely infected with influenza virus are more likely to spread the infection. If this is the case, the high frequency of the C allele in Asian populations may influence the epidemiology of influenza.” – Mod.CP
ISABELA CITY, Basilan, Jan 21 (PIA) — The Peace and Development Coordinating Committee (PDCC) also known as Team Basilan has resolved to re-organize and activate the Provincial Anti-Drug Council to address the escalating drug problem in the province.
In a recent meeting of Team Basilan, Provincial Administrator Tahira Ismael recognized the urgency of addressing the illegal drug situation in the province. She fears that the drug menace has slowly crept into the different communities in Basilan, after receiving unconfirmed reports from the ground on illegal drug use.
The representative of the Philippine Drugs Enforcement Authority (PDEA) who requested anonymity confirmed the proliferation of illegal drugs in certain areas of Basilan.
The PDEA representative disclosed that for lack of personnel and resources, agents from nearby Zamboanga City will provide the needed assistance during legitimate operations and raids in the area.
PDEA was also thankful for the full support and initiatives of the local police and the military in addressing the drug problem. PDEA has only one agent for Basilan.
Provincial Police chief PSSupt. Mario Dapilloza said that in his capacity as provincial director, he has activated the provincial anti-illegal drugs task force in the police department. With the deputization from PDEA, the task force was able to arrest the most wanted person in December last year.
With the situation, Team Basilan has resolved to craft a resolution requesting PDEA for at least two additional agents for the province.
“We need at least three PDEA agents, to be assigned in strategic areas in the province,” Ismael said.
Moreover, Team Basilan has resolved to ask Gov. Jum Akbar for an Executive Order creating the Provincial Anti-Drug Council. Ismael said that the council will immediately convene as soon as the governor has approved the E.O. (RVC-PIA9, ZBST) LOILO CITY, Dec. 29 (PIA6) — Now it is not only the taxi drivers that should be randomly tested for illegal drugs, but also employees in offices and business establishments.
Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) officer-in-charge Atty. Ronnie Delicana said the agency is pushing to expand the random drug testing among workers.
“We will get the cooperation of the local officials to pass ordinances that require business establishments to allow random drug testing in their workplaces,” Delicana said in a radio interview.
“This will be a pre-requisite to issuance of business permits,” he added.
He also said that there should be a widespread culture of zero drug abuse in workplaces to boost PDEA’s campaign against illegal drugs.
“We will be pursuing the signing of memoranda of agreement with different partners to realize drug-free work places,” Delicana said.
Meanwhile, for 2012, PDEA arrested 438 suspected drug peddlers in 277 operations, where 34 of those arrested were among the 1,383 suspected drug personalities in Western Visayas, who are in the agency’s watch list.
As to cases filed in court, PDEA records show that 482 were filed in court with 3,118 are still pending for lack of witnesses and evidence.
The operations also yielded as per record, about P2.7 million worth of drugs and paraphernalia seized. (JCM/ESS-PIA 6, Iloilo) the government is doing actions with the issue. Programs:
The Church of the Nazarene is now being asked to become a major partner in a drug prevention program in the Philippines. The program is centered around a high quality video presentation produced by Heinz Fuzzle, a freelance producer for Gospel Films who has worked on a number of projects with the Church of the Nazarene in the past. Portions of the piece were shot on the campus of Asia-Pacific Nazarene Theological Seminary in Manila. The film features interviews from a variety of personalities in the Philippines, including a Nazarene young man who was converted from a life of drug abuse.
With 57% of the Philippine population under the age of 20 years old, drug abuse is becoming a serious problem in many parts of the country. Approval has been granted by Philippine government officials to show the film in 40,000 high schools, universities, and colleges across the nation. The film has a strong Christian message with follow-up linked to local churches. The Philippine Field Office hopes to launch 11 film teams to meet this new challenge. This is a tremendous open door for taking the Gospel into every corner of the Philippines
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 23 December 2016
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