Drinking water Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 22 March 2016

Drinking water

Question 2

2.1 How to ensure food safety: Food safety depends on sanitation

1. Personnel and especially food handlers – must meet health standards and take great care to maintain a high level of personal health. – Hands should be washed thoroughly before handling food. – Injuries on hands covered with waterproof plasters.

– Use gloves and hair nets.
2. Safe food handling techniques should be practised.
3. Keep kitchen and kitchen equipment clean and sanitised.
4. Food service area should be kept clean and sanitised.
5. Tables should be washed and disinfected before and after meals. 6. Traffic through the kitchen should be minimised to reduce the amount of dirt and bacteria that are brought in. 7. Dishes: – should be washed with hot water and detergent

– Rinse dishes in hot ,clear, water
– Sanitise dishes with chlorine bleach solution
– Air dry
8. Food that has been on the tables should not be saved.
9. In fridge, store raw meat in covered containers away from veggies, fruit, milk, etc. 10. Milk fridge for baby foods and bottles.
11. All raw produce should be inspected for spoilage upon delivery and should be thoroughly washed before use. 12. Sanitise spills from raw meats, fish and poultry and wipe all spills immediately. 13. Dry foods stored in rodent-proof covered containers (cereals, flour, sugar, etc.) 14. Food items stored separately from non-food items.

15. Tops of cans should be washed before opening.
16. Can opener should also be washed daily.
17. All dairy products must be pasteurised.
18. Kitchen sink and faucet handles should be kept clean and sanitised frequently. 19. Safe water supply.
20. Frozen foods should only be thawed – in the refrigerator – in cold water
– in microwave oven
– while cooking
– (never at room temperature)
21. Once thawed, food should be used and never refrozen.
22. Food should be covered or wrapped during transport.
23. When serving foods, each serving bowl, dish, or pan should have a spoon; spoons should not be used to serve more than one food. 24. Caution should also be used not to touch serving spoons to a person’s plate to prevent contamination from saliva. 25. Serve and eat foods as soon as possible after preparation 26. Dustbins regularly emptied, foot-opening regularly sanitized, well fitting lids.

2.2 Advice for parents for

-sunburn (pg 21 tutorial 501)

Important information to remember regarding sun – protection:

-UV rays penetrate clouds so protection is still necessary during cloudy weather

-certain UV rays penetrate glass therefore children playing indoors close to a sunny window are not exempt from sunburn

-UV rays penetrate water up to one meter sun protection is important during swimming

-Sun protection should be a regular habit established from babyhood

-sun protection should be throughout the year not only during summer months

-persons with fair skin, red hair and freckles are especially at risk of sun damage

-a person living at the high veldt receives 20% more radiation

Role of guardian regarding sun protection:

-Limit the time which children spend playing outside the hottest part of the day (11hoo to 15hoo) as there is a 50% drop in the intensity of radiation by 15hoo and a 75% drop by 16hoo

-Outdoor play areas should be adequate shaded. If there are no shade trees in the playground the shade-netting or large umbrellas should be considered

-all children should use sun creams with a protection of at least spf15. Normal sun screen preparations should not be used on babies younger than 6 months of age.

-the teacher must ensure that children wear adequate protective clothing when exposed to the sun. wearing a wide brimmed hats should be mandatory for both guardian and children.

-dental decay (Pg 20 prescribed book)

Proper dental care should be practiced from birth, with special attention given to:

-Following a correct diet an adequate intake of protein, and minerals, particularly calcium and fluoride. Most devastating influence on diet is the common intake of sticky carbohydrates

-hygienic practices-e.g. tooth, brushing flossing. Food particles can be removed from an infant gums by wiping them with a small wet washcloth

-dental examination scheduled at recommended intervals

-prompt treatment of dental problems

Additional steps that can be taken to increase a child’s interest in brushing their teeth include:

-purchase a small soft toothbrush in the child’s favorite color.

-store the toothbrush where the child can reach it.

-provide a footstool or chair where the child can reach the sink

-demonstrate the toothbrush procedure so that the child knows what to expect.

-help the child to at least brush twice daily once in the morning and once before they go to bed

-put up a chart where can check each time they brushed

Question 3

3.1 Explain what you would include when planning an emergency evacuation plan: (12) (pg 36 tut501, pg 54 tut502)

Specific factors to be considered:

1. The plan should be simple, yet effective, to prevent undue confusion and to achieve the intended goal. When drawing up your own disaster plan, make use of the emergency services for advice.

2. Wherever possible, plan to use existing equipment and supplies in the school for emergency purposes

3. Consider how to evacuate babies and toddlers and any other persons who are not able to walk unaided

4. All staff should be familiar with the various tasks which are required during an evacuation. Staff should take turns, during practices, to control various activities so that if one staff member is absent, the plan will still work.

In addition all staff must know:

-the location of the electricity mains

-location of water mains

-the exit and evacuation routs

-predetermined assembly areas

-location and use of first aid kits

-the location and use of fire extinguishers

5. Have all emergency numbers readily available usually the the principal/ supervisor or secretary will be responsible for notifying the authorities.

6. Two different signals should be required to know when to evacuate and when to shelter

7. The school should have a hosepipe which long enough to reach all parts of the building

8. Teacher should know which children are absent in the event of an emergency

9. List with children with health conditions who require special attention

10. Contact should be made in advance with any homes or business who can help in a crisis

11. For incase children need to be kept overnight have the following ready:

-blankets and mattresses

-24 hour supply of water

-gas stove for heating food or boiling water

-household bleach for water purification

3.2 Symptoms that may indicate that a child has a hearing problem: (5)
Baby:
1. Absence of startle response to loud noise
2. Failure to stop crying (after three months) when adult talks to baby 3. Failure to turn head in direction of sound by four months 4. Absence of babbling by 6-8 months
5. No response to adult commands like “no” or “yes”

Other child:
1. Frequent mouth breathing
2. Failure to turn head in direction of sound
3. Slow language acquisition
4. Poor speech patterns
5. Difficulty in following instructions
6. Rubbing or pulling on ears
7. Mumbling
8. Shouting or talking loudly
9. Quiet and withdrawn
10. Using gestures more than words
11. Imitating play of peers
12. Inappropriate response to questions
13. Mispronouncing words
14. Unusual voice quality

The handling of a head lice outbreak at the school (8) p.133 A child with lice –
– Will experience itching of the scalp and also
– Behind the ears and at the base of the neck
Management –
– Exclude infested children from group until treated
– Wash hair with a special medicated shampoo
– And rinse with a vinegar/water solution
– Remove nits by using a fine-toothed comb
– Also dry with hair dryer (it helps to destroy eggs)
– Thoroughly clean child’s environment as well; vacuum carpets/ upholstery, wash/dry or dry clean bedding, clothing and hairbrushes. – All friends and family should be carefully checked.
– Seal non washable items in plastic bag for 2 weeks

Question 4

4.1 What advice can the teacher give parents regarding the following:

Prevention of HIV/infection in the preschool situation (10) p.21,22 – tutorial letter 502/2012

1. Keep all sores or cuts on you and the children’s hands covered with a waterproof plaster.

2. Do not share items which may become contaminated with blood (such as tootbrushes or razors)

3. Disinfect all spills of blood or blood-stained body fluids with a solution of 1:10 ordinary household bleach (one part of bleach into nine parts of water) which is freshly mixed every day.

