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Different Type of Programming Language Essay

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1. Charles Babbage

Charles Babbage, FRS (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer who originated the concept of a programmable computer. Considered a “father of the computer”, Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that eventually led to more complex designs. Parts of his uncompleted mechanisms are on display in the London Science Museum. In 1991, a perfectly functioning difference engine was constructed from Babbage’s original plans. Built to tolerances achievable in the 19th century, the success of the finished engine indicated that Babbage’s machine would have worked. Nine years later, the Science Museum completed the printer Babbage had designed for the difference engine.

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2. Ali Aydar

Ali Aydar is a computer scientist and Internet entrepreneur. He is currently the chief executive officer at Sporcle. He is best known as an early employee and key technical contributor at the original Napster, the file-sharing service created by Shawn Fanning in 1999, and atSNOCAP, the digital rights and content management startup Fanning founded after Napster. He was also chief operating officer of imeem, which acquired SNOCAP in 2008. Aydar’s experiences working at Napster were documented in two books: Joseph Menn’s definitive Napster biography, All the Rave: The Rise and Fall of Shawn Fanning’s Napster, and Steve Knopper’s Appetite for Self Destruction: The Spectacular Crash of the Record Industry in the Digital Age.

3. Edwin Earl Catmull

Edwin Earl Catmull, Ph.D. (born March 31, 1945) is a computer scientist and current president of Walt Disney Animation Studios and Pixar Animation Studios. As a computer scientist, Catmull has contributed to many important developments in computer graphics. Edwin Earl Catmull was born in Parkersburg, West Virginia. Early in life, Catmull found inspiration in Disney movies such as Peter Pan and Pinocchio and dreamed of becoming a feature film animator. He even made primitive animation using so-called flip-books. However, he assessed his chances realistically and decided that his talents lay elsewhere. Instead of pursuing a career in the movie industry, he used his talent in math and studied physics and computer science at the University of Utah. After graduating, he worked as a computer programmer at The Boeing Company in Seattle for a short period of time and also at the New York Institute of Technology, before returning to Utah to go to graduate school in fall of 1970.

4. Joyce K. Reynolds

Joyce K. Reynolds is a computer scientist. Reynolds holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the University of Southern California, United States. She has been active in the development of the protocols underlying the Internet. In particular, she has authored or co-authored many RFCs, most notably those introducing and specifying the Telnet, FTP, and POP protocols. Joyce Reynolds served as part of the editorial team of the Request For Comments series from 1987 to 2006, and also performed the IANA function with Jon Postel until this was transferred to ICANN, and worked with ICANN in this role until 2001, while remaining an employee of ISI.

As Area Director of the User Services area, she was a member of the Internet Engineering Steering Group of the IETF from 1990 to March 1998 Together with Bob Braden, she received the 2006 Postel Award in recognition of her services to the Internet. She is mentioned, along with a brief biography, in RFC 1336, Who’s Who in the Internet(1992). 5. Willem Van Der Poel

Willem Louis van der Poel (2 December 1926, The Hague) is a pioneering Dutch computer scientist, who is known for designing the ZEBRA computer. In 1950 he obtained an engineering degree in applied science at Delft University of Technology. In 1956 he obtained his PhD degree from the University of Amsterdam. The title of his PhD thesis was The Logical Principles of Some Simple Computers. From 1950 until 1967 he worked for the Dutch PTT, and from 1962 till 1988 was (part time) professor at Delft University of Technology.

He was also the first chairman of IFIP Working Group 2.1 on ALGOL, from 1962 to 1968. Van der Poel is primarily known as a Dutch computer pioneer, designer of Testudo, the PTERA, the ZERO, and the ZEBRA computer. He also contributed to Algol 68 and LISP for the ZEBRA. He is said to be the originator of the Zero One Infinity rule, which suggests that software designs should not impose arbitrary limits on the number of instances of a particular entity: if more than a single instance of it is to be allowed, then the collection size should be without fixed limit.

6. Max Overmars

Markus Hendrik Overmars (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈmɑrk ˈɦɛn.drɪk ˈoː.vər.ˌmɑrs], born 29 September 1958 in Zeist, Netherlands)[1] is a Dutch computer scientist and teacher of game programming known for his game development application Game Maker. Game Maker lets people create computer games using a drag-and-drop interface. He is the head of the Center for Geometry, Imaging, and Virtual Environments at Utrecht University, in the Netherlands. This research center concentrates on computational geometry and its application in areas like computer graphics, robotics, geographic information systems, imaging, multimedia, virtual environments, and games.

