1. Behavioral learning is mainly concerned with what can be ob severed and measured in any human behavior. It is a continuous process where one can learn and unlearn hence children of young ages play a dormant role. The assumptions it makes is that all things that can be seen and observed are real but things like brains cannot be seen. According to Ivan and Thorndike (1913), they argued that behavior is controlled highly by its consequences. They set up an experiment to show how cats can learn how to open a box. This was to be done through trial and error method where by the cat ended up opening the box.
This theory developed showed clearly that, people are just like cats and these is how they spontaneously learn. Those behaviors which bring positive consequences are said to reoccur oftenlyoften than those with negative cosequences. This augment is a bit true because human beings learn slowly through practical, experience or theoretical. It shows that all living things are very active and can easily learn regardless of the species type. Ivan (1903), did an innate reflex experiment with a dog. Once they ring a metronome when giving the dog food, the dog responded with saliva.
It was noted that, once the metronome rang, the dog could respond regardless of whether there was food or not. This showed that, any animal can learn provided that it is exposed to. 2. In Behavioral learning it is believed that learning is segmented into steps. The final goal is achieved once the learners are guided on how to follow these steps. Problems have always arisen for students who are slow learners for they need some more steps. In cognitive learning it is believed that multitude ways of learning are followed by students. This is because not all students have the same learning processes and also strategies.
Some are very efficient while others are inefficient. In cognitive learning the teacher helps the student gain more efficient techniques for studying by discerning the students thoughts. It is only through cognitive learning that one can inquire for the correct answer. This usually helps in discussion especially for a new alternative. Ones experience and personal judgment can be used in making the dicission with the students. Metacognition. Nelson. T. ,(2007). He defined metacognition as monitoring and making prior decisions on a person’s memory strength.
He also added that one should be capable of using those decisions to guide learning choices. Flavell (1976), defined metacognition as a self-regulation or self- awareness study. It also means to have personal knowledge on his/her cognitive activities or on anything that touches them. It has the following components: Metacognition knowledge – This is what one knows on himself or herself and others to be cognitive processors. Metacognitive regulation – This is what makes students regulate their learning through a set of tasks after they have controlled their cognition and experiences from learning.
Metacognitive experiences – These are the experiences with something regarding cognition endeavor that is presently happening. My metacognition ability is to see and focus on the future happening. Through my experience i can judge what will happen in the next two day. Evaluation of the present events leads me to knowing the future. Fore example, what the whether will be tomorrow. This will not only help me prepare psychologically but also the whole community. 3. Badura’s theory is based on oneself judgment on his performance. It regards the amount of work done over a given time period.
One should be in a position to perform well in a given situation. In this case people judge themselves. Here, it defines four areas in which self-efficacy can be obtained. Firstly, through actual experience self-efficacy can be achieved through past experience. Whether one was successful or unsuccessful tell a lot about self-efficacy. Secondly , through looking. Children get learning through watching others performing a similar task. Thirdly, through oral persuasion. This is through encouraging a child to perform to her level best by telling her sweet word of trials.
Fourthly, through physiological arousal. Vygotsky’s theory brings to view the social relationships and interactions contributes to cognitive development. It is true that in every child’s growth there are two levels: the social level which comes during the tender age and the individual level. Vygotsk (1976). He also recognises the environment of one’s development. Where one grows in, contributes a lot to one behavior. Implications. • They create an environment of socializing and relationship development. • Identity. It is through these institutions that one is identified and recognized.
• Sharing of knowledge. As we think together we grow together. We develop ourselves better when we share knowledge. • Social problems addressing. We try to solve our problems together. Ones problem can be viewed, analyzed and solved as a group. No. It has never happened to me. 4. Physical education and learning strategies which are self-regulated are encourageble in creating a friendly learning environment full of physical and social motivation. In so doing, students will be relieved from class boredom and instead relax as they socialite.
Students should also be given freedom to express themselves and their weaknesses. Kounin (1977), discovered that there was always a ripple effect among the student where the behaviour of one student spread quickly to the rest if not corrected quickly. He noted poor class management by teachers due to their poor organization and preparations. He pointed out that, for a good management of a class the following should be clearly observed: 1. Overlapping to avoid conflict ions of a teacher when two or more activities occur simultaneously, the teacher will only be effective if he has a procedure to follow.
Fore example, the teacher should move around assisting the needy people while those who are already fit in the class should be given an extra exercise or work. 2. Momentum. A teacher should always make sure that his lectures are short. This will allow mingling of the students with each other and with the teacher too for more knowledge. This will also avoid boredom among the students. He should also make the lecture interesting and meaningful for the learners to comprehend easily. 3. Withitness. Eye contact should be maintained by the teacher to all the learners.
In so doing the students will avoid wrong doings while in class. The teacher should be aware of the behavior of each student and more so, know each on a personal perspective. He should appreciate those with good behavior and comment on bad and unacceptable behaviors. To make the students alert he should call each student by his name unexpectedly. 4. Group focus. The lecturer can do this in several ways: (a) Accountability: The teacher should tell the students that they will be awarded marks according to their participation in their respective groups.
(b) A list of all the students should be available with the teacher and at any time pick any name at random to answer a question. This will keep them on their toes. (c) Students discussion: The teacher can allow the students to have a discussion after the lecture to compare the answers of each other. 5. (i) Behavioral approach. When a student does well in the class he should be rewarded in order to motivate her. Those with desired behavior should be contingently rewarded. Extrinsic motivation also known as contingent rewards (ii) Human approach. This approach is a bit different from the others in that it emphasizes on determinism rejection.
It puts across that human beings have a variety of choices from where they can pick their preference from and they also have responsibilities that they do not admire or require. It is believed that people do intrinsic motivation to themselves hence encouraging their personal growth. They are self-determination in attaining their own fulfillment. (iii) Cognitive approach. It mainly refers to activities that take place in our minds. This may be thinking and language learning. Our understanding rention increases when we learn and understand the concepts of our learning.
With this theory, how one behaves is determined by how largely he thinks hence this incorporates all kinds, types and forms of knowing for example, thinking and motivation. It brings competency to person especially when one is capable of interpreting well what he is learning. (iv) Sociocultural approach. In this approach, critical thinking is encouraged. It acknowledges the need for socialization and interactions among people. The more time you participate in community activity the more knowledgeable you become. You become more identified within the community. You earns yourself fame and recognition.
From the above explanations, i can recommend the teacher to put in to place behavioral approach for the student. This will not only encourage her to be in class but also alert and attentive. References. Flavell, J. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive motivation: Cognition development. America, v24 p 16 Ivan, R. (1903). Behavioral change and development. Harvard university press. Iva n and Thoendike (1913). Behaviour change. Cambridge. Kounin, J. (1976). Discipline management in class. New Yolk. Nelson, T. (2007). Metacognition. New Yolk. Vigotsk, S. (1983). Minds of the society. Cambridge; Harvard University Press.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 13 November 2016
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