4. Take universal precautions when treating any bleeding wound or dealing with any blood-contaminated body fluids or articles

5. Only handle any blood-contaminated clothes and cloths with gloves and soak these items in the bleach (hypochlorite) solution before washing them with hot water and soap.

6. Always put up a notice warning parents and staff about any chickenpox (or other communicable disease) outbreaks in the ECD centre or school as
people with a low immunity are particularly sensitive to some infections.

7. However this precaution protects all children from unnecessary infection (HIV-infected or not)!

8. All blood, blood products and blood-stained body fluids must be regarded as potentially infectious.

9. (This does not apply to faeces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine and vomitus unless they contain visible blood!)

10. Any person must use every possible method to prevent direct contact with blood or blood-contaminated fluids, for example using waterproof gloves or plastic bags to protect hands.

11. Nonporous gloves should also be worn during the cleanup of blood spills.

12. Thorough hand washing must be done after the gloves are removed or after any accidental blood contact.

4.2 How would you handle a child with respiratory distress: (pg 230 –prescribe book)

1. Summon emergency medical help if the child shows signs of: – Anxiety,
– wheezing,
– Restlessness,
-loss of consciousness,
-or bleu discoloration of the nail beds or lips,
-Fatigue
-inability to recognize teacher
-loss of consciousness
-signs of impending respiratory failure and cardiac arrest

2. Reassure the child

3. Administer any medication (such as inhaler) prescribed for the child’s acute asthmatic symptoms immediately

4. Encourage the child to relax and breathe slowly and deeply (Anxiety makes breathing more difficult

5.Have the child assume a position that is most comfortable. Breathing is usually easier when sitting or standing up.

6. Notify the child’s family

4.3 What type of information will be recorded when a child is injured at an ECD centre: (pg 44 tut502)

-name of child
-date of incident
-description of injury
-where it occurred
-when it occurred
-what injuries resulted
-was blood present
-how much blood
-where was the blood
-what was done for the child
-when was the parent notified
-who was in charge when the incident occurred
-what measures are necessary to prevent such incident again

-If your child has a febrile seizure, stay calm and:

• 1. Make sure your child is in a safe place and cannot fall down or hit something hard.

• 2. Lay your child on his or her side to prevent choking.

• 3. Watch for signs of breathing difficulty, including any color change in your child’s face.

• 4. If the seizure lasts more than several minutes, or your child turns blue, it may be a more serious type of seizure — call 911 right away.

It’s also important to know what you should not do during a febrile seizure:

• 5. Do not try to hold or restrain your child.

• 6. Do not put anything in your child’s mouth.

• 7. Do not try to give your child fever-reducing medicine.

• 8 .Do not try to put your child into cool or lukewarm water to cool off.

If your child is vomiting or has a lot of saliva coming from the mouth turn their head to the side to prevent choking.

When the seizure is over, call your doctor for an evaluation to determine the cause of the fever. The doctor will examine your child and ask you to describe the seizure. In most cases, no additional treatment is necessary. The doctor may recommend the standard treatment for fevers, which is acetaminophen or ibuprofen. But if your child is under 1 year old, looks very ill, or has other symptoms such as diarrhea or vomiting, the doctor may recommend some testing.

Get help right away from a health care provider if:

• the seizure lasts more than several minutes
• your child is having trouble breathing or is changing color • your child looks ill
• your child looks lethargic and is not responding normally • your child looks dehydrated

Febrile seizures can be scary to witness but remember that they’re fairly common, are not usually a symptom of serious illness, and in most cases don’t lead to other health problems. If you have any questions or concerns, talk with your doctor.

October/November 2010

Question 1

1. b

2. c

3. b

4. c

5. c

6. c

7. e

8. c

9. d

10. c

11. b

12. b

13. a

14. a

15. b

16. a

17. a

18. a

19. e

20. d

21. b

22. e

23. e

24. c

25. b

26. d

27. e

28. a

29. e

30. b

Question 2

2.1 Discuss how you will maintain the general health of children: ( Pg36 prescribe book)

Promoting children s health:

1.contribute by onsite health care,

2.educational programs- health education

3.safe learning environments,

4.and nutritious meals.

5. including teachers observations

6. daily health checks

7. continually monitoring children’s health

8. identifying potential health needs

9. teachers must be alert to changes in children during the day

10. Family involvement

2.2 How to handle a baby with febrile convulsions:

• 1. Make sure your child is in a safe place and cannot fall down or hit something hard.

• 2. Lay your child on his or her side to prevent choking.

• 3. Watch for signs of breathing difficulty, including any color change in your child’s face.

• 4. If the seizure lasts more than several minutes, or your child turns blue, it may be a more serious type of seizure — call 911 right away.

It’s also important to know what you should not do during a febrile seizure:

• 5. Do not try to hold or restrain your child.

• 6. Do not put anything in your child’s mouth.

• 7. Do not try to give your child fever-reducing medicine.

• 8 .Do not try to put your child into cool or lukewarm water to cool off.

If your child is vomiting or has a lot of saliva coming from the mouth turn their head to the side to prevent choking.

When the seizure is over, call your doctor for an evaluation to determine the cause of the fever. The doctor will examine your child and ask you to describe the seizure. In most cases, no additional treatment is necessary. The doctor may recommend the standard treatment for fevers, which is acetaminophen or ibuprofen. But if your child is under 1 year old, looks very ill, or has other symptoms such as diarrhea or vomiting, the doctor may recommend some testing.

Get help right away from a health care provider if:

• the seizure lasts more than several minutes
• your child is having trouble breathing or is changing color • your child looks ill
• your child looks lethargic and is not responding normally • your child looks dehydrated

Febrile seizures can be scary to witness but remember that they’re fairly common, are not usually a symptom of serious illness, and in most cases
don’t lead to other health problems. If you have any questions or concerns, talk with your doctor.

2.3 Achild with sand in his eyes wil:

-constanly rube eyes

-eyes will be tearry

Treat by washing eyes with water.