7. Thomas Eugene Kurtz

Thomas Eugene Kurtz (born February 22, 1928) is an American computer scientist who co-developed the BASIC programming language during 1963 to 1964, together with John G. Kemeny. In 1951, Dr. Kurtz’s first experience with computing came at the Summer Session of the Institute for Numerical Analysis at University of California, Los Angeles. His interests have included numerical analysis,statistics, and computer science ever since. Dr. Kurtz graduated from Knox College in 1950, and was awarded a Ph.D. degree from Princeton University in 1956, where his advisor was John Tukey, and joined the Mathematics Department of Dartmouth College that same year.

In 1963 to 1964, Dr. Kurtz and Kemeny developed the first version of the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System, a time-sharing system for university use, and the BASIC language. From 1966 to 1975, Dr. Kurtz served as Director of the Kiewit Computation Center at Dartmouth, and from 1975 to 1978, Director of the Office of Academic Computing. From 1980 to 1988 Dr. Kurtz was Director of the Computer and Information Systems program at Dartmouth, a ground-breaking multidisciplinary graduate program to develop IS leaders for industry. Subsequently, Dr. Kurtz returned to teaching full-time as a Professor of Mathematics, with an emphasis on statistics and computer science.

8. Andrew Ng

Andrew Ng is an Associate Professor in the Department of Computer Science at Stanford University, and Director of the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab. He is also a co-founder of Coursera, an online education platform. His work is primarily in machine learning and robotics. He received his PhD from the University of California, Berkeley. His early work includes the Stanford Autonomous Helicopter project, which developed one of the most capable autonomous helicopters in the world, and the STAIR (STanford Artificial Intelligence Robot) project, which resulted in ROS, a widely used open-source robotics software platform.

9. Simon Colton

Simon Colton (London, 1973) is a British computer scientist, currently working in the Computational Creativity Group at Imperial College London, where he holds the position of Reader. He graduated from the University of Durham with a degree in Mathematics, gained a MSc. in Pure Mathematics at the University of Liverpool, and finally a PhD in Artificial Intelligence from the University of Edinburgh, under the supervision of Professor Alan Bundy. Simon is the driving force behind thepaintingfool.com, an artificial intelligence that he hopes will one day be accepted as an artist in its own right.

His work, along with that of Maja Pantic and Michel Valstar, won the British Computing Society Machine Intelligence Award in 2007. The work has also been the subject of some media attention. Prior to his work on The Painting Fool, Simon worked on the HR tool, a reasoning tool that was applied to discover mathematical concepts. The system successfully discovered theorems and conjectures, some of which were novel enough to become published works.

10. David E. Shaw

David Elliot Shaw (born March 29, 1951) is an American computer scientist and computational biochemist who founded D. E. Shaw & Co., a hedge fundcompany which was once described by Fortune magazine as “the most intriguing and mysterious force on Wall Street.” A former faculty member in the computer science department at Columbia University, Shaw made his fortune exploiting inefficiencies in financial markets with the help of state-of-the-art high speed computer networks. In 1996, Fortune magazine referred to him as “King Quant” because of his firm’s pioneering role in high-speed quantitative trading. In 2001, Shaw turned to full-time scientific research in computational biochemistry, more specifically molecular dynamics simulations of proteins.

Different Types of Web Programming Languages

Used for creating and editing pages on the web. Can do anything from putting plain text on a webpage, to accessing and retrieving data from a database. Vary greatly in terms of power and complexity.


Hyper Text Markup Language. The core language of the world wide web that is used to define the structure and layout of web pages by using various tags and attributes. Although a fundamental language of the web, HTML is static – content created with it does not change. HTML is used to specify the content a webpage will contain, not how the page functions. Learn HTML at our HTML tutorials section.


Extensible Markup Language. A language developed by the W3C which works like HTML, but unlike HTML, allows for custom tags that are defined by programmers. XML allows for the transmission of data between applications and organizations through the use of its custom tags.

* Javascript

A language developed by Netscape used to provide dynamic and interactive content on webpages. With Javascript it is possible to communicate with HTML, create animations, create calculators, validate forms, and more. Javascript is often confused with Java, but they are two different languages. Learn Javascript at our Javascript tutorials section.

* VBScript

Visual Basic Scripting Edition. A language developed by Microsoft that works only in Microsoft’s Internet Explorer web browser and web browsers based on the Internet Explorer engine such as FlashPeak’s Slim Browser. VBScript Can be used to print dates, make calculations, interact with the user, and more. VBScript is based on Visual Basic, but it is much simpler. Learn VBScript at our VBScript tutorials section.


Hypertext Preprocessor (it’s a recursive acronym). A powerful language used for many tasks such as data encryption, database access, and form validation. PHP was originally created in 1994 By Rasmus Lerdorf. Learn PHP at our PHP tutorials section.

* Java

A powerful and flexible language created by Sun MicroSystems that can be used to create applets (a program that is executed from within another program) that run inside webpages as well as software applications. Things you can do with Java include interacting with the user, creating graphical programs, reading from files, and more. Java is often confused with Javascript, but they are two different languages. Learn Java at our Java tutorials section.

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