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First, I will consider that “the Truth” cannot be any truth. It all depends on what truth we are thinking of. Truth, means something that is real, something that exists or has been proven and made known to be a fact. The process of thinking scientifically has been designed as follows:
1) First you observe which means that you collect the evidence that lays before you and make measurements that refer to the phenomenon you are studying.
2) Second, you create a hypothesis that would explain why the phenomenon is the way it is or does what it does, etc…
3) Third, you predict what the outcome or results are of the observations of the phenomenon.
4) Fourth, you verify that your hypothesis and prediction are valid by doing actual experiments and conducting studies.
5) Lastly, you evaluate the results that are obtained. If the results are the opposite of what you expected, then you just create another hypothesis. If they are what you expected, then you make further predictions and test it even farther.
Does everyone know that this is how they are thinking in everyday life? This looks like a science workshop to me. However, it may be occurring in the sub-conscience. It is certain that science cannot explain everything that has to do with religion and therefore, people just have to have faith and believe in the unknown.
In an article we recently read (Alan Lightman Smile from Science 85), the author explains how the sight of a beautiful woman reaches the man, scientifically. This scientific explanation only explains how the image is processed from the eye to the brain… but it does not explain why. Science cannot explain why the man is attracted to the woman. One could say because the woman is beautiful, but not every individual will find her to be so. It is purely based on opinion and personal being and our interests and tastes are not based from science.
There is scientific thinking in what makes us individuals. It is proven that we are all different from one another because of the environments we’ve grown up in, the families we have, the culture, our interests, etc… People that come from one country in the middle east may have certain beliefs and therefore go by the same standards as each other, even though those standards are different from those in a country in Europe. But each individual will be slightly different, whether they believe the same things or not, because of the environments and people they grew up with. This is all proven through observation – which is part of the scientific thinking process.
We do not need to analyze every little detail, thinking scientifically, to explain our emotions. We just know how we feel and that’s it. We cannot explain why feel a certain way, or exactly how we feel. If we feel love for someone, we cannot explain how it is so, we just know that that’s the way we feel.
Inductive reasoning can be thought as a scientific way of thinking. If the same process is repeated over and over again, then it means that it is meant to be. For example, brushing your teeth. If you see someone brush their teeth every morning and every night, then there must be a reason. It’s for hygiene and also to save your teeth from rotting. However, there are some people who may have never learned that if they do not brush their teeth, their teeth will rot. There are even some people in the poorest countries who have never even heard of a tooth brush and therefore do not brush their teeth either. Another example of inductive reasoning is sleep. It has been scientifically proven that if you sleep well (rest your body) at night for at least 8 hours (it is just an estimate because different articles may list different times), then your body will function better the next day and therefore you can work closest to your full capacity. Those who do not sleep at night (for example those who have night jobs) or who do not get enough sleep at night are usually pale the next day or look lifeless and get sick more often because their immune system is weak. The body has not had the chance to recover when it is supposed to. The night is for sleep, the day is to be used to be awake and active. Those who don’t sleep at night are going against nature.
It has also been proven that those who study and graduate from college are more literate and therefore get good jobs. Those who do their masters and/or phD get even further. However, there are exceptions. There are some people who did not go to school but are naturally bright and have learned how to trade thanks to their fathers and could have bought and sold real estate (this is just an example). There are even some high school students who have started their own dot.com business – they didn’t even need to go through college to get a job. The majority of people how ever go to college so that they can live better by getting good jobs. Their standards of living will be higher. Objectivity requires scientific reasoning. Facts are proven to be what they are through experimentation. If you make an opinion, it will be taken more into consideration if it is based on a fact. If it is not based on a fact, then people may not listen.
Subjectivity is not completely based on scientific thinking. A person may prefer music #1 over music #2 because they thought there was more emotion put into, however, another person may not have heard or felt the same things as the first person and therefore may disagree. It would be hard to argue because it would be difficult to prove that there was or was not any emotion in the piece. The second person may have preferred music piece #2 because of its accuracy according to the score. In this case, the first person cannot deny that the music was played with precision and accuracy.
Through scientific thinking, we can learn ways to discover certain truths. In the sciences, we conduct experiments to discover the answers to certain questions. We learn about new discoveries. Experiments and tests are repeated to confirm those truths. This goes for social sciences as well. In psychology, tests must be done. By looking at the past history, we learn what things should or should not be done in the future. Through economic failures, we have learned better ways to manage in the economy today. Through new discoveries in medicine, we know what works and what does not. Things build on top of one another. If you know the past well, it will be easier to create ideas that help the future. Scientific thinking is required for almost everything. Our ideas are based from facts which had to be proven. The things we do repeatedly in our daily lives are based from observation, learning, experiences – facts and truths.