The handling of a head lice outbreak at the school (8) p.133

– Will experience itching of the scalp and also
– Behind the ears and at the base of the neck
Management –
– Exclude infested children from group until treated
– Wash hair with a special medicated shampoo
– And rinse with a vinegar/water solution
– Remove nits by using a fine-toothed comb
– Also dry with hair dryer (it helps to destroy eggs)
– Thoroughly clean child’s environment as well; vacuum carpets/ upholstery, wash/dry or dry clean bedding, clothing and hairbrushes. – All friends and family should be carefully checked.
– Seal non washable items in plastic bag for 2 weeks

Question 3

3.1

2. Feeding concerns during a child’s preschool years:

The child’s refusal to eat (5) p.441 (7th)

– Children may occasionally refuse food either because they are not
hungry or because they are asserting newly found independence. – Whatever the cause, the best response is to ignore it. – Active growing children will not let themselves starve; they will get hungry and eat. – If nutritious food is provided for meals and snacks and if families and teachers do not give in to substituting the less nutritious foods that the child requests, hunger will eventually win over the challenge of refusal.

Dawdling and messiness p393 (8th )

-cannot be avoided but can be controlled
-various reasons: -they have eaten enough, rather eats something else, or learned they will get attention -establishing and enforcing rules will usually end dawdling -decide on a time for eating

-understandable messiness can be ignored but if a child try to gain attention remove from table

However, it is important that the teacher does not “try too hard” or attempt to coax or convince children to eat, because this can lead to unpleasant battles and emotion-packed feeding sessions.

3. Discuss the guidelines for the administration of medication in an ECD centre. (10) p.136 (7th) [Table 6-1]

-Be honest when giving children medication! (Use the opportunity to help children understand the relationship between taking a medication and recovering from an illness or infection.

-Offer a small sip of juice or cracker to eliminate an unpleasant taste or read a favourite story as a reward for their cooperation).

-Designate one individual to accept medication from families and administer it to children. (This step will help minimize the opportunity for errors, such as omitting a dose or giving a dose twice.)

-When medication is accepted from a family, it should – – be in the original container,
– labeled with the child’s name,
– with the name of the drug,
– include directions for the exact amount and frequency the medication is to be given.

-Never give medicine from a container that has been prescribed for another individual.

-Store all medicines in a locked cabinet.
– If it is necessary to refrigerate a medication, place it in a locked box and store it on a top shelf in the refrigerator.

-Concentrate on what you are doing and do not talk with anyone until you are finished.

-Read the label on the container or bottle three times – – when removing it from the locked cabinet
– before pouring it from the container
– after pouring it from the container

-Administer medication on time, and give only the amount prescribed.

-Be sure you have the correct child.

-Record and maintain a permanent record of each dose of medicine that is administered. Include the: – – date and time the medicine was given
– name of teacher administering the medication
– dose of medication given
– any unusual physical changes or behaviours observed after the medicine was administered.

-Inform the child’s family of the dosage(s) and time medication was given, as well as any unusual reactions that may have occurred.

-Adults should never take any medication in front of children.

Question 4

4.1 School policy on HIV /Aids

1. Keep all sores or cuts on you and the children’s hands covered with a waterproof plaster. 2. Do not share items which may become contaminated with blood (such as tootbrushes or razors) 3. Disinfect all spills of blood or blood-stained body fluids with a solution of 1:10 ordinary household bleach (one part of bleach into nine parts of water) which is freshly mixed every day. 4. Take universal precautions when treating any bleeding wound or dealing with any blood-contaminated body fluids or articles. 5. Only handle any blood-contaminated clothes and cloths with gloves and soak these items in the bleach (hypochlorite) solution before washing them with hot water and soap. 6. Always put up a notice warning parents and staff about any chickenpox (or other communicable disease) outbreaks in the ECD centre or school as people with a low immunity are particularly sensitive to some infections. 7. However this precaution protects all children from unnecessary infection (HIV-infected or not)! 8. All blood, blood products and blood-stained body fluids must be regarded as potentially infectious. 9. (This does not apply to faeces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine and vomitus unless they contain visible blood!) 10. Any person must use every possible method to prevent direct contact with blood or blood-contaminated fluids, for example using waterproof gloves or plastic bags to protect hands. 11. Nonporous gloves should also be worn during the cleanup of blood spills. 12. Thorough hand washing must be done after the gloves are removed or after any accidental blood contact

4.2 During woodwork a 5 year old has a serious laceration how will you handle this:

-follow universal infection control precautions, including the use of latex/
vinyl gloves

-apply direct pressure to the wound, using a clean cloth or sterile pad to stop any bleeding

-wash the wound under running water for at least 5 minutes or until all foreign particles have been removed

-cover the wound with a sterile bandage. A thin layer of antibiotic ointment can be applied to superficial abrasions if permitted

-apply a cold pack, wrapped in disposable paper towel or plastic bag to the area this can help to slow the bleeding and reduce swelling

-inform the child’s family of the injury. Have them check to be sure the child’s tetanus immunization is current

-watch for signs of infection such is warmth redness, swelling or drainage

-puncture typed cuts that are deep or ragged require medical attention because of the increased risk of infection. Stitches may be needed to close a gash greater than 1.2 cm especially located on child’s face, chest or back

4.3 Information given to parents on:

Nutritious packed lunches: pg 464 (7th)

• A wide variety of raw fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of vitamin C, vitamin A and fiber. • Fruits and vegetables should be sectioned, sliced or diced into small pieces to prevent choking and make it easier for children to chew. • Whole grains or enriched breads and grain products are also good high-fiber snack foods. (the variety of flavors of whole grains also add interest to children’s diets) (Enriched breads and cereals are refined products to which iron, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, and folic acid are added in amounts equal to the original whole grain product)
• Unsweetened beverages such as full-strength fruit and vegetable juices also make good choices for snacks. (Juices made from oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tomatoes are rich in vitamin C. • Carbonated beverages, fruit drinks, fruit ades, and fruit punches are unacceptable options. (These beverages contain large amounts of sugar, water and no other nutrients, except perhaps some added vitamin C) • Water is essential for good health (Children should drinks six to eight small glasses of water a day.

Important information to remember regarding sun – protection:

-UV rays penetrate clouds so protection is still necessary during cloudy weather

-certain UV rays penetrate glass therefore children playing indoors close to a sunny window are not exempt from sunburn

-UV rays penetrate water up to one meter sun protection is important during swimming

-Sun protection should be a regular habit established from babyhood

-sun protection should be throughout the year not only during summer months

-persons with fair skin, red hair and freckles are especially at risk of sun damage

-a person living at the high veldt receives 20% more radiation

Role of guardian regarding sun protection:

-Limit the time which children spend playing outside the hottest part of the day (11hoo to 15hoo) as there is a 50% drop in the intensity of radiation by 15hoo and a 75% drop by 16hoo

-Outdoor play areas should be adequate shaded. If there are no shade trees in
the playground the shade-netting or large umbrellas should be considered

-all children should use sun creams with a protection of at least spf15. Normal sun screen preparations should not be used on babies younger than 6 months of age.

-the teacher must ensure that children wear adequate protective clothing when exposed to the sun. wearing a wide brimmed hats should be mandatory for both guardian and children.

May/ June 2011

Question 1

1. 5

2. 4

3. 5

4. 2

5. 2

6. 1

7. 4

8. 4

9. 1

10. 4

11. 4

12. 4

13. 1

14. 4

15. 2

16. 2

17. 5

18. 4

19. 4

20. 3

21. 5

22. 4

23. 2

24. 2

25. 2

26. 5

27. 1

28. 5

29. 5

30. 4

Question 2

2.1 How to prevent the contamination of food in a ECD centre: (10) pg 282-284

1. The cleanliness of the kitchen and kitchen equipment is a vital factor in assuring food safety. 2. Traffic through the kitchen should be minimized to reduce the amount of dirt and bacteria that are brought in. 3. All areas of the kitchen should be cleaned on a regular basis. 4. A cleaning schedule is helpful for making sure that floors, walls, ranges, ovens, and refrigerators are routinely cleaned. 5. Equipment used in the direct handling of food must also receive extra care and attention. 6. Countertops and other surfaces on which food is prepared should be sanitized or disinfected with a chlorine bleach solution each time a different food is prepared on it. 7. A fresh solution must be mixed daily to retain its disinfecting strength. 8. Cutting boards – should be nonporous and always washed with hot, soapy water and sanitized with bleach solution after each use. – Designating separate cutting boards for different food preparations reduces the risk of cross contamination. 9. Dishes may be washed by hand or with a mechanical dishwasher. If washed by hand – was dishes with hot water and detergent, – rinse dishes in hot ,clear water

– sanitize dishes with chlorine bleach solution or scald with boiling water – air dry (not dried with a towel) all dishes, utensils, and surfaces 10. If mechanical dishwasher is used the machine must meet local health department standards.

2.2 A 5-year old child has a bleeding nose. How would you handle this situation? (10) p.243 – 8th

1. Follow universal infection control precautions, including the use of
latex/vinyl gloves. 2. Keep other children away from blood.
3. Place the child in a sitting position, with head tilted slightly forward, to prevent any swallowing of blood. 4. Reassure child
5. Have the child breath through his/her mouth.
6. Firmly grasp the child’s nostrils (lower half) and squeeze together for at least 5 minutes before releasing the pressure. 7. If bleeding continues, pinch the nostrils together for another 10 minutes. 8. Clean child up (clothes, hands, face)

9. Have the child play quietly for the hour or so afterward to prevent bleeding from resuming. 10. Remind child not to blow or pick nose.
11. Record all details
12. Inform parents
13. Encourage parents to discuss the problem with the child’s physician if nosebleeds occur repeatedly.

2.3 Preventing HIV infection:
1. Keep all sores or cuts on you and the children’s hands covered with a waterproof plaster.

2. Do not share items which may become contaminated with blood (such as tootbrushes or razors)

3. Disinfect all spills of blood or blood-stained body fluids with a solution of 1:10 ordinary household bleach (one part of bleach into nine parts of water) which is freshly mixed every day.

4. Take universal precautions when treating any bleeding wound or dealing with any blood-contaminated body fluids or articles.

5. Only handle any blood-contaminated clothes and cloths with gloves and soak these items in the bleach (hypochlorite) solution before washing them with hot water and soap.

6. Always put up a notice warning parents and staff about any chickenpox
(or other communicable disease) outbreaks in the ECD centre or school as people with a low immunity are particularly sensitive to some infections.

7. However this precaution protects all children from unnecessary infection (HIV-infected or not)!

8. All blood, blood products and blood-stained body fluids must be regarded as potentially infectious.

9. (This does not apply to faeces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine and vomitus unless they contain visible blood!) 10. Any person must use every possible method to prevent direct contact with blood or blood-contaminated fluids, for example using waterproof gloves or plastic bags to protect hands.

11. Nonporous gloves should also be worn during the cleanup of blood spills.

12. Thorough hand washing must be done after the gloves are removed or after any accidental blood contact

Question 3

3.1 Briefly discuss how you will ensure the safety of the child in the outdoor area of an ECD centre. (20) p.177 – 7th edition.

1. Important of adult-child ratio and group size.

2. Adequate and continual supervision.

3. Perimeter fence and adequate gate (children not able to open)

4. Prevent potential risks from – water
– dustbins
– poisons
– electricity
– falls
– burns
– choking
– thorns
– poisonous plants
– bees
– other stinging insects

5. Availability of first aid supplies

6. Safe storage of hazardous equipment and materials (gardening equipment, insecticides, paints, etc)

7. Evacuation procedure

8. Safety of equipment and rules for safe use of equipment.

9. Equipment choice – suitable for age
– not too high or complicated
– minimal maintenance
– fits into available space
– fits budget

10. Positioning of equipment – impact absorbing surface not too close. (12 inches in depth) – protection from sun
– climbing and high equipment securely anchored
– finishes are non-toxic and intact
– position to prevent excessive crowding

11. Maintenance – weekly checks of equipment
– wooden equipment oiled and checked for splinters
– nuts and bolts regularly tightened and checked for rust – no missing pieces or sharp edges

12. Weekly safety checks and correction of problems
13. Inaccessible parking area

14. Sufficient protection from environment hazards.

15. Play area must be located adjacent to the premises or within safe walking distance.

16. Equipment -is placed sufficiently far apart to allow a smooth flow of traffic and adequate supervision – an appropriate safety zone is provided around equipment

17. Bathroom facilities and drinking fountain are easily accessible.

18. Selection of play equipment is appropriate for children’s ages.

19. Grounds are maintained on a regular basis and are free of debris; – grass is mowed
– broken equipment is removed

20. Wading and swimming pools are always supervised. Water is drained when not in use

3.2 Identification of a child with a hearing problem:

Baby:
Absence of startle response to loud noise
Failure to stop crying (after three months) when adult talks to baby Failure to turn head in direction of sound by four months Absence of babbling by 6-8 months
No response to adult commands like “no” or “yes”

Other child:
Frequent mouth breathing
Failure to turn head in direction of sound
Slow language acquisition
Poor speech patterns
Difficulty in following instructions
Rubbing or pulling on ears
Mumbling
Shouting or talking loudly
Quiet and withdrawn
Using gestures more than words
Imitating play of peers
Inappropriate response to questions
Mispronouncing words
Unusual voice quality

Promotion of good health habits during toilet routines:

-wash hands before and after use of toilet

4. Guidelines for administration of medicine in the ECD centre:

-Be honest when giving children medication! (Use the opportunity to help children understand the relationship between taking a medication and recovering from an illness or infection.

-Offer a small sip of juice or cracker to eliminate an unpleasant taste or read a favourite story as a reward for their cooperation).

-Designate one individual to accept medication from families and administer it to children. (This step will help minimize the opportunity for errors, such as omitting a dose or giving a dose twice.)

-When medication is accepted from a family, it should – – be in the original container,
– labeled with the child’s name,
– with the name of the drug,
– include directions for the exact amount and frequency the medication is to be given.

-Never give medicine from a container that has been prescribed for another individual.

-Store all medicines in a locked cabinet.
– If it is necessary to refrigerate a medication, place it in a locked box and store it on a top shelf in the refrigerator.

-Concentrate on what you are doing and do not talk with anyone until you are finished.

-Read the label on the container or bottle three times – – when removing it from the locked cabinet
– before pouring it from the container
– after pouring it from the container

-Administer medication on time, and give only the amount prescribed.

-Be sure you have the correct child.

-Record and maintain a permanent record of each dose of medicine that is administered. Include the: – – date and time the medicine was given
– name of teacher administering the medication
– dose of medication given
– any unusual physical changes or behaviours observed after the medicine was administered.

-Inform the child’s family of the dosage(s) and time medication was given, as well as any unusual reactions that may have occurred.

-Adults should never take any medication in front of children.

Question 4

4.1 Discuss the principles which you will take into consideration when
planning the preschool menu. (10)[Chapter 18 8th]

1. Meeting children’s nutritional needs.
2. Addressing any existing funding or licensing requirements. 3. Providing sensory appeal (taste, texture and visual interest) 4. Making children comfortable by including familiar foods.
5. Encouraging healthy food habits by introducing familiar foods. 6. Providing safe food and serving it in clean surroundings. 7. Staying within budgetary limits.
8. Fresh, edible garnishes may be used if time and budget permit. 9. Providing alternatives for children who have food allergies, eating problems, and special nutritional needs. 10. You can ensure that all food groups from the Pyramid are included. – grains

– vegetables
– fruits
– milk
– meat and beans
– (it helps you to balance meals)
11. Add variety and try different ethnic cuisines.
12. Offer foods prepared in different ways.

4.2 A toddler is choking on a piece of apple. How will you handle it: (pg 228 8th)

If the object cannot be easily removed easily and the child is conscious, quickly: -summon emergency medical assistance
-administer the Heimlich maneuver. Stand or kneel behind the child with your arms around the child’s waist -make a fist with one hand, thumbs tucked in
– Place the fisted hand against the child’s abdomen, midway between the base of the rib cage and the navel -press your fisted hand into the child’s abdomen, with a quick inwards and upwards thrust -continue to repeat abdominal thrusts until the object is dislodged or the child regains consciousness -if the child loses consciousness and is still breathing, lower him or her to the floor and continue abdominal thrusts until the
object is dislodged -if the child loses consciousness and stops breathing lower him to the floor and start with CPR check and make sure the air goes in otherwise reposition the child – look in mouth for foreign objects each time before new breathing cycle -if child starts to breathe stop CPR and roll child into recovering position -make sure the child receives follow up medical attention

4.3 How to handle a child with:

Diarrhea

1. Observe for dehydration –
– dry mouth
– listlessness
– sunken eyes
– lack of tears
– reduced urinary output
– rapid and weak pulse
– skin loses elasticity

2. Give rehydration solution to drink –as much as will take – 1L water
– 8 teaspoons sugar
– half teaspoon salt

3. Keep written record of –
– Number, amount, appearance, smell, colour and consistency of stool – (keep last one for parent/health professional)

4. Check for fever

5. Watch for vomiting

6. Strict hygiene – hand washing, etc.

7. Universal precautions

8. Contact parents to collect child

9. Have copy of full details available for parents to take to health professional

Ear Ache
– will tug or rub the affected ear,
– may refuse to eat or swallow,
– may show difficulty hearing,
– may have difficulty sleeping
– may cry when placed in a reclining position
Management –
– Have the child lie down with the affected ear on a soft blanket; the warmth helps soothe discomfort. A small, dry cotton ball placed in the outer ear may also help reduce pain by keeping air out of the ear canal.

October/ November 2011

QUESTION 1

1) 4 p.16 (8th edition)
2) 1 (ass 1 -2012)
3) 2 (ass 1 -2012)
4) 2 p.440 (7th edition)
5) 1
6) 3 p. 4 (8th edition)
7) 3 (ass 1 – 2012)
8) 4 p.53 (7th edition)
9) 4 p. 9,10 (8th)
10) 2 p.308,309 (7th)
11) 4 p.59 (7th edition)
12) 3 p.23 (7th edition)
13) 5 p.243 (8th edition)
14) 5 (ass 1 -2012)
15) 1 p.59 (8th edition)
16) 4 p.110 (8th edition)
17) 2 p.141 (7th edition)
18) 4 (ass 1 -2012)
19) 4 (ass 1 – 2012)
20) 2 p.144 (8th edition)
21) 3 p.82 (7th edition), p.64 (8th edition)
22) 5 p.34 (7th edition)
23) 3 p.79 (8th edition)
24) 5 p.157 (7th edition), p.131 (8th edition)
25) 1 p.34 (7th edition), p.13 (8th edition)
26) 1 p.90 (8th edition)
27) 4 p.100 (7th edition), p.80 (8th edition)
28) 4 (ass 1 – 2012)
29) 5 p.162 (7th edition), p.131 8th edition)
30) 3 p.233 (8th edition)

SECTION B:
QUESTION 2.1Briefly discuss three environmental factors which have a negative or positive effect on the health of your own community. (6) p.7 (8th version) Tutorial 501 p.9

1) (Positive effect) = Adequate health care facilities helps prevent serious illness. Also the children will therefore be immunized regularly. People are treated promptly and fair. 2) (Positive effect) = We live in an urban area far from factories or pollution which is positive for a child’s health. 3) (Positive effect) = We live in an area which provides a healthy school environment with programs to improve children’s eating and physical activity as well.

Question 2.2 Discuss the importance of kitchen hygiene and mention what precautions should be taken by staff to ensure this. (10) p.282-284 (7th edition)

11. The cleanliness of the kitchen and kitchen equipment is a vital factor
in assuring food safety. 12. Traffic through the kitchen should be minimized to reduce the amount of dirt and bacteria that are brought in. 13. All areas of the kitchen should be cleaned on a regular basis. 14. A cleaning schedule is helpful for making sure that floors, walls, ranges, ovens, and refrigerators are routinely cleaned. 15. Equipment used in the direct handling of food must also receive extra care and attention. 16. Countertops and other surfaces on which food is prepared should be sanitized or disinfected with a chlorine bleach solution each time a different food is prepared on it. 17. A fresh solution must be mixed daily to retain its disinfecting strength. 18. Cutting boards – should be nonporous and always washed with hot, soapy water and sanitized with bleach solution after each use. – Designating separate cutting boards for different food preparations reduces the risk of cross contamination. 19. Dishes may be washed by hand or with a mechanical dishwasher. If washed by hand – was dishes with hot water and detergent, – rinse dishes in hot ,clear water

– sanitize dishes with chlorine bleach solution or scald with boiling water – air dry (not dried with a towel) all dishes, utensils, and surfaces 20. If mechanical dishwasher is used the machine must meet local health department standards.

Question 2.3 How would you recognise and manage the following conditions:

1. A child who is complaining of an earache (5) p.170 (7th edition) 2.
A child with earache –
– will tug or rub the affected ear,
– may refuse to eat or swallow,
– may show difficulty hearing,
– may have difficulty sleeping
– may cry when placed in a reclining position
Management –
– Have the child lie down with the affected ear on a soft blanket; the warmth helps soothe discomfort. – A small, dry cotton ball placed in the outer ear may also help reduce pain by keeping air out of the ear canal.

3. A child with a second degree burn on his hand (7) p.158 (7th edition) Recognise – The surface skin is red and blistered
Management –
– Use caution to protect yourself from the heat source
– Quickly submerge the burned areas in cool water,
– Hold under running water,
– Or cover with a cool, wet towel for 10-15 minutes.
– (cool water temperatures lessen the depth of burn as well as decrease swelling and pain) – Cover the burn with a sterile gauze dressing and
– tape in place. (Do not use greasy ointments or creams as it can increase the risk of infection) – Elevate the burned body part to relieve discomfort.
– Advise parents to contact the child’s health care provider immediately

4. A child with lice in his/her hair (7) p.133 (7th edition) A child with lice –
– Will experience itching of the scalp and also
– Behind the ears and at the base of the neck
Management –
– Exclude infested children from group until treated
– Wash hair with a special medicated shampoo
– And rinse with a vinegar/water solution
– Remove nits by using a fine-toothed comb
– Also dry with hair dryer (it helps to destroy eggs)
– Thoroughly clean child’s environment as well; vacuum carpets/ upholstery, wash/dry or dry clean bedding, clothing and hairbrushes. – All friends and family should be carefully checked.
– Seal non washable items in plastic bag for 2 weeks

Question 3.1 Briefly discuss how you will ensure the safety of babies and toddlers in an Early Childhood Development (ECD) centre. (10) p.198, 199, 201, 202, 206, 227, 233 7th edition)

1. Care-takers must have knowledge of developmental skills (is essential
for protecting children’s safety) 2. Maintaining quality supervision (never leave children unattended. If a teacher must leave an area, it should be supervised by another adult.) 3. Play spaces for infants and toddlers should be separated from those of older children (to avoid injuries and confrontations) 4. Large, open space, free of obstacles (also encourages very young children to move about and explore without hesitation) 5. Adequate space (infants = 33 square per feet per child; toddlers = 50 square feet per child.) 6. Adequate bathroom facilities (are also essential for convenience and health concerns) 7. Having locked cabinets available for storing medicines and other potentially poisonous substances, (such as cleaning products and paint). 8. Toys, labels and art materials must be nontoxic

9. Toys and equipment must be developmentally appropriate 10. Safety measures, such as locking outside doors and gates, (installing key pads, or issuing card keys), are effective for controlling unauthorised access.

Question 3.2 Briefly discuss the following common feeding concerns during the early childhood years: 1. The child’s refusal to eat (5) p.441 (7th)
– Children may occasionally refuse food either because they are not hungry or because they are asserting newly found independence. – Whatever the cause, the best response is to ignore it. – Active growing children will not let themselves starve; they will get hungry and eat. – If nutritious food is provided for meals and snacks and if families and teachers do not give in to substituting the less nutritious foods that the child requests, hunger will eventually win over the challenge of refusal. – However, it is important that the teacher does not “try too hard” or attempt to coax or convince children to eat, because this can lead to unpleasant battles and emotion-packed feeding sessions.

1. The effects of TV on food preferences and food choices (5) p.442 (7th) – Television advertising exerts a major effect on children’s attitudes toward food. – Many children spend more time watching television than they spend in school. – It is estimated that a child is exposed to three hours of commercials per week and to 19,000-22,000 commercials each year.
– Over one-half of these commercials are for food.

– (Cereals, cookies, candy, sweetened beverages, and fast-food offerings are the most frequently advertised foods) – Many of these foods are high in sugar or fat and are too calorie-dense to be healthful choices for young children. – (An additional concern is the extent to which adult food choices are influenced by the child’s food preferences that were learned from television food commercials.)

2. The prevention of obesity in babies (5) p.438-439 (7th) – Prevention of obesity should start with infant feeding. – Look for the infant’s signals of satiety and stop feeding when they occur. – (The toddler and preschooler will usually signal or stop eating when they have had enough food, unless eating or not eating is their best way to get attention.) – Forcing children to continue eating interferes with their ability to recognize when they are full and can contribute to obesity. – Children with one or two obese parents should be helped during early childhood years to make wise choices of nutrient-dense foods. – Serving children nutritious foods, involving them in physical activity and limiting their sedentary activities, such as television viewing and computer/video games is critical for maintaining normal body weight and reducing the risk of short- and long-term health problems. – [A child should never be asked to present a “clean plate” before receiving their dessert. – (This is one sure way to start the child on a road to obesity or eating disorders.) – Rewards should not be offered for trying a new food.

– (Also, foods should never be used as a reward for any type of behaviour.)]

Question 3.3 Discuss the guidelines for the administration of medication in an ECD centre. (10) p.136 (7th) [Table 6-1] 1. Be honest when giving children medication! (Use the opportunity to help children understand the relationship between taking a medication and recovering from an illness or infection. 2. Offer a small sip of juice or cracker to eliminate an unpleasant taste or read a favourite story as a reward for their
cooperation). 3. Designate one individual to accept medication from families and administer it to children. (This step will help minimize the opportunity for errors, such as omitting a dose or giving a dose twice.) 4. When medication is accepted from a family, it should – – be in the original container,

– labeled with the child’s name,
– with the name of the drug,
– include directions for the exact amount and frequency the medication is to be given. 5. Never give medicine from a container that has been prescribed for another individual. 6. Store all medicines in a locked cabinet.

– If it is necessary to refrigerate a medication, place it in a locked box and store it on a top shelf in the refrigerator. 7. Concentrate on what you are doing and do not talk with anyone until you are finished. 8. Read the label on the container or bottle three times – – when removing it from the locked cabinet

– before pouring it from the container
– after pouring it from the container
9. Administer medication on time, and give only the amount prescribed. 10. Be sure you have the correct child.
11. Record and maintain a permanent record of each dose of medicine that is administered. Include the: – – date and time the medicine was given
– name of teacher administering the medication
– dose of medication given
– any unusual physical changes or behaviours observed after the medicine was administered. 12. Inform the child’s family of the dosage(s) and time medication was given, as well as any unusual reactions that may have occurred. 13. Adults should never take any medication in front of children.

Question 4.1 Explain your understanding of the term “universal precautions in the ECD centre” (10) p.139, 255 1. Universal precautions are special infection-control guidelines 2. that have been developed to
prevent the spread of diseases transmitted via blood and other body fluids. 3. These guidelines address several areas of precaution – 4. – Barrier protection (including the use of latex/vinyl gloves and handwashing) 5. – Environmental disinfection

6. – Proper disposal of contaminated materials (and must be followed carefully whenever caring for children’s injuries) 7. Procedures should be – written up
8. – Posted where they are visible, and
9. – Reviewed periodically with all employees
10. Teachers must also take precautions, such as careful handwashing, to protect themselves from unnecessary exposure.

Question 4.2 During a sporting activity an 8 year old child sprains her ankle. How would you handle this situation? (8) p. 278 (7th) & p.244 (8th) 1. Splint the injury
2. And treat it as if it were broken
3. Elevate the injured part
4. And apply ice packs
5. Intermittently for 15 to 20 minutes at a time
6. For several hours.
7. Notify the child’s parents
8. And encourage them to have the child checked by a physician.

Question 4.3 What advice can the teacher give parents regarding the following: 1. Nutritious packed lunches for foundation phase learners at break (5) p.464 (7th) • A wide variety of raw fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of vitamin C, vitamin A and fiber. • Fruits and vegetables should be sectioned, sliced or diced into small pieces to prevent choking and make it easier for children to chew. • Whole grains or enriched breads and grain products are also good high-fiber snack foods. (the variety of flavors of whole grains also add interest to children’s diets) (Enriched breads and cereals are refined products to which iron, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, and folic acid are added in amounts equal to the original whole grain product) • Unsweetened beverages such as
full-strength fruit and vegetable juices also make good choices for snacks. (Juices made from oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tomatoes are rich in vitamin C. • Carbonated beverages, fruit drinks, fruit ades, and fruit punches are unacceptable options. (These beverages contain large amounts of sugar, water and no other nutrients, except perhaps some added vitamin C) • Water is essential for good health (Children should drinks six to eight small glasses of water a day.

2. Prevention of nappy rash (4) p.129 (8th)
• Prompt changing of wet and/or soiled diapers
• Followed by a thorough cleansing of the skin (is often sufficient to prevent and treat diaper rash.) • Baby products, such as powders and lotions, should be avoided (because they can encourage bacterial growth when combined with urine and feces) • A thin layer of petroleum jelly or zinc oxide ointment can be applied to irritated areas to protect the skin.

Question 4.4 Explain what safety precautions should be taken when planning an outing for Grade R children in your ECD centre. (8) p.212 (8th) 1. (Most importantly) Programs should have written policies outlining procedures that must be followed when taking children on field trips. 2. Families should be informed in advance of an outing and their written permission obtained for each excursion. 3. On the day of the trip, a notice should be posted on the classroom door to remind families and staff of the children’s destination and when they will be leaving and returning to the building. 4. At least one adult accompanying the group should have first aid and CPR training. 5. A first aid kit and cell phone should also be taken along. 6. Tags can be pinned on children with the center’s name and phone number. (Do not include the children’s names; this enables strangers to call children by their name and makes it easier to lure them away from the group.) 7. A complete list of the children’s emergency contact information,(including families’ telephone numbers, child’s physician, and emergency service numbers) should also be taken along. 8. Procedures and safety policies should be carefully reviewed with the staff and children prior to the outing. 9. Vehicles owned and operated by a program are usually required to carry liability insurance and are therefore preferable.
(However, neighborhood walks and public bus rides are always safe alternatives)

May/ June 2012

Question 1

31. 5

32. 4

33. 5

34. 2

35. 2

36. 1

37. 4

38. 4

39. 1

40. 4

41. 4

42. 4

43. 1

44. 4

45. 2

46. 2

47. 5

48. 4

49. 4

50. 3

51. 5

52. 4

53. 2

54. 2

55. 2

56. 5

57. 1

58. 5

59. 5

60. 4

Question 2

2.1 How to prevent the contamination of food in a ECD centre: (10) pg 282-284

21. The cleanliness of the kitchen and kitchen equipment is a vital factor in assuring food safety. 22. Traffic through the kitchen should be minimized to reduce the amount of dirt and bacteria that are brought in. 23. All areas of the kitchen should be cleaned on a regular basis. 24. A cleaning schedule is helpful for making sure that floors, walls, ranges, ovens, and refrigerators are routinely cleaned. 25. Equipment used in the direct handling of food must also receive extra care and attention. 26. Countertops and other surfaces on which food is prepared should be sanitized or disinfected with a chlorine bleach solution each time a different food is prepared on it. 27. A fresh solution must be mixed daily to retain its disinfecting strength. 28. Cutting boards – should be nonporous and always washed with hot, soapy water and sanitized with bleach solution after each use. – Designating separate cutting boards for different food preparations reduces the risk of cross contamination. 29. Dishes may be washed by hand or with a mechanical dishwasher. If washed by hand – was dishes with hot water and detergent, – rinse dishes in hot ,clear water

– sanitize dishes with chlorine bleach solution or scald with boiling water – air dry (not dried with a towel) all dishes, utensils, and surfaces 30. If mechanical dishwasher is used the machine must meet local health department standards.

2.2 A 5-year old child has a bleeding nose. How would you handle this situation? (10) p.243 – 8th

14. Follow universal infection control precautions, including the use of latex/vinyl gloves. 15. Keep other children away from blood.
16. Place the child in a sitting position, with head tilted slightly forward, to prevent any swallowing of blood. 17. Reassure child
18. Have the child breath through his/her mouth.
19. Firmly grasp the child’s nostrils (lower half) and squeeze together for at least 5 minutes before releasing the pressure. 20. If bleeding continues, pinch the nostrils together for another 10 minutes. 21. Clean child up
(clothes, hands, face)

22. Have the child play quietly for the hour or so afterward to prevent bleeding from resuming. 23. Remind child not to blow or pick nose.
24. Record all details
25. Inform parents
26. Encourage parents to discuss the problem with the child’s physician if nosebleeds occur repeatedly.

2.3 Preventing HIV infection:
13. Keep all sores or cuts on you and the children’s hands covered with a waterproof plaster.

14. Do not share items which may become contaminated with blood (such as tootbrushes or razors)

15. Disinfect all spills of blood or blood-stained body fluids with a solution of 1:10 ordinary household bleach (one part of bleach into nine parts of water) which is freshly mixed every day.

16. Take universal precautions when treating any bleeding wound or dealing with any blood-contaminated body fluids or articles.

17. Only handle any blood-contaminated clothes and cloths with gloves and soak these items in the bleach (hypochlorite) solution before washing them with hot water and soap.

18. Always put up a notice warning parents and staff about any chickenpox (or other communicable disease) outbreaks in the ECD centre or school as people with a low immunity are particularly sensitive to some infections.

19. However this precaution protects all children from unnecessary infection (HIV-infected or not)!

20. All blood, blood products and blood-stained body fluids must be
regarded as potentially infectious.

21. (This does not apply to faeces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine and vomitus unless they contain visible blood!) 22. Any person must use every possible method to prevent direct contact with blood or blood-contaminated fluids, for example using waterproof gloves or plastic bags to protect hands.

23. Nonporous gloves should also be worn during the cleanup of blood spills.

24. Thorough hand washing must be done after the gloves are removed or after any accidental blood contact

Question 3

3.1 Briefly discuss how you will ensure the safety of the child in the outdoor area of an ECD centre. (20) p.177 – 7th edition.

21. Important of adult-child ratio and group size.

22. Adequate and continual supervision.

23. Perimeter fence and adequate gate (children not able to open)

24. Prevent potential risks from – water
– dustbins
– poisons
– electricity
– falls
– burns
– choking
– thorns
– poisonous plants
– bees
– other stinging insects

25. Availability of first aid supplies

26. Safe storage of hazardous equipment and materials (gardening equipment, insecticides, paints, etc)

27. Evacuation procedure

28. Safety of equipment and rules for safe use of equipment.

29. Equipment choice – suitable for age
– not too high or complicated
– minimal maintenance
– fits into available space
– fits budget

30. Positioning of equipment – impact absorbing surface not too close. (12 inches in depth) – protection from sun
– climbing and high equipment securely anchored
– finishes are non-toxic and intact
– position to prevent excessive crowding

31. Maintenance – weekly checks of equipment
– wooden equipment oiled and checked for splinters
– nuts and bolts regularly tightened and checked for rust – no missing pieces or sharp edges

32. Weekly safety checks and correction of problems
33. Inaccessible parking area

34. Sufficient protection from environment hazards.

35. Play area must be located adjacent to the premises or within safe walking distance.

36. Equipment -is placed sufficiently far apart to allow a smooth flow of traffic and adequate supervision – an appropriate safety zone is provided around equipment

37. Bathroom facilities and drinking fountain are easily accessible.

38. Selection of play equipment is appropriate for children’s ages.

39. Grounds are maintained on a regular basis and are free of debris; – grass is mowed
– broken equipment is removed

40. Wading and swimming pools are always supervised. Water is drained when not in use

3.2 Identification of a child with a hearing problem:

Baby:
Absence of startle response to loud noise
Failure to stop crying (after three months) when adult talks to baby Failure to turn head in direction of sound by four months Absence of babbling by 6-8 months
No response to adult commands like “no” or “yes”

Other child:
Frequent mouth breathing
Failure to turn head in direction of sound
Slow language acquisition
Poor speech patterns
Difficulty in following instructions
Rubbing or pulling on ears
Mumbling
Shouting or talking loudly
Quiet and withdrawn
Using gestures more than words
Imitating play of peers
Inappropriate response to questions
Mispronouncing words
Unusual voice quality

Promotion of good health habits during toilet routines:

-wash hands before and after use of toilet

5. Guidelines for administration of medicine in the ECD centre:

-Be honest when giving children medication! (Use the opportunity to help children understand the relationship between taking a medication and recovering from an illness or infection.

-Offer a small sip of juice or cracker to eliminate an unpleasant taste or read a favourite story as a reward for their cooperation).

-Designate one individual to accept medication from families and administer it to children. (This step will help minimize the opportunity for errors, such as omitting a dose or giving a dose twice.)

-When medication is accepted from a family, it should – – be in the original container,
– labeled with the child’s name,
– with the name of the drug,
– include directions for the exact amount and frequency the medication is to be given.

-Never give medicine from a container that has been prescribed for another individual.

-Store all medicines in a locked cabinet.
– If it is necessary to refrigerate a medication, place it in a locked box and store it on a top shelf in the refrigerator.

-Concentrate on what you are doing and do not talk with anyone until you are finished.

-Read the label on the container or bottle three times – – when removing it from the locked cabinet
– before pouring it from the container
– after pouring it from the container

-Administer medication on time, and give only the amount prescribed.

-Be sure you have the correct child.

-Record and maintain a permanent record of each dose of medicine that is administered. Include the: – – date and time the medicine was given
– name of teacher administering the medication
– dose of medication given
– any unusual physical changes or behaviours observed after the medicine was administered.

-Inform the child’s family of the dosage(s) and time medication was given, as well as any unusual reactions that may have occurred.

-Adults should never take any medication in front of children.

Question 4

4.1 Discuss the principles which you will take into consideration when planning the preschool menu. (10)[Chapter 18 8th]

13. Meeting children’s nutritional needs.
14. Addressing any existing funding or licensing requirements. 15. Providing sensory appeal (taste, texture and visual interest) 16. Making children comfortable by including familiar foods. 17. Encouraging healthy food habits by introducing familiar foods. 18. Providing safe food and serving it in
clean surroundings. 19. Staying within budgetary limits.

20. Fresh, edible garnishes may be used if time and budget permit. 21. Providing alternatives for children who have food allergies, eating problems, and special nutritional needs. 22. You can ensure that all food groups from the Pyramid are included. – grains

– vegetables
– fruits
– milk
– meat and beans
– (it helps you to balance meals)
23. Add variety and try different ethnic cuisines.
24. Offer foods prepared in different ways.

4.2 A toddler is choking on a piece of apple. How will you handle it: (pg 228 8th)

If the object cannot be easily removed easily and the child is conscious, quickly: -summon emergency medical assistance
-administer the Heimlich maneuver. Stand or kneel behind the child with your arms around the child’s waist -make a fist with one hand, thumbs tucked in
– Place the fisted hand against the child’s abdomen, midway between the base of the rib cage and the navel -press your fisted hand into the child’s abdomen, with a quick inwards and upwards thrust -continue to repeat abdominal thrusts until the object is dislodged or the child regains consciousness -if the child loses consciousness and is still breathing, lower him or her to the floor and continue abdominal thrusts until the object is dislodged -if the child loses consciousness and stops breathing lower him to the floor and start with CPR check and make sure the air goes in otherwise reposition the child – look in mouth for foreign objects each time before new breathing cycle -if child starts to breathe stop CPR and roll child into recovering position -make sure the child receives follow up medical attention

4.3 How to handle a child with:

Diarrhea

9. Observe for dehydration –
– dry mouth
– listlessness
– sunken eyes
– lack of tears
– reduced urinary output
– rapid and weak pulse
– skin loses elasticity

10. Give rehydration solution to drink –as much as will take – 1L water
– 8 teaspoons sugar
– half teaspoon salt

11. Keep written record of –
– Number, amount, appearance, smell, colour and consistency of stool – (keep last one for parent/health professional)

12. Check for fever

13. Watch for vomiting

14. Strict hygiene – hand washing, etc.

15. Universal precautions

16. Contact parents to collect child

9. Have copy of full details available for parents to take to health professional

Ear Ache
– will tug or rub the affected ear,
– may refuse to eat or swallow,
– may show difficulty hearing,
– may have difficulty sleeping
– may cry when placed in a reclining position
Management –
– Have the child lie down with the affected ear on a soft blanket; the warmth helps soothe discomfort. A small, dry cotton ball placed in the outer ear may also help reduce pain by keeping air out of the ear canal.

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Free Drinking water Essay Sample

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